Method for making forged blanks of axles of railway road rolling stock and apparatus for performing the same

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of axles of rolling stock by forming and forging.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of deforming initial square cross section blank by forging till intermediate designed size by knocking off faces in order to form semi-finished cylindrical product of forged piece; then feeding semi-finished product of forged piece to hammer die set. Die set is detachable one, it includes two parts with cavities restricting open finish impression without flash grooves. Profile of finish impression of die set corresponds to final size of forged piece. Two compensation openings are arranged in ends of impression. In die set hot die forging of semi-finished product driven to rotation by means of manipulator is realized. Then excess metal on ends is trimmed, forged piece is straightened and cooled.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of forged piece due to providing optimal deforming schedule, lowered power and metal consumption.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular the development of metal forming, and in particular to methods and devices for the manufacture of machine parts - axles and shafts forging, pressing or stamping.

Known methods and devices for the manufacture of forgings of various forms, including shafts, using forging and hot forming processes (Anwarul. Forging and die forging, M., engineering, 1975, p.53-99, 128-140).

A known method of manufacturing the axes of the rolling stock, including heating billets, its deformation and stamp for hot die forging (GB p, IPC WC 1/06).

These technical solutions chosen by the applicant as the closest analogue (prototype).

The disadvantage of this method of obtaining the axes of the rolling stock and stamp for their manufacture is that the method is carried out on forging and stamping press. When forging press and when stationary the forging is impossible to eliminate the leakage of excess metal in the gap between the parts of the stamp, because the direction of deformation is constant, i.e. excluded and the use of a stamp with a fine stream without saucemicky grooves. Thus, the Burr with this method of manufacture of axles formed around the perimeter of the forgings, i.e. a large amount of it goes to waste.

The technical task of the invention is to improve the ka is esta forgings due to the optimal scheme of deformation, the reduction of energy consumption through the use of hammers with less weight of falling parts, as well as the reduction of metal consumption.

The task is achieved by the fact that in the method of manufacturing forgings axles for rolling stock, including the heating and deformation of the workpiece, according to the invention using the blank square profile, which deform forging with roll edges to obtain a semi-finished forgings cylindrical intermediate drawing sizes, then the semi-finished forgings are served in a hammer stamp, made with open fine stream without saucemicky grooves and located at the ends of the two compensatory holes, and with the constant rotation of prefabricated manipulator produce hot die forging, cutting edge excess metal, rule forgings and cool.

Forging produces a profile strikers, profile prints each of which corresponds to the profile of the semi-finished forgings.

Before forging produce simultaneous heating the entire workpiece to a temperature of not less than 1230°C.

Forging axes of the square billet, and not from an ingot, reduces the time of forging, is that it is economical.

The roll edges and remove burrs bring to forging a cylindrical form.

Subsequent hot forging the stamp with open fine stream without sausen is cnyh grooves, having two countervailing holes on the ends, with constant rotation of the forging manipulator allows to eliminate the leakage of excess metal in the gap between the parts of the stamp, because due to the fact that the forging constantly rotate manipulator between hammer blows there is a constant change in the direction of deformation at each stroke, thus there is a gradual decrease in cross-section forgings with simultaneous lengthening, and the excess metal flow only to the compensation of the holes on the sides of the stream. Thus reducing the amount of metal required in the overflow.

The deformation of the workpiece during forging profile strikers provides obtaining the forgings required intermediate size and configuration with less powerful equipment, including hammers with less weight of falling parts, and reduces the number of strokes in the forging of that economically and technologically.

The line profile engravings striker for forging profile semi-finished forgings allows already at the stage of forging to bring the shape and dimensions of the forging to final.

Heating before forging the entire workpiece to a temperature of not less than 1230°provides optimal deformation to achieve the required at this stage, the shape and size of the forgings.

In the stamp for hot die forging axes for vignolo composition, made split in two parts with cavities, forming an outdoor fair stream, according to the invention the finishing stream is made with a profile corresponding to the final drawing size forgings axis without saucemicky grooves and two spaced ends with compensatory holes, and the transition of the bottom parts of the stream to the side surfaces is made with the collapse.

The line profile of the clean brook stamp final drawing size forgings provides obtaining the forgings required size and configuration with less powerful equipment, including hammers with less weight of falling parts, and reduces the number of strokes in the forging of that economically and technologically.

Performing open stream stamp without saucemicky grooves allows to obtain forgings without burrs, i.e. bezoblachnuyu forgings, which reduces the amount of metal required in the overflow.

The presence of the ends of the brook stamp compensatory holes provides for stamping "leak" in them, the excess metal is removed mechanically by cutting the stamp.

Stepping bottom parts of the stream punch to the side surfaces with the collapse provides free removal of the forging die.

As a result of patent research has not identified a known from the prior art anal is similar technical solutions characterized the claimed combination of features that allows us to draw a conclusion about conformity of the invention meets the patentability criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step"that may find application in industry, i.e. meets the criterion of "industrial applicability".

The method of manufacture of axles for rolling stock and device for its implementation is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a profile die for forging, figure 2 is a view As in figure 1; figure 3 - a view B in figure 1; figure 4 is a General view of the stamp for hot die forging; figure 5 is a view In figure 4.

The method consists in the following.

Original blank square profile deform first forging profile strikers to intermediate drawing sizes, knock the verge to get the forging of cylindrical form, then submit the semi-finished forgings its stamp and constant rotation of the forging manipulator produce hot die forging in a die open fine stream, the profile of which corresponds to the final size forgings, cut off the end of the excess metal, forgings rule and cool.

The method of manufacture of axles for rolling stock is as follows.

Original steel square profile, heated to a temperature of at least 1230°served from the oven on the I-forged to Molotov stamp. Cut off the burrs and deform the workpiece profile brisk, about 45-60 beats, with roll edges to obtain the forging of cylindrical shape with intermediate drawing size.

Then carry out the stamping forging axes by means of hot forming processes, for which rough forgings after forging served on hammer stamp and constant rotation of the forging manipulator produce stamping, approximately 50-70 beats, to obtain the final configuration of the forgings. Trim excess metal on the ends, marking and editing are carried out simultaneously in the trim die. Forgings axles cooled down. Finishing the forging has no burrs. Metal saving on each forging of about 10 kg

The essence of the device is illustrated by the following drawings: figure 4 - General view of the stamp for hot die forging; figure 5 is a view In figure 4.

The device contains a stamp for hot die forging, consisting of two parts 3 and 4 with cavities 5 and 6, forming an outdoor fair stream, the ends of which are executed compensating apertures 7 and 8.

The device operates as follows.

Original blank square profile first, forge profile strikers 1 and 2 to obtain the forging drawing dimensions specified for this phase.

Then a forged stamp in the open stream formed by the cavities 5 of the 6 parts 3 and 4 of the stamp, getting bezoblachnuyu forgings due to the fact that the hot forging is carried out in the stamp open fine stream without saucemicky grooves with two compensatory holes on the ends of the constant rotation of the forging manipulator, which provides a constant change of direction of deformation and prevents the leakage of excess metal in the gap between the parts of the stamp and accordingly eliminates the formation of a Burr. Forged with a gradual change of the cross-section is extended, and the excess metal flow only to the compensation of the holes on the ends.

Thus, the inventive method of manufacturing forgings axles for rolling stock and the device for its implementation ensure a better quality of forgings by ensuring optimal scheme of deformation, reduction of energy consumption through the use of hammers with less weight of falling parts and reducing the consumption of metal for the manufacture of axes due to the fact that, as the original piece not use the ingot and billet with a square profile, and produce hot die forging during the rotation of the forging manipulator, which changes the direction of deformation and, thus, prevents the formation of burrs on the contour of the forging, which reduces the amount of metal that goes in waste.

1. The method of manufacture of axles for rolling stock, including the surrounding heating and deformation of the workpiece, characterized in that use the blank square profile, which deform forging with roll edges to obtain a semi-finished forgings cylindrical intermediate drawing sizes, then the semi-finished forgings are served in a hammer stamp, made with open fine stream without saucemicky grooves and located at the ends of the two compensatory holes, and with the constant rotation of prefabricated manipulator produce hot die forging, cutting edge excess metal, rule forgings and cool.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the forging produce profile strikers, profile prints each of which corresponds to the profile of the semi-finished forgings.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, before hammering produce simultaneous heating the entire workpiece to a temperature of not less than 1230°C.

4. Stamp for hot die forging axles for rolling stock, is made detachable two parts with cavities, forming an outdoor fair stream, characterized in that the fine stream is made with a profile corresponding to the final drawing for the dimensions of the forging axis, without saucemicky grooves and two countervailing holes with ends, and the transition of the bottom parts of the stream to the side surfaces is made with the collapse.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of shaped blanks of axles of undercarriage of rolling stock.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making rough blank from ingot; then forging rough blank for making shaped blank. Rough blank is forged during several passes. Forging operations for making rough blanks and forging operation for making shaped blank are realized in four -striker forging apparatus by squeezing at shear deformations in cross plane of blank during each single squeezing. Single squeezing stages during first three forging passes at making rough blank are realized at displacing metal between strikers and then squeezing said portions of blank in radial direction. Four-side radial squeezing operations are realized for making shaped blank.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of method.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of apertured plates, particularly for frictional dampers of vertical and horizontal oscillations of trucks of cargo cars.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of heating initial blank made rolled bar until hot deformation temperature and preliminarily shaping it; then forming shaped semi-finished product with plan-view dimensions consisting 0.9 - 1.1 of respective dimensions of finished plate; trimming flash; forming tapered chamfers in closed die set; imparting to plate final dimensions along its contour and by thickness; punching holes.

EFFECT: improved effectiveness of making apertured plates by hot forming process.

24 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of forged pieces of elongated articles such as rotors or shafts.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of upsetting block prepared from cast forging ingot; removing out of upset block its central flaw zone by piercing it with use of hollow broach whose diameter is equal at least to 200 mm; subjecting pierced block to intermediate heat treatment; then mechanically working its inner and end surfaces and sealing its central cavity by electroslag refining of electrode; selecting material of electrode according to predetermined level of properties of central zone of article; then forging block to desired size and performing preliminary and final heat treatment of it.

EFFECT: improved metallurgical quality, lowered cost price of forged pieces.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of shaped blanks of axles of undercarriage of rolling stock.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making rough blank from ingot; then forging rough blank for making shaped blank. Rough blank is forged during several passes. Forging operations for making rough blanks and forging operation for making shaped blank are realized in four -striker forging apparatus by squeezing at shear deformations in cross plane of blank during each single squeezing. Single squeezing stages during first three forging passes at making rough blank are realized at displacing metal between strikers and then squeezing said portions of blank in radial direction. Four-side radial squeezing operations are realized for making shaped blank.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of method.

1 tbl, 1 ex

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the forging shafts of various metals and alloys

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely forging production, manufacture of forged pieces of ring-like cone gear wheels with diameter 638 mm and with wide massive rim.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily upsetting initial blank with diameter 250 mm and length 335 mm; then subjecting upset blank to non-complete open broaching and its further die forging. All operations are realized in the same die set. Preliminary upsetting is performed on flat striker with diameter 350 mm till achieving diameter of upset blank equal to said value. Striker is arranged in central portion of die set impression before broaching and after broaching it is removed. Non-complete open broaching of upset blank is realized by means of detachable cone broach with mounting land having diameter 270 mm.

EFFECT: improved quality of produced forged pieces.

8 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of hollow parts such as sleeve type parts with central protrusion on inner surface of bottom, namely artillery shell cases.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of backward pressing out of initial blank and shaping bottom portion having protrusion on inner surface during several transitions. After backward pressing out transition, blank is drawn at several transitions. Bottom portion with central protrusion is formed during two transitions, namely: at transition for preliminarily shaping central protrusion and at transition for finally forming bottom portion. Preliminary forming is realized during transition of backward pressing out of initial blank by means of inner punch with recess. Final forming is realized by means of inner punch with recess and outer punch with protrusion.

EFFECT: improved quality of articles.

5 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working, namely processes of die forging, possibly for manufacturing stepped hollow shafts.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of calibrating blank prepared by chopping; forming in blank upper and lower cavities, bottom portion with cylindrical near-bottom part and local outer bulged zone. Upper cavity is formed at first pressing out stage. At second stage of pressing out lower cavity, bottom portion and local outer bulged zone are formed simultaneously while blank is centered by punch along it upper cavity and in die along cylindrical near-bottom part.

EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method.

6 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of forged pieces with central opening.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of upsetting heated initial blank; forming semi-finished product having bridge in zone of one end of its inner portion in die set without forming burr; remaining part of end surface having no contact with tool; then performing final forming, mainly in one half of open die set at displacing outer burr and with possibility of displacing inner burr; removing bridge and trimming burrs.

EFFECT: lowered metal and energy consumption at process.

20 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forming forged pieces, for example rings, gear wheels, flanges.

SUBSTANCE: initial blank is heated, preliminarily shaped, finally formed and trimmed. At final forming open die set is used; said die set has gap between its upper and lower halves. Said gap is arranged in zone of forging that is formed last. Dimensions of die set are no more than respective dimensions of forging in order to prevent deforming of displaced excess of metal.

EFFECT: lowered deforming efforts, decreased metal consumption.

11 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metal working, possibly manufacture of flanged articles and articles without flanges of different alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of heating blank and deforming it in die set; sustaining relation of blank temperature to that of die set in range 0.7 - 7.4. Blank is heated in predetermined temperature range depending upon blank material. Said temperature range may be found from ductility diagram and(or) yield curves and(or) from blank material recrystallization diagrams.

EFFECT: enhanced factor of using metal, improved quality of articles, lowered labor consumption of forging and subsequent working of blank.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly operations for finish working of forgings of double-end box nut wrenches.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower plates with guiding columns, punch for punching operation mounted on upper plate, stripper, lower die for punching, half-open trimming lower die and trimming punch. Trimming lower die is mounted on upper plate; it has cutting edge and cavity arranged behind collar of cutting edge and designed for freely placing forging of nut wrench. Trimming punch is mounted on lower plate and it has embracing supporting surface for fixing forging at trimming and straightening operations.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of forging.

9 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to obtain the forging of ingots and pre deformirovannykh billets for forging complexes

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of forgings by forging

The invention relates to the field of metal forming

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely forging production, manufacture of forged pieces of ring-like cone gear wheels with diameter 638 mm and with wide massive rim.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily upsetting initial blank with diameter 250 mm and length 335 mm; then subjecting upset blank to non-complete open broaching and its further die forging. All operations are realized in the same die set. Preliminary upsetting is performed on flat striker with diameter 350 mm till achieving diameter of upset blank equal to said value. Striker is arranged in central portion of die set impression before broaching and after broaching it is removed. Non-complete open broaching of upset blank is realized by means of detachable cone broach with mounting land having diameter 270 mm.

EFFECT: improved quality of produced forged pieces.

8 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forging ingots and billets in hydraulic forging presses and radial-squeezing machines.

SUBSTANCE: press includes two holders of upper and lower strikers with inclined faces; two holders of lateral strikers having kinematics coupling with above mentioned two holders and also having inclined face; mounted on inclined faces anti-friction plates and four strikers. Press is provided with system for cooling strikers and their holders. Cooling system includes valve for supplying water, manifolds for feeding and draining water, pipelines and flexible hoses. In striker holders and strikers ducts are formed. Pipelines going out from water supply manifold are communicated with ducts of striker holders and of strikers. Said ducts at other side are communicated through pipelines with water draining manifold. Ducts of striker holders are arranged under zones of mounting anti-friction plates; ducts of strikers are arranged under their working surfaces.

EFFECT: increased operational time period of anti-friction plates and strikers due to removing excess heat from them.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly designing of technological tools for waste-free and slope-free forging of blanks such as bodies of revolution.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower portions. Upper portion has body, insert, punch and self-aligning yoke suspended to punch by means of tie rods. Lower portion includes body, insert and knocking out member. Insert of lower portion is built-up one. It has stationary insert with cone cavity, movable insert-yoke joined with stationary insert along outer surface and having inner cylindrical surface; and insert-bottom. Joined surfaces of stationary insert and movable insert-yoke are formed with joining angle exceeding self-braking angle. On inner surface of movable insert-yoke shoulder is formed for supporting insert-bottom. Diameter of lower base of cone cavity of stationary insert is less than diameter of lower base of outer surface of movable insert-yoke by value determined according to given condition.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of forging process, improved accuracy of forged blanks, enhanced repairing capability of die set due to possibility for changing worn members.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of round cross section forged pieces from ingots and preliminarily deformed blanks in forging presses with four-striker forging devices.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of hating ingot or blank and subjecting it to rough or sizing forging in four-striker forging device by the same strikers with concave curvilinear surfaces. When strikers are closed their concave surfaces form cylindrical cavity with relation of radius of concave curvilinear surface to circle radius inscribed into cavity formed by closed strikers in range 1.15 - 2.10. At rough forging process blank is subjected to single squeezing stages at deformation degree 18 - 70% while sustaining relation d1/d2 = 1.4 - 2.7 where d1 - mean diameter of ingot or blank; d2 - diameter of circle inscribed to cavity formed by closed strikers. At sizing forging process relation d3/d4 = 1.02 - 1.15 is sustained where d3 - diameter of blank after rough forging of it; d4 - diameter of sized forged piece.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumption of forging process, enhanced efficiency, less expenses for making tool.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: plastic metal working, namely production of forged pieces of ingots in forging complexes.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of billeting ingot and forging it in several passes. Billeting is performed in four-striker forging apparatus for billeting ingots. At each unit reduction ingot is reduced in vertical plane at higher deformation degree than in horizontal plane. Forging complex includes forging press with movable tool table having several positions for changing forging tools. Tool has at least two four-striker forging device. Each device has four strikers secured to holders of upper, lower and lateral strikers. In first position of table four-striker forging device for billeting ingots is arranged. Angle between inclined surfaces in each holder of lateral striker of said device is in range 95 - 160°. Working surfaces of upper and lower strikers are longer than working surfaces of lateral strikers. When all strikers are in closed position, rectangle is formed in their cross section.

EFFECT: possibility for forging ingots with large cross section at improved efficiency.

6 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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