Hydraulic drive for single-bucket excavator

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly cyclic machine drives.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic drive comprises pump, hydraulic monitor controlled by means of following slide. Above components are brought into rotation by power engine with flywheel. Hydraulic drive also has hydraulic cylinders for executive tools including hydraulic cylinder for working equipment, check valves installed between pressure and drainage pipelines of hydraulic cylinders for executive tools, distribution means including three-position distributor and three-position distributor control unit, as well as tank. Hydraulic drive is provided with two two-position slides. Control cavity of one two-position slide is connected to piston cavity of hydraulic cylinder. Control cavity of another two-position slide is communicated with control cavity of distributor. Inlet of the first two-position slide is connected with control unit, outlet thereof is linked to control cavity of distributor. Another outlet of the first two-position slide is connected to inlet of the second two-position slide having the first outlet linked to tank and the second outlet communicated with control cavity of following slide.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of the drive due to pumpback of lifted working equipment potential energy into the drive.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction and mining technique, namely, to drive vehicles cyclic actions.

Known hydraulic shovel excavator, comprising a pump driven in rotation power motor with flywheel, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic motor, installed in the drain line, switchgear and tank (as the USSR №621842, E02F 9/22). The disadvantages of the known solutions should include inability useful life of energy stored actuators of the excavator.

The closest solution known is the hydraulic shovel excavator, including pump and adjustable by means of the servo valve hydraulic motor driven in rotation of the power motor, hydraulic actuators, switchgear valve "or" and the tank (as the USSR №1751279, E02F 9/22). This solution allows you to return the drive energy during braking of the working bodies of the excavator.

The disadvantage of the hydraulic drive is that when operations potential energy of the lifted work equipment is not returned in the drive for later use. The reason is that when lowering work equipment working fluid from the piston cavity of the cylinder under the force of the cords is STI extruded through the valve into the tank, moreover, the speed of lowering work equipment is provided by throttling the working fluid in the dispenser, where the conversion of potential energy of the raised working equipment in the heat.

The objective of the invention is improving the efficiency of the actuator by providing a return in the drive potential energy of the raised working equipment.

The task is solved in that the proposed hydraulic shovel excavator includes a pump, adjustable by servo valve hydraulic motor driven in rotation power motor with flywheel hydraulic actuators, including hydraulic operating equipment installed between the pressure and return lines of the hydraulic actuators check valves, switchgear, including a three-position valve and the block management, and tank. The hydraulic actuator is equipped with two on-off valves, and the control cavity one-off spools connected with the piston cylinder chamber, and the other with the cavity of the control valve (item "lowering"). The first input is connected to the control unit, and one of its outputs with the cavity of the control valve (item "rise)and another output connected to the input of the second is ratnika, one of the outputs of which are connected to the tank, and the second with the cavity of the control servo-valve, and a check valve, connecting rod cavity on the discharge line of the motor is performed remotely controlled, while the cavity of his control is connected with the cavity of the control servo valve.

Thus, when lowering work equipment regulation of the speed of lowering is carried out by changing the working volume of the hydraulic motor, the fluid from the piston cylinder cavity under pressure controlled by the hydraulic motor, flows through the latter into the tank. Thus, the hydraulic motor converts the energy of the fluid flow into rotational motion and returns to the hydraulic drive.

This solution is illustrated by drawings, which shows a hydraulic diagram shovel excavator.

The hydraulic actuator includes a pump 1, adjustable by means of the servo valve 2 hydraulic motor 3, the power of the engine 4 with flywheel 5, the hydraulic cylinder 6 working equipment with the piston rod 7 and 8 cavities, three-position valve 9 with cavities management (10 - under, 11 - rise), non-return valves 12 and 13, the tank 14. The hydraulic actuator is supplied with on-off valves 15 and 16, the control cavity 17 of the valve 15 is connected with the piston cavity 7 of the cylinder 6, the control cavity 18 of the valve 16 is connected with the awn control 11 of the distributor 9 and the control unit 24, the entrance 19 of the valve 15 is connected to the control unit 24, the output 20 is connected to the control cavity 10 valve 9, and the output 21 is connected to the inlet valve 16, and the outlet 22 of the valve 16 is connected with the cavity of the control servo-valve 2 and the cavity of the control valve 13.

The hydraulic actuator operates as follows.

When raised, the working equipment fluid pressure in the piston cylinder cavity is transmitted to the spool 15 and translates him into the state of "b", connecting the main control servo-valve 2. While arm control unit 24 is not moved, the control cavity servo valve 2 is connected with the sink, and the volume of the hydraulic motor 3 is minimal. When the shift lever unit 24 controls the control signal through the spool 15 and 16 is supplied into the cavity of the control valve 13 and the servo valve 2, increases the volume of the hydraulic motor 3, the speed of lowering work equipment is proportional to the volume of the hydraulic motor 3. The greater the offset arm control unit 24, the greater the pressure in the control cavity, the greater the volume of the hydraulic motor 3 and the speed of lowering of the operating equipment. Under the action of gravity working equipment fluid from the piston cavity 7 of the cylinder 6 is extruded through the valve 13 in the regulated hydraulic motor 3, which is converted into the energy of rotational motion, vozvrashaet is camping in the drive.

At the touch of work equipment ground pressure in the piston cavity 7 of the cylinder 6 work equipment is reduced, the valve 15 is switched to the position "a". The control signal from the control unit 24 is supplied into the cavity 10 of the valve 9, which is switched to position "lower", directing the flow of the working fluid pump 1 rod in the cylinder chamber 6, ensuring the performance of the work equipment useful work (digging of soil).

When lifting work equipment control signal supplied from the control unit 24 in the control cavity 11 of the valve 9 and into the control cavity 18 of the valve 16, with the last switch in position "b"to lock the controls of the witness of the spool 2, and thus the hydraulic motor 3.

The advantage of the proposed hydraulic actuator in comparison with the known is to increase its efficiency (25%) due to return to drive for later use potential energy of the raised working equipment.

1. The hydraulic shovel excavator, containing the pump, adjustable by servo valve hydraulic motor driven in rotation power motor with flywheel, hydraulic actuators, including hydraulic operating equipment installed between the pressure and drain lines guide is dvigateli actuators check valves, switchgear, including a three-position valve and block his control, and the tank, characterized in that it is equipped with two on-off valves, and the control cavity of one of them is connected with the piston cylinder chamber, the other of the valve - chamber control valve, and the inlet of the first valve is connected to the control unit, and one of its outputs with the cavity of the control valve, the other output of the valve is connected to the input of the second spool, with one of the outputs of the second valve connected to the tank, and the second with the cavity of the control servo-valve.

2. The hydraulic drive according to claim 1, characterized in that a check valve, connecting rod cavity with the pressure line of the hydraulic motor are performed remotely controlled, and cavity management connected with the cavity of the control servo valve.



 

Same patents:

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2 dwg

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1 dwg

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1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

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5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

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9 dwg

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3 dwg

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4 dwg

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7 cl, 1 dwg

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1 dwg

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3 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.

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9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

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EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

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