Thermoelectric mat

FIELD: electrical engineering; thermoelectric mats for heating concrete, soil, fillers, and the like.

SUBSTANCE: proposed thermoelectric mat has layer-by-layer arranged external moisture-proof insulating coating contacting surface being heated in the course of mat operation, heating element made of at least two parallel strips of flexible nonmetal current-conducting material separated by insulating inserts and provided with electrodes at edges, internal insulating layer, heat-insulating layer, and moisture-proof coating; thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating where h is thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating; K1 = 0.01 - 0.03 is factor depending on kind of material being heated; K2 = 0.01 - 0.06 is factor characterizing strength of external moisture-proof insulating coating material; S is thermoelectric mat surface area; internal insulating layer is disposed under elastic conducting strips at distance of minimum 1 mm therefrom.

EFFECT: enlarged service life of thermoelectric mat.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, in particular to thermoelectric mats, intended for heating of concrete, soils, aggregates, etc.

Known thermoelectric mats, heating elements which are made of zigzag nichrome wire placed in the pockets of the cover glass fabric (see Ushanov "Electrothermics in concrete technology". Makhachkala, Dagestan publishing house 1971, s-207, RIS).

Also known thermoelectric Mat, heating element which consists of asbestos fabric with podernuty nichrome wire with a diameter of 0.8 mm, the Heating element is placed between the layers of glass fabric and covered with insulating layers of wadding, impregnated with flame retardant. All the elements of thermoelectric Mat enclosed in a waterproof heat resistant shell (see Ushanov "Electrothermics in concrete technology". Makhachkala, Dagestan publishing house, 1971, s-208, figure 88, 89).

The main disadvantage of the above-described thermoelectric mats is that used as the heating element of nichrome wire quickly fails (breaks).

This disadvantage is due to frequent and repeated bending of the Mat when transporting it in a heated state, with one obogrevateli the area of concrete to another.

Known flexible heater containing a heating element made of carbon fiber on the basis of the hydrated cellulose fiber end processing temperatures of not less than 1800°placed on top of the insulation and protective cover made of fiberglass, and connecting the contacts of the metal foil. In this case the heating element is made of carbon tape width of 20-100 mm, insulation in the form of sealed case of fluoroplastic film, and connecting the contacts made folded and wrapped together with carbon tape and provided with jaws made of strips of stainless steel (see RF patent №2079979, MKI NV 3/34).

Use as a heating element carbon tape increases the durability of the flexible heater in comparison with the above-described thermoelectric mats with nichrome wire. However, the described heater has its own significant drawbacks, the main of which are limited technological capabilities and significant heat loss.

Limited technological capabilities due to the width of the heating element (80-100 mm), which does not allow to apply for heating.

Significant heat loss due to the fact that the upper contact with the atmosphere, the surface of the flexible electro is agravates no additional insulation.

In this regard, the intensity of heat transfer from the heater to the heating surface and in the atmosphere the same.

For the selected prototype thermoelectric Mat comprising placed in layers outer moisture-proof insulating coating in contact during operation of the Mat with a heated surface, a heating element made of several parallel strips of elastic non-metallic conductive material, separated by insulating inserts and provided on the edges of the electrodes, the inner insulating layer, insulating layer and a waterproof floor.

Strips of elastic non-metallic conductive material bonded to the outer moisture-proof insulating coating and an inner insulating layer (see THE 67-679-87 "Mat thermoelectric", Annex 1 and 1.2.).

The main disadvantage is selected for a prototype thermoelectric Mat is a small life.

This disadvantage is due, firstly, intensive wear of the outer moisture-proof insulating coating in contact during operation of the Mat with the heated material, and secondly, the rapid failure of strips of elastic non-metallic conductive material, to the which is the heating element. The latter is due to uneven expansion during heating of the outer moisture-proof insulating coating, the inner insulating layer and prisoners between them (and glued to them) bands of elastic non-metallic conductive material.

The technical problem of the invention was to increase the lifetime of thermoelectric Mat.

The invention consists in that thermoelectric material including layers placed outer moisture-proof insulating coating in contact during operation of the Mat with a heated surface, a heating element made of at least two parallel strips of elastic non-metallic conductive material, separated by insulating inserts and provided on the edges of the electrodes, the inner insulating layer, insulating layer and a waterproof coating, outer moisture-proof insulating coating made of a thickness of

where h is the thickness of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating;

To1=0,01-0,03 - coefficient depending on the nature of the heated material;

To2=0,01-0,06 - coefficient characterizing the strength of the material of the external moisture-proof insulating coating;

S - area of thermoelectric Mat

and the inner insulating layer is placed over the strips of elastic conductive material at least 1 mm.

This design of thermoelectric Mat allowed to increase its service life is 1.5-1.7 times. As shown by the applicant comparative tests technical resource proposed thermoelectric Mat for concrete heating amounted to 7,500 hours, against 4700-5000 hours of Mat selected for the prototype.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a thermoelectric Mat - top view with a partial section; figure 2 - thermoelectric mate in the section a-A.

Thermoelectric Mat contains layers placed outer moisture-proof insulating coating 1, a heating element made of parallel strips of conductive elastic material 2, separated by insulating inserts 3 and provided on the edges of the electrodes 4, the inner insulating layer 5, the insulating layer 6 and waterproof coating 7. To the electrodes 4 are connected to the wire 8 connecting thermoelectric Mat with a voltage source (not shown).

Outer moisture-proof insulating coating 1 may be performed, for example, from membrane fabric MBS (GOST 7338-90), PL the NCI PET-e GOST 2434-80 with am.1, 2, feralcode f-4D-A (TU-301-05-422-89), and so on, the Thickness of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating is equal to:

where h is the thickness of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating;

K1=0,01-0,03 - coefficient depending on the nature of the heated material;

K2=0,01-0,06 - coefficient characterizing the strength of the material of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating;

S - area of thermoelectric Mat.

K1is selected depending on the nature of the heated material (heated surface), in particular from its continuity, the presence of sharp, abrasive inclusions them etc When heated black soil, clay and other soils that do not contain any sharp or abrasive inclusions K1=0,01, for heating concrete K1=0,02, heating sharp and abrasive materials (e.g. gravel, sand, etc.) K1=0,03.

Factor K2is selected depending on the strength of the material of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating. For example, if the limit of the tensile strength of this material Qp>34 MPa (feralcode f-4D-E), K2=0,01. If the limit of the tensile strength of the material Qp=21-33 MPa (membrane cloth MBS),2=0,03, and if Qp=5-13 MP is (heat-resistant rubber), To2=0.06 and so on

Parallel spaced strips 2 of the heating element are made of carbon fabric URAL TR (GOST 28005-88), Viscum and other similar materials.

Depending on the length of thermoelectric Mat strips 2 of the heating element can be glued to the outer moisture-proof insulating coating 1, or mounted on the edges of the zones of the electrode 4.

Insulating insert 3 is made of heat-resistant material, for example, the membrane fabric MBS (GOST 7338-90), film PET-e GOST 2434-80, PTFE and related (e.g., glued) with an outer moisture-proof insulating coating 1 and the inner insulating layer 5 is made as insert 3 made of heat-resistant material.

The inner insulating layer 5 is placed over the strips 2 of the heating element at a distance of not less than 1 mm, the Value of this distance depends on the mass of the insulating layer 6 stacked on the insulating layer 5, and the mass of the waterproof cover 7. The more these masses, the greater must be the distance between the insulating layer 5 and the strips 2 of the heating element, which eliminates the contact between them during operation of the Mat because of the possible gradual sagging (drawing) of the insulating layer 5.

No the e contact between the insulating layer 5 and the strips 2 improves working conditions and the service life of the heating element. This is because the insulating layer 5 in the course of its expansion during heating has no effect on the strip 2, and therefore not contributing to the formation of the material strips 2 folds or breaks.

Insulating layer 6 may be made of any material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity is not more than 0.05 W/(m°C), for example from steklomashevskogo PUA Mata (TU 6-48-97-93). Waterproof coating 7 made, for example, from membrane fabric MBS (GOST 7338-90), fiberglass T-11, T-13 (GOST 19170-73), which may optionally be impregnated silicone composition.

Thermoelectric Mat works as follows. On the heated material, such as concrete, stack thermoelectric Mat and connect it by wire 8 to the voltage source. The electric current passing through the heating element, heats it. The heat flux through the outer moisture-proof insulating coating is directed at the heated section. After completion of the process of thermoelectric heating Mat is removed and transferred to another surface, which is subject to heating.

Thermoelectric Mat comprising placed in layers outer moisture-proof insulating coating in contact during operation of the Mat with a heated surface, nagriamel the th element, completed at least two parallel spaced strips of elastic non-metallic conductive material, separated by insulating inserts and provided on the edges of the electrodes, the inner insulating layer, insulating layer and a waterproof coating, characterized in that the outer moisture-proof insulating coating made of a thickness of

where h is the thickness of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating;

To1=0,01÷0,03 - coefficient depending on the nature of the heated material;

To2=0,01÷0,06 - coefficient characterizing the strength of the material of the outer insulating moisture-proof coating;

S - area of thermoelectric Mat

and the inner insulating layer is placed over the strips of elastic conductive material at least 1 mm.



 

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