Strengthening coating with reinforcing effect application method
FIELD: manufacture of articles with normalized properties of surface layer, namely for improving strength of press tools at pressing shapes of titanium alloys.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of surfacing hard alloy layer forming reinforcing structure onto base material; applying by electric spark alloying layer of hard alloy having plastic components onto surfaces layer of hard alloy in order to provide coating with reinforcing effect; then applying onto surface of formed coating additional layer having oil-phobic properties.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of part with such coating, lowered stresses of base metal.
2 cl, 1 ex
The invention relates to methods of creating products regulated by the properties of the surface layer and can be used in mechanical engineering, in particular, to increase the stability of a pressing tool for pressing profiles of titanium alloys.
It is known that one of the main drawbacks of the pressing process is the low resistance of press tools, especially the matrix set. In General, the fracture mechanism is quite complicated and consists of intensive softening and secondary hardening surfaces of the matrix in the temperature-force impact, which can interfere with asgarnia processes, accumulation of titanium and other
Negative factors influencing the resistance are:
- high temperature pressing (850-1150°);
inhomogeneous temperature field in the deformation due to the additional heat generated due to friction between the surface of the matrix and the compression of the metal, which causes thermal stresses in the surface layers of the superior strength properties of the base material of the tool;
in the friction zone juvenile-clean the surface of the titanium oxide not protected by the film of TiO2, in contact with the tool, and is adhesive connection of rubbing materials;
the presence of the Denmark titanium, scale and decomposition products of grease on the matrix.
As a result of these phenomena on the surface of the matrix a zone of structural changes in the depth of about 600-800 microns.
An effective way to improve service performance tooling from traditionally used steel surface is strengthening local work sites. For the manufacture of press tools with the most effective surface-hardened work items required to perform common source provisions:
firstly, the selected material and the technology of hardening must provide the necessary quality of the product, especially in terms of reliability (in particular, wear resistance), and its successful work in the respective operating conditions;
- secondly, you must consider the consumption of a product, material cost and manufacturability, as well as the scarcity of the material and its (in particular, in the coating) components.
Widely known several effective methods of surface hardening heavily loaded elements of die tooling, but the most interesting are the ways in which there are real opportunities of education materials with predetermined properties, corresponding to the operating conditions of the instrument.
there is a method of hardening press tools, including the coating and implantation of positive ions of nitrogen, or carbon, or boron, which before coating the surface of the tool is subjected to polishing and hardening, and the quality of the coating applied layer of oxides of rhodium a thickness that is less than the penetration depth of the ions (RF Patent No. 2070613, IPC SS 14/48, publ 1996 12.20).
The disadvantages of this method are the shallow depth and irregularity of the resulting hardened layer, the inefficiency of its use with long and heavy loads.
The known method electrospark coating comprising processing the conductive material electrical discharges, where the working electrode impose ultrasonic oscillations and voltage from the generator erotiuli pulses, while Roseraie pulses superimposed on the electrode during periods of generation of ultrasonic vibrations (RF Patent No. 2093323, IPC VN 9/00, publ. 1997, 10.20).
The proposed method of coating significantly improves the operating characteristics of the treated parts, increasing their service life 2-3 times. The performance of the coating increases, on average, 20-40% compared with the known method of superimposing a continuous ultrasonic vibrations.
The disadvantages of this method are the small thickness of the applied layer and insufficient splashnology.
Known hardfacing to protect the substrate from abrasion and wear, characterized in that it comprises a metal matrix of the coating, which has a plot matrices, and many are covered with diamond particles arranged thereon, and each of the coated diamond particles with a layer of solid coating material located on the outer part of the respective diamond particles with multiple primary metallurgical bonds formed between the outer part of each of the diamond particles and the corresponding layer of solid material with the coated diamond particles encapsulated in the plot matrix with many secondary metallurgical bonds formed between the layer of solid material on each diamond particle and the plot of the matrix, and many strong metallurgical bonds formed between the plot of the matrix and the substrate (Patent RF №2167262, IPC WC 35/02, publ. 2001, 05.20).
This process is expensive, requires unique equipment and does not allow to obtain products with accurate geometrical dimensions.
The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of hardfacing on the surface layer of metal of the desired composition, in particular hard alloys based on carbides of refractory metals (and other Amdursky Structural materials technology, M.: Mashinostroenie, 1977, str-344) prototype. The welding is performed by applying molten metal to the prepared surface, heated to melting or to the temperature of reliable wetting of the liquid weld metal. The deposited layer forms one whole with the base metal (metallic bond). In this case, as a rule, the chemical composition of the deposited layer can vary considerably from the composition of the base metal. The thickness of the weld metal formed by one or more layers may be different: 0,5...10 mm or more. Welding of metal alloys have a high hardness (HRC 70-80 units), wear resistance and heat resistance (T=800-1000°).
The disadvantages of this method are low bending strength and increased fragility of the deposited layer on these characteristics, they are much inferior to the steels. During the extrusion of profiles, especially on the working surface of the matrix, there are significant bending stresses, so here quickly formed spalls, delamination and cracks.
The present invention is to increase the ductility of the deposited layer while maintaining the basic characteristics of metal-ceramic materials, reducing thermal stresses in the main metal by lowering thermal conductivity of the deposited layer.
The technical result achieved in the implementation of the invention is to increase tool life, reducing thermal stresses in the base metal.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method of applying a reinforcing coating comprising a cladding layer of hard alloy on the substrate, the deposited layer of hard alloy is applied by electro-spark alloying layer of hard alloy with plastic components with obtaining coverage with a reinforcing effect, while the deposited layer of hard alloy forms a reinforcing structure.
Perhaps on the surface of the coating additionally apply a layer with elevated Leopoldine properties.
The coating process is carried out as follows.
The welding is performed by applying molten metal on the surface of the product, heated to melting or to the temperature of reliable wetting of the liquid weld metal. The deposited layer forms one whole with the base metal (metallic bond). The chemical composition of the deposited layer can vary considerably from the composition of the base metal. The thickness of the weld metal formed by one or more layers may be different: 0,5...10 mm or more. In the present invention as materials for naplack is used tungsten carbide, chromium, Stellite, Carmit, etc. On the surface of the deposited layer is inevitable in the process of surfacing and work spalls, delamination, cracks. In addition, on the surface of the deposited layer is observed porosity. Machining these phenomena are not eliminated. Therefore, the existing cavity in the weld fill layer (cement) by the method of electric-spark alloying alloys with plastic components, such as sorbitol (iron 55-80%, manganese up to 1.5% Nickel, 3.5%, chromium not less than 15%).
The mechanism cementing the deposited layer to the next. With the approach of the electrodes (anode - coating material and the cathode - treated surface) increases the strength of the electric current. At some distance the tension is sufficient for the occurrence of the spark discharge.
Through the channel through conduction electron beam fokusirovanie hits the surface of the anode. The energy stopped electrons is allocated in the surface layers of the anode. Because at this point, the system throw releases the stored energy, current density greatly exceeds the critical value. The result is separated from the anode drop of molten metal and moves to the cathode, ahead of moving with great speed the anode. A drop of molten metal in the process of separation from the cathode is heated to a high temperature, boils and explodes.
Because at this point, the current circuit is interrupted, disappear compressive effort of the electromagnetic field, the particles of molten metal flying wide torch. Torch particles reaching the cathode, sticks and is embedded in its surface, and cement outer layer of deposited metal. After the particle is moving electrode included in the system, who again accumulate energy as the source of her power continued to operate. Therefore, through the glowing particles lying on the cathode, is in the second current pulse, accompanied by the mechanical impact of a mass electrode is the anode. A second pulse welding of the particles among themselves and heats the cathode surface on which they lie. Is the diffusion of particles in the cathode surface and the chemical reaction between the particles and the cathode material. Mechanical shock prikovyvaet floor, increasing its uniformity and density. Then the anode moves upward, and at the cathode remains the metal layer is firmly connected to the surface.
To increase tool life possible application of the method of the spark alloying of the second layer of coating material having leoforou (by nonwettability by various) in relation to the moldable material.
An example of a specific implementation.
Were experimental pressing rod ⊘152 the m alloy VT6. The pressing was carried out at a temperature of 930...960°C, a pressure of 120...160 bar, the drawing ratio μ=3,4. The matrix was made of steel HNM (key material). Comparative tests were subjected to 3 types of matrices having different coating:
1. A matrix with the coated surface, is identical to the prototype - a hardfacing IBD thickness of 4...5 mm
2. The coating on the second matrix consisted of the deposited alloy IBD thickness of 4 mm, which was cemented spark doped alloy Sormat thickness of 150...200 microns.
3. On the third matrix in addition to the deposited alloy layer IBD, cemented layer carmita, was further coated with the layer of alloy VK8 spark doping thickness of 50...150 μm, which has a high leofanti titanium alloys.
The resistance matrix was:
- manufactured in accordance with the prototype - 15 compacts;
- matrix coated with a reinforcing effect, 30 pressings;
- matrix coated with a reinforcing effect, + coating with Leopoldo surface 80 pressings.
The increase in resistance of a pressing tool due to:
- resistance of carbides of refractory metals, which are cemented plastic metals (in the example, iron and Nickel);
- the presence of Leopoldo the surface, which softens the increased adhesion of titanium alloys;
- low thermal conductivity and a considerable thickness of the deposited solid alloy, which reduces thermal stresses in the base metal.
1. The method of applying a reinforcing coating comprising a cladding layer of hard alloy on the substrate, characterized in that the deposited layer of hard alloy is applied by electro-spark alloying layer of hard alloy with plastic components with obtaining coverage with a reinforcing effect, while the deposited layer of hard alloy forms a reinforcing structure.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the coating is additionally applied a layer with elevated Leopoldine properties.
FIELD: building industry; method and devices allowing to make the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to application of the coatings on the surfaces of the metallic materials. The method provides for application of the coating made out of the metal or out of the metal alloy. The first layer of the applied coating has the depth smaller or equal to 2.5 microns. Then conduct the thermal treatment of the first layer of the coating by means of the fast heating by heating the surface of the first layer of the coating up to the temperature laying within the limits from0.8 Tf up tothe temperature of Tf, whereTf is the temperature of smelting of the metal or the metal alloy, which is used in application of the first layer of the coating. Then they apply the second layer of the coating from the metal or the metal alloy with the depth smaller or equal to 1 micrometer. The invention also presents the material containing the indicated layers as well as the device for application of the coating on the metallic material in the form of the strip, which contains the tool for the strip pulling and the tool for application of the coating. On the path of motion of the dawn strip there are in series mounted the following tools: the tool for application of the first layer on the strip; the strip fast heating tool, which is capable to heat the surface of the first layer up to the above-indicated temperature; the tool for application on the strip of the second layer of the metal or the metal alloy. The technical result of the invention is creation of the method and the device allowing to produce the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
EFFECT: the invention ensures creation of the method and the device for production of the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
24 cl, 6 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: chemical and electrochemical application of layers of noble metals from aqueous solutions; chemical, radio-electronic and electrical industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes application of intermediate silver layer by chemical method in aqueous solution or by use of silver article, after which article is immersed as cathode in aqueous solution containing palladium ions and cementation and electrodeposition are performed.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining thick layers of noble metals possessing developed surface.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: galvanoplastics; methods of production of art articles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of galvanoplastics and may be used at manufacture of the art articles. The method provides for sensitization of the surfaces of the model in the solution of stannum chloride (II) with addition of hydrochloric acid, chemical metallization and galvanic copper coating. At that before the sensitization the surface of the model wetted with solution of stannum chloride stannum (II), then the model is coated with the layer of the acrylic lacquer, and after sensitizations conduct hydrolysis. At that the chemical metallization is conducted in the solution of silvering in the following composition of components (in g/l): silver nitrate - 2; 25 % ammonia water solution - 10; 10 % caustic potassium water solution - 18; and at galvanic copper coating apply a current of the low cathode density of 0.5 A/dm2. The technical result: the invention allows to realize metallization of the ill- wettable surfaces of plants and insects, to improved quality of metallization of insects and plants.
EFFECT: the invention allows to realize metallization of the ill- wettable surfaces of plants and insects, to improved quality of metallization of insects and plants.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; methods of depositing of the chromium coatings on steel details.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering, in particular, to the method of depositing of the chromium coating on the steel details and may be used for restoration and hardening of surfaces of the friction components of machines. The method includes an electrolytic deposition on a substrate of a chromium coating out of chromium-containing solutions at presence of a catalytic agent. Then conduct an anodic etching in the same electrolyte keeping to the following modes: a current density of 40-50 A/dc2, the temperature of the electrolyte - 50-65°C. After the anodic etching they exercise deposition of an additional layer of the chromium coating from a gas phase of chromium hexacarbonyl by a thermal dissociation. In the particular cases of the invention realization the depth of the galvanic chromium layer makes 5-15 microns, and the increase of the coating thickness up to a required value is gained with the help of a thermal dissociation of the chromium hexacarbonyl vapors from the gaseous medium. The technical result of the invention is an increased adhesive strength of the coating with the substrate and an increased productivity of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased adhesive strength of the coating with the substrate and a raise of the process productivity.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: metallurgy, namely processes for applying wear resistant chrome carbide coatings, protection of surface of articles of titanium and its alloys against action of aggressive media, abrasive wear and high temperature influence.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying sub-layer of metal and further applying of wear resistant chrome carbide layer by pyrolysis of chrome-organic compounds of bis-arene. Before applying wear resistant layer of chrome carbide, sub-layer of nickel or its alloys with thickness 0.1 - 10 micrometers is applied.
EFFECT: possibility for applying on titanium and its alloys wear resistant coating with enhanced adhesion degree of coating and substrate and with improved strength against crumpling at elimination of cracking.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: electrochemical treatment of channel edges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes anode dissolving of burrs on edges of cast part channel by means of electrode-tool performing the reciprocating motion along its axis; after reaching burrs, amplitude of oscillations is reduced till complete removal of burrs. Device proposed for realization of this method includes electrode-tool with body, working part and dielectric guide. Electrode-tool has through channel with check valve between end face of dielectric guide and body. Electrode-tool is connected with reciprocating motion drive and motion direction sensor. Length of working part of electrode-tool shall be no less than maximum length of burrs to reduce the electrode gap and to minimize zone of treatment.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mechanical engineering; methods of reconditioning of the machines components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering, in particular, to reconditioning of the machines components and may be used for restoration and increasing of reliability of the blocks of the "pivot bolt - the aperture under the pivot bolt" of the beams of the cars forward axles. At the wear of the holes up to 0.4 mm per the diameter for the diameter deposition of the coating made out of copper or its alloys is carried out by the electric spark treatment at the impulses power of 0.5-1.5 J, and specific time of the treatment of 2.5-3.5 minute/cm2. At the wear of the holes from 0.4-1 mm per the diameter - deposition of the layer of the coating is conducted by the electric spark treatment with the specific time of the treatment of 2.5-3.5 minute/cm2. In the beginning they deposit the layer of the coating made out of the medium-carbon steel or the high-carbon steel at the impulses power of 1.5-2.5 J, and then - the layer of copper or its alloys at impulses power of 0.5-1.5 J. The invention ensures the decreased fretting and the adhesion interaction of the reconditioned holes of the fixed joints.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the decreased fretting and the adhesion interaction of the reconditioned holes of the fixed joints.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: electrophysical and electrochemical treatment processes such as electric-erosion alloying, possibly treatment of surfaces of inserts of sliding bearing assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto working surface of inserts by electric-erosion alloying with use of tool-electrodes layers of silver, copper and tin-base babbitt. Electrochemical coating of silver and copper is applied at pulse energy 0.01 - 0.05 J and coating of tin-base babbitt is applied at pulse energy 0.01 - 0.06 J. Coating layers are applied in different directions: crosswise, lengthwise and by inclination angle relative to surface at least of one block of inserts. Inserts having micro-relief on their working surfaces feature enhanced carrying capacity.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability, carrying capacity of inserts.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: designing and production of custom-made firearm produced in small lots.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in applying on the inner surface of the cartridge chamber of a mixture of fluoride of bivalent lead or oxide of quadrivalent germanium activated by thulium or ytterbium capable of generation of luminescent radiation in the blue band, La2O3S activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the green band, and Y2O3-YOF activated by ytterbium or erbium, as well as Y2O3-YOCl activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the red band, the relation of the mentioned substances is prescribed beforehand.
EFFECT: provided identification of the weapon by the empty case with the use of the earlier made marking elements.
FIELD: designing and produced of custom-made firearm, applicable for identification of the barrel of the firearm produced in small lots.
SUBSTANCE: the agent applied on the inner surface of the cartridge chamber includes a mixture of fluoride of bivalent lead or oxide of quadrivalent germanium activated by thulium or ytterbium capable of generation of luminescent radiation in the blue band, La2O2S activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the green band, and Y2O3-YOF activated by ytterbium or erbium as well as Y2O3-YOCl activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the red band, the relation of the mentioned substances is prescribed beforehand.
EFFECT: provided identification of weapon by the empty case with the use of the earlier made marking elements.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: designing and manufacturing of piece firearms , possibly identification of barrel of riffled firearms produced by small lots.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto inner surface of cartridge chamber and adjacent to it part of barrel mixture of three non-organic matters capable for generating irradiation in range of wave lengths 460 - 680 nm after irradiating them by irradiation in range of wave lengths 800-1200 nm. Said non-organic matters are selected from group including matters capable for irradiating first - in blue range, second -in green range and third - in red range. Relation of quantities of said matters is set beforehand.
EFFECT: possibility for identification of riffled firearms according to bullet and according to fired case- due to using applied beforehand marking symbols.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; deposition of coatings by the gas-thermal methods.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of deposition of coatings by the gas-thermal methods, in particular, to the plasma deposition. The invention presents the method of preparation of the surface before the plasma deposition of chromium carbonyl. The method includes realization of the electrospark doping in the carbonic gas medium with utilization of the electrode formed from the powder on the basis of chromium. The doping is conducted at the following modes: the specific duration of the doping is 2-3 minutes/cm2, the discharge current - 0.6-0.9 A, the amplitude of the electrode vibrations is 60-70 microns, the frequency of the electrode vibrations is IOO Hz. The technical result of the invention is the increase of the cohesion strength of the gas-thermal coating with the substrate.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased cohesion strength of the gas-thermal coating with the substrate.
FIELD: restoration works, possibly in machine engineering and repairing shops of agricultural-industrial complex.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying copper layer onto surface of opening of slide valve body made of cast iron by electric spark working; then removing applied layer of copper till thermal diffusion zone and applying layer of low- or medium-carbon steel onto surface of slide. Such layer is applied by electric spark working in apparatus with discharge energy 0.81 - 1.66 J at electrode feed in range 0.2 - 0.4 mm/rev and at revolution number of slide 8 - 16 rev/min. Then lands of slide are smoothly rolled and lapped, and film of brass is applied onto them by anti-friction abrasive free finish working.
EFFECT: increased resource of slide valve.
FIELD: processes for running-in kinematics friction pairs at passing electric current through rubbing pair.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of loading friction pair by preset load; setting relative motion and applying technological voltage pulses; feeding mineral oil to which powder of soft metals or alloys is added between parts; keeping voltage values in range 20 -30V at electric current intensity 1- 2 A and pulse repetition frequency 450 - 500 Hz. Wormed metal powder is plasticized and fills micro-irregularities of part surface. By adding to mineral oil powders of soft metals surface layers of friction pair obtain positive gradient of mechanical properties providing their improved wear resistance.
EFFECT: shortened time period of running-in kinematics friction pairs having increased wear resistance.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: electric-physical treatment of electrically conducting materials.
SUBSTANCE: at electric spark discharge rectified pulsating electric current provides polar transfer of electrode material onto rotating article. Mineral oil is supplied between electrically conducting electrodes for creating specific pressure 0.2 - 0.5 MPa. Amplitude values of voltage are sustained in range 1 - 50 kV at pulse frequency from 500 Hz up to 100 kHz. Invention allows increase thickness layer of electric spark strengthening up to 0.4 mm.
EFFECT: improved quality of working, increased thickness of strengthened layer, improved resource of restored parts.
FIELD: foundry, possibly manufacture and repairing of sliding bearing assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing insert of bearing assembly into fitting and heating it; babbiting cavity restricted by surface of insert and lateral portions of fitting; with use of punch whose temperature is no higher than 100°C redistributing babbit and simultaneously cooling it; subjecting prepared semi-finished product to plastic deformation in super-plasticity condition for forming anti-friction layer of target thickness; using insert or base of bearing assembly as matrix at deformation. It is possible to realize babbiting into base of bearing assembly or into attachment whose shape is similar to that of insert.
EFFECT: improved wear resistance, operational reliability of anti-friction layer.
9 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex