Strengthening coating with reinforcing effect application method

FIELD: manufacture of articles with normalized properties of surface layer, namely for improving strength of press tools at pressing shapes of titanium alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of surfacing hard alloy layer forming reinforcing structure onto base material; applying by electric spark alloying layer of hard alloy having plastic components onto surfaces layer of hard alloy in order to provide coating with reinforcing effect; then applying onto surface of formed coating additional layer having oil-phobic properties.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of part with such coating, lowered stresses of base metal.

2 cl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to methods of creating products regulated by the properties of the surface layer and can be used in mechanical engineering, in particular, to increase the stability of a pressing tool for pressing profiles of titanium alloys.

It is known that one of the main drawbacks of the pressing process is the low resistance of press tools, especially the matrix set. In General, the fracture mechanism is quite complicated and consists of intensive softening and secondary hardening surfaces of the matrix in the temperature-force impact, which can interfere with asgarnia processes, accumulation of titanium and other

Negative factors influencing the resistance are:

- high temperature pressing (850-1150°);

inhomogeneous temperature field in the deformation due to the additional heat generated due to friction between the surface of the matrix and the compression of the metal, which causes thermal stresses in the surface layers of the superior strength properties of the base material of the tool;

in the friction zone juvenile-clean the surface of the titanium oxide not protected by the film of TiO2, in contact with the tool, and is adhesive connection of rubbing materials;

the presence of the Denmark titanium, scale and decomposition products of grease on the matrix.

As a result of these phenomena on the surface of the matrix a zone of structural changes in the depth of about 600-800 microns.

An effective way to improve service performance tooling from traditionally used steel surface is strengthening local work sites. For the manufacture of press tools with the most effective surface-hardened work items required to perform common source provisions:

firstly, the selected material and the technology of hardening must provide the necessary quality of the product, especially in terms of reliability (in particular, wear resistance), and its successful work in the respective operating conditions;

- secondly, you must consider the consumption of a product, material cost and manufacturability, as well as the scarcity of the material and its (in particular, in the coating) components.

Widely known several effective methods of surface hardening heavily loaded elements of die tooling, but the most interesting are the ways in which there are real opportunities of education materials with predetermined properties, corresponding to the operating conditions of the instrument.

there is a method of hardening press tools, including the coating and implantation of positive ions of nitrogen, or carbon, or boron, which before coating the surface of the tool is subjected to polishing and hardening, and the quality of the coating applied layer of oxides of rhodium a thickness that is less than the penetration depth of the ions (RF Patent No. 2070613, IPC SS 14/48, publ 1996 12.20).

The disadvantages of this method are the shallow depth and irregularity of the resulting hardened layer, the inefficiency of its use with long and heavy loads.

The known method electrospark coating comprising processing the conductive material electrical discharges, where the working electrode impose ultrasonic oscillations and voltage from the generator erotiuli pulses, while Roseraie pulses superimposed on the electrode during periods of generation of ultrasonic vibrations (RF Patent No. 2093323, IPC VN 9/00, publ. 1997, 10.20).

The proposed method of coating significantly improves the operating characteristics of the treated parts, increasing their service life 2-3 times. The performance of the coating increases, on average, 20-40% compared with the known method of superimposing a continuous ultrasonic vibrations.

The disadvantages of this method are the small thickness of the applied layer and insufficient splashnology.

Known hardfacing to protect the substrate from abrasion and wear, characterized in that it comprises a metal matrix of the coating, which has a plot matrices, and many are covered with diamond particles arranged thereon, and each of the coated diamond particles with a layer of solid coating material located on the outer part of the respective diamond particles with multiple primary metallurgical bonds formed between the outer part of each of the diamond particles and the corresponding layer of solid material with the coated diamond particles encapsulated in the plot matrix with many secondary metallurgical bonds formed between the layer of solid material on each diamond particle and the plot of the matrix, and many strong metallurgical bonds formed between the plot of the matrix and the substrate (Patent RF №2167262, IPC WC 35/02, publ. 2001, 05.20).

This process is expensive, requires unique equipment and does not allow to obtain products with accurate geometrical dimensions.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of hardfacing on the surface layer of metal of the desired composition, in particular hard alloys based on carbides of refractory metals (and other Amdursky Structural materials technology, M.: Mashinostroenie, 1977, str-344) prototype. The welding is performed by applying molten metal to the prepared surface, heated to melting or to the temperature of reliable wetting of the liquid weld metal. The deposited layer forms one whole with the base metal (metallic bond). In this case, as a rule, the chemical composition of the deposited layer can vary considerably from the composition of the base metal. The thickness of the weld metal formed by one or more layers may be different: 0,5...10 mm or more. Welding of metal alloys have a high hardness (HRC 70-80 units), wear resistance and heat resistance (T=800-1000°).

The disadvantages of this method are low bending strength and increased fragility of the deposited layer on these characteristics, they are much inferior to the steels. During the extrusion of profiles, especially on the working surface of the matrix, there are significant bending stresses, so here quickly formed spalls, delamination and cracks.

The present invention is to increase the ductility of the deposited layer while maintaining the basic characteristics of metal-ceramic materials, reducing thermal stresses in the main metal by lowering thermal conductivity of the deposited layer.

The technical result achieved in the implementation of the invention is to increase tool life, reducing thermal stresses in the base metal.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of applying a reinforcing coating comprising a cladding layer of hard alloy on the substrate, the deposited layer of hard alloy is applied by electro-spark alloying layer of hard alloy with plastic components with obtaining coverage with a reinforcing effect, while the deposited layer of hard alloy forms a reinforcing structure.

Perhaps on the surface of the coating additionally apply a layer with elevated Leopoldine properties.

The coating process is carried out as follows.

The welding is performed by applying molten metal on the surface of the product, heated to melting or to the temperature of reliable wetting of the liquid weld metal. The deposited layer forms one whole with the base metal (metallic bond). The chemical composition of the deposited layer can vary considerably from the composition of the base metal. The thickness of the weld metal formed by one or more layers may be different: 0,5...10 mm or more. In the present invention as materials for naplack is used tungsten carbide, chromium, Stellite, Carmit, etc. On the surface of the deposited layer is inevitable in the process of surfacing and work spalls, delamination, cracks. In addition, on the surface of the deposited layer is observed porosity. Machining these phenomena are not eliminated. Therefore, the existing cavity in the weld fill layer (cement) by the method of electric-spark alloying alloys with plastic components, such as sorbitol (iron 55-80%, manganese up to 1.5% Nickel, 3.5%, chromium not less than 15%).

The mechanism cementing the deposited layer to the next. With the approach of the electrodes (anode - coating material and the cathode - treated surface) increases the strength of the electric current. At some distance the tension is sufficient for the occurrence of the spark discharge.

Through the channel through conduction electron beam fokusirovanie hits the surface of the anode. The energy stopped electrons is allocated in the surface layers of the anode. Because at this point, the system throw releases the stored energy, current density greatly exceeds the critical value. The result is separated from the anode drop of molten metal and moves to the cathode, ahead of moving with great speed the anode. A drop of molten metal in the process of separation from the cathode is heated to a high temperature, boils and explodes.

Because at this point, the current circuit is interrupted, disappear compressive effort of the electromagnetic field, the particles of molten metal flying wide torch. Torch particles reaching the cathode, sticks and is embedded in its surface, and cement outer layer of deposited metal. After the particle is moving electrode included in the system, who again accumulate energy as the source of her power continued to operate. Therefore, through the glowing particles lying on the cathode, is in the second current pulse, accompanied by the mechanical impact of a mass electrode is the anode. A second pulse welding of the particles among themselves and heats the cathode surface on which they lie. Is the diffusion of particles in the cathode surface and the chemical reaction between the particles and the cathode material. Mechanical shock prikovyvaet floor, increasing its uniformity and density. Then the anode moves upward, and at the cathode remains the metal layer is firmly connected to the surface.

To increase tool life possible application of the method of the spark alloying of the second layer of coating material having leoforou (by nonwettability by various) in relation to the moldable material.

An example of a specific implementation.

Were experimental pressing rod ⊘152 the m alloy VT6. The pressing was carried out at a temperature of 930...960°C, a pressure of 120...160 bar, the drawing ratio μ=3,4. The matrix was made of steel HNM (key material). Comparative tests were subjected to 3 types of matrices having different coating:

1. A matrix with the coated surface, is identical to the prototype - a hardfacing IBD thickness of 4...5 mm

2. The coating on the second matrix consisted of the deposited alloy IBD thickness of 4 mm, which was cemented spark doped alloy Sormat thickness of 150...200 microns.

3. On the third matrix in addition to the deposited alloy layer IBD, cemented layer carmita, was further coated with the layer of alloy VK8 spark doping thickness of 50...150 μm, which has a high leofanti titanium alloys.

The resistance matrix was:

- manufactured in accordance with the prototype - 15 compacts;

- matrix coated with a reinforcing effect, 30 pressings;

- matrix coated with a reinforcing effect, + coating with Leopoldo surface 80 pressings.

The increase in resistance of a pressing tool due to:

- resistance of carbides of refractory metals, which are cemented plastic metals (in the example, iron and Nickel);

- the presence of Leopoldo the surface, which softens the increased adhesion of titanium alloys;

- low thermal conductivity and a considerable thickness of the deposited solid alloy, which reduces thermal stresses in the base metal.

1. The method of applying a reinforcing coating comprising a cladding layer of hard alloy on the substrate, characterized in that the deposited layer of hard alloy is applied by electro-spark alloying layer of hard alloy with plastic components with obtaining coverage with a reinforcing effect, while the deposited layer of hard alloy forms a reinforcing structure.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the coating is additionally applied a layer with elevated Leopoldine properties.



 

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