Automated continuous haulage system
FIELD: automated vehicle control means adapted to be used in underground environment and vehicle control methods.
SUBSTANCE: control method involves determining vehicle route from distances between vehicle and mine wall measured by means of vehicle sensors, angular vehicle velocity and left and right vehicle wheels or caterpillar velocities, as well as vehicle acceleration with the use of controller to direct vehicle to the nearest route point. Control system has distance and angular position measuring means to determine position of movable bridge conveyer 10 and angular position of associated face chain conveyers 30. Electronic controller receives input data from each sensor at each movable bridge conveyer 10 to calculate position and direction of bridge conveyer 10 and face chain conveyers 30. Controller plans optimal movement route and calculates speed of each independently acting caterpillar unit of bridge conveyer.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of conveyer system position determination.
16 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention in General relates to vehicles with automated management and, in particular, to a device and method automate one or more vehicles for underground mining, applied in continuous production.
In underground excavation, such as coal mining, desirable, in order to improve the performance of continuous operation mining, producing the blasting of coal from the face. For this purpose it is necessary to provide tools that quickly and continuously to roll back the loosened material from the place of production to another remote location. Currently there is one such system of continuous haulage used in coal mines, and contains a set of conveyor mechanisms are connected with each other can be rotated. The components of this system are mine from combine continuous action. Combine continuous action breaks the solid deposits of coal with obtaining material, the size of which is more convenient for transportation to the remote from the harvester section. Some components of these systems can be in the form of a self-propelled crawler mobile conveyor units, while others may be in the form of belts that cover the span between moving the evils. The mobile node used in the system of continuous haulage, sometimes referred to as movable bridge transporters (PMT) and, as a rule, they represent a chain conveyors mounted on tracked vehicles, each of which operates and maintains the miner.
In the system of continuous haulage, which may include, for example, several mobile bridge conveyors, the first of several mobile bridge conveyors located near the discharge end of the combine continuous action. Mobile bridge conveyor moves in concert with the combine continuous and takes the extracted material in a small bunker at its receiving end. In another embodiment, between combine continuous and mobile bridge conveyor can be installed in the feeder-crusher for crushing large pieces of the extracted material. The discharge end of the rolling bridge conveyor pivotally connected to another component of the system of continuous haulage, usually with downhole chain overhead conveyor. A number of pivotally connected mobile bridge conveyors and overhead conveyors provides a means for articulation of the system of continuous haulage for rounding corners and providing the ability to move in concert with the combine continuous action. About icny PMT has leading and rear conveyor sections, made with the capability of raising and lowering under control of the operator. These degrees of freedom are essential for ensuring the openings of the respective ends of the downhole chain conveyor relative to the roof and floor in conditions of variable slopes and lifts. The complement system pairs tracked vehicles and overhead conveyors can increase the total length of the system according to the need of this particular extraction operations. End of the bridge conveyor connected or correlated with a belt conveyor, which is secured to the ground during use. Therefore, the system of continuous haulage provides a fast and effective means of transporting mined material from the mining face.
The totality of the United PMT and downhole chain bridge conveyors can be "zigzag" at the distance of several hundred feet, for example. Components must be made with the possibility of moving forward together with the combine continuous with the passage of different turns. To be consistent with the operation of the system each person has at one or both ends of the cart. The trolley is made with the possibility of sliding movement in the longitudinal direction and provides the attachment point for the corresponding bridge conveyor. The trolley provides for the front of the PMT possibility distribution is with the appropriate follow him in the rear of the bridge conveyor. The rear of the bridge conveyor will also promote the trolley back of the PMT. The back of the PMT may remain stationary during the progress of the front components. The back of the PMT can then proceed in the same way, promoting while one downhole chain bridge conveyor and cart. Thus, the connected components can move desynhronization, but the operator of the PMT will not see the person in front or behind and will have only a limited overview of the downhole chain conveyors connected with his person. The operator of the PMT has only a limited review of the wall of the shaft opposite the driver's cab, and his review of the wall of the shaft closest to the cabin, limited to lighting conditions and its proximity to her. In addition, for each conventional PMT requires the presence of the operator in the cab at all times while work on the production. So, in the case of the long part of the PMT and downhole of the chain conveyor are many operations with the participation of people increase the overhead and increase the risk of injury.
Therefore, there is a need for a system of continuous haulage, decreasing the volume of direct participation of the people in the system and increases the ability to accurately determine the position of all conveyor systems.
PMT or downhole chain bridge conveyor may be on the terrain, to the torus requires height adjustment of clearance between it and the roof of the mine. PMT and bridge conveyors need to stop during manual height adjustment.
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a method and device for determining the position of the rolling bridge conveyor. Another objective of this invention is to provide a method and device for automatically lifting and lowering of the conveyor in accordance with the height of the roof and floor conditions. Another objective of this invention is to provide a method and device for determining the angle between the face of the chain conveyor and at least one mobile bridge conveyor. Another objective of this invention is to provide device and method for determining the displacement of a separate movable bridge conveyor and aggregate mobile bridge conveyors and downhole chain conveyors as part of the continuous haulage. Another objective of this invention is to provide a method and device for automated full system continuous haulage, which achieved all of these goals.
Brief description of drawings
The present invention will be clearer from the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings, which depict the following:
figure 1 depicts the side ver calinou the projection of the usual rolling of the bridge conveyor and downhole chain conveyor, which modified and used according to the described device and method;
figure 2 is a top view of a section of underground workings, illustrating the General location and configuration of the system of continuous haulage, automated according to this invention;
figure 3 - schematic top view of the placement of the sensors according to this invention;
4 is a block diagram illustrating input and output signals of the electronic controller;
5 is a flowchart of the basic control method according to this invention;
6 is a diagram of a typical recursive partitioning of the data about the distance;
7 is a block diagram of the inference Algorithm for Determining Line according to this invention;
Fig - graphical comparison of dimensions in the coordinate system of the scanner with respect to the dimension in the global coordinate system;
Fig.9 is a top view of a typical route according to this invention and the corresponding measurements;
figure 10 is a block diagram of the steps of the algorithm hook-Giusa.
Description of the preferred embodiment of the invention,
According to a preferred variant implementation, at least one pair of rolling bridge Transporter (PMT) and downhole chain conveyor system of continuous haulage automated so that the passage on the underground mine is possible with a small about the Birmingham of participation and control by an operator or without him. According to one of embodiments automating provide through the use of a set of sensors installed on each indicator, and an electronic controller which receives data from the respective sensors, processes the data using one or more algorithms and then sends commands to the motor mechanism and the mechanism for adjusting the height of the PMT. Although according to a preferred variant implementation of each PMT can act to go on the route), regardless of the other person in the node combine continuous action, it is assumed that each PMT controller can communicate and act together with the other controllers of the PMT.
Cited as an example a pair of movable bridge conveyor 10 and downhole chain conveyor 30 is shown in figure 1. PMT 10 is moved by means of a pair of crawler nodes 12. Because the left and right crawler nodes 12 are independent from each other, so turns are performed at different speeds corresponding to the tracked nodes. Each PMT contains the back covering the clamp 14 and the front covered by the clamp 18. Covering the clamp 14 is also limited by the opening 16 to accommodate the connecting pin 38 is covered by the clamp 36 and the rear face of the chain conveyor. Accordingly covered by the clamp 18 includes connecting the speaker pin 20 for insertion into the hole 34 of the outer yoke 32 moving downhole chain conveyor 30. According to one of embodiments of the present invention covered by the clamp 18 is attached to is made with the possibility of moving the trolley 22 installed on the guide rail 28, and is part of it. Covered by the clamp 18 is made with the capability of raising or lowering relative to the trolley 22 using a conventional known means, such as hydraulic actuator 24, thereby raising or lowering the corresponding downhole chain conveyor 30. Similarly covering the clamp 14 is also made with the capability of raising and lowering, thereby raising and lowering the rear face chain conveyor 30 (not shown) if necessary and with the appropriate equipment. It should be noted that the location covered by the clamp 18 and the covering of the clip 32 may be opposite to that shown in figure 1. For example, covering the fastener 32 can be positioned at PMT 10, and covered the clamp 18 can be positioned at the downhole chain conveyor 30.
General view of the site of continuous mining and haulage in underground mine shown in figure 2. The harvester 40 continuous action produces the notch neotricula coal or other appropriate material 42, shaded in figure 2, from the mine. The previously developed part of the shaft 44 is shown in figure 3 where there's no shading. The harvester 40 continuous action delivers the extracted material in the PE the new PMT 10A. The material is then transported to the next PMT 10V using the first downhole chain conveyor 30A, located between the PMT 10A and 10B and attached to them. Depending on passable distance to extend the site of continuous extraction and haulage can provide additional PMT 10C, 10D and 10E and downhole chain conveyors 30B, 30C, 30D, 30E, for example. Fixed and extendable conveyor belt 50 is attached to the rear face of the chain conveyor 30E, and it gives the extracted material to the appropriate transport plying the device on a conveyor system or other distribution means from the mine.
When moving the harvester continuous steps forward when performing mining PMT 10A, 10B, 10C, 10D, 10E and downhole chain conveyors 30A, 30B, 30C, 30D, 30E also moved forward. Similarly, the PMT and downhole chain conveyors are moved back to the harvester continuous action could come from the developed site. In the conventional system of continuous haulage each PMT 10A, 10B, 10C, 10D, 10E has a driver to control the PMT and attached downhole chain conveyors as you move through the mine, in particular, to avoid the pillars 60 Nedobitko material. The pillars 60 and other nedobity material 42 is essentially define the wall 62 of the mine, has to pass through a system of continuous haulage. 3 schemati the Eski illustrates the overall arrangement of sensors according to a preferred variant implementation of the invention. PMT 10V and scrapper chain conveyor 30V illustrated together with a partial view of downhole chain conveyor 30A and PMT 10C. In accordance with the following more detailed description of the automated system of continuous haulage according to this invention uses three types of components of the sensor. The first components of the sensor are means 70 distance measurement. The tool 70 distance measurement to measure the distance between the PMT and the adjacent wall of the mine. At least use one tool to measure the distance, but it is preferable to use several tools. Found that the optimal location for accurate measurements is the placement of measuring distances on the longitudinal sides of the PMT. According to a preferred implementation of the present invention as a means of distance measurement using infrared laser rangefinder scanners SICK (SICK Optik, Inc., Germany). Other contactless devices measure the distance are ultrasonic device for measuring distances, manufactured by Massa Technologies, Hingham, MA; these devices can also be installed on the longitudinal sides of the PMT in multiple locations. Other alternative implementation of distance measurement include sensors of the contact type, which serve the same measured the I, such as passive or movable contact sensors that detect the presence of the wall of the shaft by means of touch or closing the local circuit at the contact. In these electrocontact the implementation of voltage and current must be strictly maintained within applicable standards safety of underground work. Specialist in the art will understand that for moving or passive contact sensors requires the detection of the relative force or torque on such a contact sensor as a condition that makes a distinction between the free movement of the contact probe in the air and intermittent or sustained contact with a stiff wall of the mine.
The second type of sensor used in an automated system for the continuous haulage according to this invention, is a means 76 determine the height to measure the clearance between the PMT 10 with attached downhole chain conveyors 30 or floors or roof of the passage of the mine, or both. For each PMT 10 preferably requires only one tool 76 determine the height, but for redundancy can be used several tools 76 definitions. According to the following more detailed description in response to measurements obtained by means of definition wide-angle the height, the height of the attached face of the chain conveyor 30 relative to the roof of the mine can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting or lowering the truck 22 by means of hydraulic drive 24 or to the height of the skirts themselves PMT 10 by means of hydraulic cylinders 26 installed on the nodes 12 of the actuator, as shown schematically in figure 1.
According to a preferred implementation of the present invention the means for determining the height is, for example, such an ultrasonic device to measure distances, which produces the company Massa Technologies, Hingham, MA. From prior art it is well known that these devices transmit an ultrasonic signal reflected from the respective surfaces of the roof or floor of the mine and which calculates the distance between the surface and the sensor. The sensor can determine the distance or clearance on a temporary basis, for example, more than one measurement per second. It is determined that the frequency of more than 100 measurements per second gives much more data than is necessary for safe driving on the available speeds of the transport devices of the order of one foot per second.
According to alternative implementation to determine and adjust the height limit switch is used to which is attached a short flexible cable. Near the end of the cable is rigidly attached to the pad p is chaga limit switch. The far end of the rope passes under the conveyor and hangs down on the floor of the mine when moving the vehicle forward or backward. If the cable must not touch the floor, then its relative orientation will be almost vertical, and this state is defined by a limit switch. Limit switch, in turn, provides a hydraulic control valve lift command to the lower span of the conveyor. If the rope is pulled across the floor, its relative orientation will be far from the vertical, and this likewise is determined by a limit switch. Limit switch, in turn, provides a hydraulic control valve command to raise the span of the pipeline. Specialist in the art it will be obvious that the limit switch is preferably will have a dead zone "inaction" regarding the regulation of the ascent, in which the cable slightly stretches across the floor of the mine and its relative orientation will be almost vertical.
In the PMT according to figure 1 at its front and rear clamps 18, 14 attached to the pin 20 or socket 16, which are connected with the corresponding socket 34-pin or 38 scrapper chain conveyor 30. These pins or sockets provide azimuthal angular movement when the angle more than 180 degrees of freedom angular elevation from 10 to 20 degrees and with the rim of the angular tilt of a few degrees. As indicated above, the PMT contains made with the possibility of sliding movement of the carriage 22, which has one of the connection pin-socket" with downhole chain conveyors. As indicated above in the description of figure 1, this cart is attached with the possibility of sliding movement to the guide 28. The movement of the trolley gives you the freedom of longitudinal sliding movement of the connection between one face of the chain conveyor and the PMT, usually on the outer end of the PMT. As shown in figure 3, such means 72 determine the location of the truck as a linear potentiometer, is mounted on each PMT 10 to determine and to record the relative movement of the truck 22 on the guide rail 28, so that when the value is reached a predetermined dimension, the controller 80 of the PMT was able to determine that the system is continuous haulage now moves forward or backward, and will be able to determine its speed. That is, if the first indicator 10A moves forward, it will move the rear face chain conveyor 30A forward. The rear face chain conveyor 30A will be moving downhole chain conveyor with respect to the second PMT 10V and is connected to the carriage 22, which refers to PMT 10V. Conveyor 30A will promote the trolley 22 forward along the guide 28, the movement of which will be determined by a linear potentiometer 72. Then potentio the ETR can send a signal to the controller 80 (figure 4) about what is needed moving forward.
Degrees of freedom between BMI and United with him scrapper chain conveyor are essential for communications components of the system of continuous haulage, while maintaining the freedom to go around the pillars and take into account the exact speed and position of each person for their lack of synchronism in the range sufficient to account for the capabilities of the operator, or, in the case of the present invention, a computer for driving the PMT. If the angles between the PMT and attached downhole chain conveyors are too large, there is a danger that the whole system of continuous haulage "will be", or part of it will turn over. Location downhole chain conveyor 30 is indirectly determined by determining the angle between the PMT 10 and downhole chain conveyor 30 in the respective pin-socket connections. Therefore, a third type of sensor used in an automated system for the continuous haulage in accordance with this invention and illustrated in figure 3, is a means 74 of angle measurement, which determines the angle between the PMT 10 and attached downhole chain conveyor 30. Because the PMT 10 is usually attached to the front and rear downhole chain conveyors 30, each PMT will contain two means 74 of angle measurement. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention means the om 74 measurement of the angle is the angular potentiometer or potentiometer rotation, known from the prior art. A conventional flexible connection between the potentiometer and the attach point on the pin provides for the possibility of angular movements outside the plane. As far as this author knows, this feature is not available on any joints mining equipment. In addition, the most common method of attaching such interconnected parts has large gaps between the essentially cylindrical pin and being beveled slot. Spherical connection commonly used in trailers, will not meet this goal because it convenient metabolite for potentiometer is not available. The invention preferably provides for the installation of such a potentiometer spherical connection design to minimize lateral movement for the conventional flexible connection.
In accordance with the following detailed description to automate elements of the system of continuous haulage (PMT 10 and downhole chain conveyors 30) received from the respective sensors data you need to collect, combine and process to a system of continuous haulage could move relative to the harvester 40 continuous action and to downhole chain conveyors could be reduced according to the distance between p the scrap and roof of the mine. Figure 4 illustrates a General diagram of the input/output signals in accordance with this invention.
The action of the continuous haulage according to this invention mainly controlled by an electronic controller 80. Because each PMT 10 can operate and preferably operates independently from the rest of the PMT in the chain haulage, so each PMT 10 has its own controller 80. As the controller 80 currently, each PMT is preferable to use a personal computer. The controller PMT performed on a personal computer with WINDOWS operating system (Microsoft, Inc., Redmont, Washington), for which the minimum required processor with a frequency of 200 MHz (Intel, Inc., Santa Clara, California) and NVR capacity of 64 Megabytes. As a means of collecting data from the respective sensors using the graphical programming language LABVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, Texas). All control algorithms are written in C and compiled in the appropriate format, which you can call from LABVIEW. Controllers PC-based exercise message with the sensors of each PMT in serial or parallel cables. Each PMT also has controllers 82, 84 of the speed of the left and right caterpillars or the drive system as part of the drive units of caterpillars. The controllers 82, 84 system left and right drive also contain control Board drive system. These are the lats get a speed command from the controller 80 and carry out the speed control in closed loop for caterpillars providing the actual speed of caterpillars, most close to the desired speed of caterpillars, taking into account the spin and bug fixes.
Typically, sensor data takes the controller 80 from the 70 distance measurement, the means 76 determine the height, the means 74 of angle measurement. The sensors and the controller 80 is configured to continuously control the position of the PMT. In another embodiment, when receiving a signal of a predetermined level from the linear potentiometer 72, the controller 80 receives information about that going forward face chain conveyor 30A moves the carriage 22 forward or backward, so managed PMT should move forward or backward. According to the following more detailed description of the controller 80 processes the received sensor data and calculates the route course of the PMT, which he manages. The controller then determines whether to raise or lower the front or rear face chain conveyor, or both of the conveyor relative to the distance between the floor and roof of the mine. The controller then directs the traffic signal boards 88, 90 of the drive controller left and right controllers 82, 86 drive one or both of the tracked nodes 12. The controller 80 also gives the signal for the truck to go up or down if required in connection with the change of the lumen of the roof. USB circuits is p 80 may also show the appropriate measurement data in a user readable format on the display 96. Handmade custom tool 94 control unit is connected to the controller 80 when the necessity of human intervention.
Figure 5 illustrates a block diagram of the described above process I/o data in more detail. All communication ports set to the initial state at stage 100, then set to the initial state sensors distance measurement (laser rangefinders SICK) at the stage 102. Also set in the initial state 104, the sensor angle and height at the stage 104 and the controller card of the drive system is at the stage 106. Stage 100, 102, 104, 106 installation to its original state is performed by the controller 80 in early recovery. Starting work on the extraction, the controller sends a query to retrieve data about the distance from laser scanners and sensors of the angle and height at the stage 108. Laser range scanners and sensors provide the requested information and indications to the controller 80. Raw data from sensors and remember transform on the stage 110 in the appropriate format. Raw distance information in numeric matrix elements 181 convert 2×181-matrix, in which the first and second rows represent the angles and the corresponding measured distances. Readings angular and linear potentiometers is converted into angles (degrees) and length (inches/meters), respectively. The controller generates meaningful line in d is the R distance using the Algorithm of Determining the Line (AOL) at the stage 112. The controller then calculates the current location of the PMT according to the results of the AOL on stage 114 and applies a system of Global Coordinates for AOL results for stage 116. The route for the PMT generates a controller at stage 118, and the velocities of the two crawler nodes is calculated on the basis of the relative error of the position and orientation of the PMT relative to the route on the stage 120. Next is a detailed description of the stages of 110-120, in particular outlines the Algorithm for determining the Line.
When initiating a manual correction 122 program control terminates 124. While the harvester 40 continuous action and each of the PMT contains the alarm mechanism of the safety stopper. The controller queries whether engaged emergency stop on the stage 126, and if it was, then clears the command speed of caterpillars on stage 128. The controller then sends a command about the speed of caterpillars on Board at the stage 130 of the drive controller. The PMT then goes in the correct direction, if not trigger an emergency stop, then this move will be zero. The sequence control then returns to step 108 to circuit 132.
Automation progress PMT with attached downhole chain conveyors must take into account several physical factors. For example, the location of the hinges between the PMT and attached downhole chain convey the AMI determines the geometry of the system of continuous haulage, and in the absence of any other efforts they are required to send all relevant segments of the PMT or attached downhole chain conveyor. If the PMT interact considerable effort, it is necessary corrective control, so that the configuration was sent within tolerances at the highest possible speeds. The influence of gravity and the forces transmitted by the pin, cannot be measured directly, but the performance of the drive system of the PMT depend on them. For automatic control of the PMT also need to know the current speed (measured at the drive wheels) and you want to calculate the desired speed on the basis, in part, current and projected deviations from the planned route. Assuming that the calculated route is performed, but under the new management rule selects the latest data on the configuration of the system near the PMT, and use an internal model predicted slipping, and the desired speed is compensated with this in mind slipping. The previous system configuration data (positions and angles of each link of the system vehicle) significantly affect the desired compensation, as they can give two kinds of information: first, how has changed the conditions of the soil after the last time interval is a; the second sensitivity to the conditions of the soil in connection with the current configuration. For example, if all the angles of the face of the chain conveyor are almost zero, the side spin depends only on gravity, local slope and shear stress surface. But if both angle conveyor will equal 90aboutthen neighboring PMT will create torque and lateral shear load in relation to the PMT, which can easily suppress the effects of tilt. The controller must consider these factors and other factors and to compensate for them.
The progress of the PMT/scrapper chain conveyor
Designing a navigation system for a system of continuous haulage complicated because the system is continuous haulage has many special characteristics. For example, the motion of a system of continuous haulage subject as holonomies and legalnotices limitations. In addition, the number of degrees of freedom of the system varies depending on the system configuration, and the model for tracked vehicles in the system is very complicated. These characteristics make it difficult to navigate, greatly complicating it.
The basic concept navigation system continuous haulage in underground conditions is in the correct positioning of each PMT in the right place always. For each PMT in the system should close the SL is more of a virtual route laid on the floor of the mine. This virtual route forms a route planner based on the data about the surrounding area, as defined, for example, laser rangefinders. Due to the fact that each person can move independently within the sweep truck, after determining the current position of each PMT, the system may control the movement of each of the PMT so that it will closely follow the planned route and, at the same time, will not come from within the truck. Because the PMT can move independently from each other, the more effective is the use of a local controller for each PMT instead of one centralized controller for all of the PMT.
One type of information that is really needed each Autonomous mobile system is the current position and orientation (PIO). Therefore, the system must be able to determine its location at the place of their work. According to this invention, the distance information obtained from the laser scanner provides the ability to calculate the current PIO this PMT. Using the Algorithm for determining the Line (AOL) from the data on the distance take the two long straight lines using a recursive method split the line. AOL works with data about distance, received a lump sum from the laser scanner. According to Fig.7 on with the adiya's 202 AOL receives the data about the distance, collected using LABVIEW in the form of 2×181-matrix, where the first and second rows represent the angles and the measured distances, respectively. Since the angular resolution of the laser scanner mounted on 1°we have 181 distance value from 0 to 180 degrees. After collecting data about the distance algorithm at stage 204 filters out bad or unnecessary distance information by checking the front and rear corners of the downhole chain conveyor with angular potentiometer and trims leading and trailing sections to the distance in accordance with these angles. Due to this excludes the mixture to the distance from the wall of the shaft, and continuous haulage. In this case the algorithm also discards all information about the distance, according to which the measured distance exceeds the limit value, in order to avoid incorrect interpretation of data about the distance. Then at stage 206 distance information is divided into groups by checking the difference values successively measured distances. If the difference between the measured distance exceeds the threshold value, the distance is divided at this point. This will help us to separate the different profiles of the walls of the shaft from each other that they didn't make each other interference. After the separation to the distance into groups for further analysis in baraut the largest group, contains the longest line.
At stage 208, the algorithm then uses a recursive method of dividing lines to divide the selected group to the distance to subgroups. This method is most clearly illustrated in Fig.6. Here is the point group. The method begins with the line marked in figure 6 by the dotted line, connected between the first and last points of this group. Then, it calculates the distance from each point in the group before this line. If the largest distance exceeds the limit value, the algorithm divides the group at the point that corresponds to the greatest distance from this line. The group is now divided into two subgroups, and the same procedure (connection line between the first and last points in each subgroup, the calculation of distances from each point) is then applied to both other groups. The procedure continues until the specified limit will not satisfy all subgroups. As a result, four groups of points figure 6 are indicated by solid lines. After the separation to the distance on the two largest subgroups subgroups, representing two of the longest line in the data about the distance will be selected on the stage 210. In this case, the first and the third group on the left will be selected to match the lines. These two lines represent approximately the entire profilelink mine, covered by the laser scanners at any time, and can be used to determine the current PIO this PMT in any cycle control.
After applying the algorithm of finding the line controller applies an algorithm to determine the location, to calculate and, thus, to determine the PIO for this PMT. The algorithm first sets the global coordinate system, depicted on Fig. The angle between the two previously obtained lines determines the location and orientation of the coordinate system. If the angle exceeds a threshold value, for example 160°then two lines will form a straight line. In this case, the algorithm can create the coordinate system origin in any desired place on one of these two lines, but in the preferred implementation of this invention beginning at a point placed on these two lines as close as possible to the laser scanner for simplicity. The orientation of the coordinate system determined by directing the Y-axis in the same direction, which is the angular bisector. On the other hand, if the angle value is less than the specified threshold value, then the start position is at the point of intersection of these two lines, and the orientation can be defined described above.
Because the distance is measured in the coordinate system of the scanner, so the mu who needs to convert a point from the coordinate system of the scanner in the global coordinate system. With reference to Fig suppose PIO object in the global coordinate system is x, y, θ and that dx, dy, dθ are PIO global coordinate system, derived from the coordinate system of the scanner. Orientation x-axis of the coordinate system dθ defined as dθ=γ-(π/2) radians. Since the installation site laser scanners on the PMT known, so also known geometric center of the PMT for each sensor. The coordinate transformation for the PIO of the given object from the coordinate system of the scanner in the global coordinate system can be performed in accordance with the following equations:
X, Y,- PIO coordinate system of the scanner.
Because the exact location of the laser scanner on the PMT know, PIO center of geometry of the given person in the coordinate system of the scanner is also known. The value of dx, dy, dθ also known from previous calculations. Therefore, the location of the PMT in the global coordinate system can be determined from the equations (1) and (2).
After defining the location for the automatization of the PMT is then necessary to determine its direction of travel. Route planning in mobile robotics is the I one of the most difficult problems. One solution is to solve the problem of route planning based on the concept of space configuration with the maximum clearance between the face of the chain conveyor and the walls of the mine as the optimal criterion. But described in detail below, the solution according to the invention takes into account multiple optimal criteria.
As shown in Fig.9, the usual twists γ mine are 90, 120 and 135 degrees, respectively. Small changes in the values of these angles occur because of errors of the guide system of the harvester 40 continuous action. The average width U of the mine passage is usually equal to 20 feet. Values γ and U it is possible to determine the type of rotation. One of the functions of the strategy planning of the route lies in the fact that for any given size of the system of continuous haulage (SNO) strategy route planning can generate the most reliable route, which should follow each PMT in the SNO - dotted line 300. To do this, the algorithm of route planning. Inputs to this algorithm are the dimensions of the shaft passage γ and U and SNO, both endpoints of the route and the slopes on both endpoints. Based on these input data, the search algorithm generates a series of polynomial curves of the fourth degree, the route for the PMT, satisfying the condition is nm endpoints, and evaluates the value of the function value generated polynomial curve. The cost function J is defined by the following formula:
where w1, w2, w3and w4- weight multipliers,
a - angle between the front of the PMT and downhole chain conveyor
β - the angle between the back of the PMT and downhole chain conveyor
d - minimum clearance between the face of the chain conveyor and walls,
νerr- maximum permissible error in the velocities of caterpillars,
s is the arc length of the route
L - total length of the route.
The goal of search is to find a route that minimizes the cost function. This algorithm uses an optimization method called "method of hook and Givse". He explores the search area, remembers the search direction, which gives a minimum value of the function value at each iteration. The search stops when the difference between the value of the function value at a given iteration and the previous iteration is less than a given number or when the number of iterations exceeds a certain limit value. The block diagram of the method of hook-Divsa presented on figure 10, where x0, x1,..., xnare described below coefficients of the route. The cost function is interpreted in the sense that the angles between each segment SNO need to reduce to minimum the mu that is, the location of navigational AIDS should be direct to the SSS did not work. On the contrary, the lumen of the downhole chain conveyor should be maximum around the turn to avoid collision. This planned route must have a substantial margin of error for each repetition of the PMT, i.e. that the route was allowed to have PMT significant error in the speed control caterpillars in order to complete the rotation. In this context, the word "completion" means that the system makes turns, not facing walls.
When assessing the value of each polynomial curve-candidate pair PMT moves along the generated route is exactly the length of downhole chain conveyor separates them from each other. Full length of the route is divided into small steps. Each stage of advancement of the PMT, the values a, β and d is simply determined by geometric means, but the value of verrcan be obtained for each PMT only with computer modeling. This simulation is done in the main application of the search algorithm. First, calculate the speed of the caterpillars of the PMT for the next control cycle in the current configuration of the PMT. These speeds are called nominal speeds, i.e. speeds that person must follow exactly in order to achieve PMT Ohm trail the overall configuration, located on the route after completion of one cycle management. But for PMT impossible to withstand the rated speed in accordance with the command. There are several factors, such as slipping and error management, which create the error of the nominal speed. This error rate is modeled as a percentage of the nominal speed. To calculate the actual velocity of the PMT during one control cycle using the following equation:
The two initial assumptions are as follows: verrhas the same value for both caterpillars; νr,actualand νl,actualalways constant during one control cycle. Value νerralways has a positive value with no upper limit. The simulation starts is νerrwith zero and calculates the movement of the PMT in one cycle management. Then, the simulation checks whether there is a conflict between the IFP and the walls of the mine. If the collision is not available, the simulation continues to increase the value of νerrand stop this increase, if there is a collision. Value νerrthat leads to a collision, is the maximum allowable error in the speed control in this configuration of the PMT. Summing up all quadrati the data weights as βs and ds and νerralong the route candidate, you can get the cost of each route.
In the case of rotation in 90 degrees the route starts from the middle of one aisle to another. This allows you to connect the route with direct routes on both sides. The coefficients of the equations of this route width 20 and 22 ft are given in the table together with the coefficients of the route to turn the value of 120 and 135 degrees.
Specialist in the art will understand that the above quadratic equation gives the solution for the coefficients of the route. Although this equation is definitely fake is sufficient to ensure the proper route planning, with the introduction of a greater number of odds you can get a more accurate route. It should be noted that increasing the number of coefficients requires more calculation time. Therefore, most preferably using a polynomial equation of fourth order, for example, in the following form:
The entire route of each PMT will consist of alternating turns and straight line segments, depending on the location of the PMT in the mine, but there is an exception for a specific type, the so-called "S"-turn, which is considered the most difficult. The route for the "S"-turn consists of two turns, articulated with each other. Since both ends of the "S"-turn are not located in the middle of the aisle, both ends of the "S"-turn should be connected with straight lines. Therefore, it is impossible to have one "S"-turn directly followed after another "S"-turn. However, this occurs in 90-degree shaft, so as 120 and 135-degree mines do not have sufficient space to "S"-turn started and ended in the middle of the mine passage.
As for determining the optimal route to the search algorithm takes many hours, so you can perform the route planning in non-Autonomous mode is impossible. This problem is solved by carrying out the Autonomous route planning is for the possible types of turns and create a reference table with the coefficients of the route, relevant to each specific rotation (as in the table). After the PMT controller will determine the type of this rotation, the controller can immediately calculate the corresponding coefficients of the route information table by interpolation. Although the route formed by this method is somewhat suboptimal compared with the operational calculations, the results of the test run show minimized deterioration of the system when it passes by the simulated mine.
Up to this point, the IFP knows their current PIO and the route he must follow this person must then determine how to get to the right destination. The detection algorithm calculates the route both the speed of the tracked node for BMI, and BMI can accurately follow the route. Although there is a large literature on the management of route two-wheeled robots, which are kinematically identical tracked vehicle, the invention implements an algorithm following the route proposed by Aguilar et al. ("Robust Path-Following Control with Exponential Stability for Mobile Robots", Proc. of the 1998 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Leuven, Belgium, May 1998).
There are two options ineand θethat at any given moment required as input for the controller of the PMT for when adowanie route. thee- the shortest distance from the center of the PMT to route and θeerror orientation, measured from a line tangent with respect to the route. Knowing the speed of forward or backward, ν, the angular velocity of the PMT, can be calculated by the following equation:
where α1that α2- constant gain controller, which must be configured for receiving the desired response of the PMT in respect of following.
Speed ν directly interconnected with the allowable transverse distances on the truck PMT and directly behind the truck PMT in the direction of motion. Compare both transverse distance truck and chose the lesser. This distance can be defined as "the passage".
The speed of movement forward or back can be calculated as follows:
where ν - has a positive/negative values when moving forward/backward, respectively,
T - period cycle management, sec,
truck - truck speed according to the data obtained from the linear potentiometer.
You can then determine the speed of the right and left tracks:
where is the distance between the tracks.
The algorithm follow the March of the rie, including scheduling algorithm route, preferably implemented in a conventional computer language such as C. it is Also preferable to combine both algorithms in one program, because they are both largely shared information.
Height downhole chain conveyor
In accordance with this invention the height of the front or rear conveyor extension is controlled by continuous processing of measurements of the distance performed by the sensor height by calculating the difference on this set point, and by applying the ratio of this difference to adjust the opening of the hydraulic control valve 24 (Fig 1). Processing is that comparing the distance measurement with a number of previous measurements, calculate a moving average over many cycles, discarding extraneous data points, and calculate the average value to a smaller number of cycles. The result is a reliable measurement of the lumen in a potentially difficult conditions of data collection, while minimizing the delay resulting from the use of conventional low pass filter. Specialist in the art will understand that the described preferred embodiment can be used many methods of analog and digital filtering.
The set point(s) for reg is by lifting preferably determines the operator of the mine, and it is used by the processor dimension as the input data. In the case of measurements of the same distance, for example, only the distance from the floor, this set point specifies the value to the desired distance below which the elevation is defined as increasing, and below which the elevation is defined as falling. In the case of measuring distances such as the distance from the roof and from the floor, these set points define deadband "inaction" to regulate the rise, and also the target distance value, below which the elevation is defined as increasing, and below which the elevation is defined as falling. It is also advisable to use a double measure for redundancy by switching in measuring processor to determine which of the signals of the measurement is valid, or are both valid signal. Specialist in the art it will be clear that the proportion of the measured distance from the set point must be set so to get almost critically weakened response. In the prior art well-known methods such as proportional-integral-differential control.
Specialists in the art it will be obvious that in addition to the described embodiments in the method is in accordance with this invention may implement other modifications and changes within the volume, concept and disclosure of this invention. Therefore, the authors imply that the description of the present invention should be construed as illustrative, and the invention is limited only by the attached claims and its equivalents.
1. The method of controlling an automated dvukhchastotnym or wheeled vehicle on the route, the vehicle includes a controller caterpillars with the period of the control cycle, the front portion pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the front design through the first truck, and the rear part pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the rear design, which is connected with the second carriage, each carriage provides at any given time minimum available stroke distance between the vehicle and a corresponding construction, and the route is defined by walls, open at the intersections, each of which has an angle essentially equal to a known value, in degrees, at which:
receive the first set of data on the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft, measured by a sensor located on the left side of the vehicle;
receive the second set of data about the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft, the measuring range is nom sensor, located on the right side of the vehicle;
determine for each set of data about the distance the largest group, as determined consistent distances, with the difference less than the specified value;
share for each set of data about the distance of the large group into subgroups using recursive methods split the line, with each subgroup defines the line;
choose for each set of data about the distance of two subgroups that define the two longest lines representing the two largest distances from the vehicle to the wall of the shaft, and the distance from the vehicle to the wall of the shaft on each side of the vehicle as provided by selected subgroups;
define the coordinate system based on the two longest lines;
determine the width of the route between the walls of the mine near the vehicle;
choose from a table based on values of the width of the mine passage and rotation angles of the shaft, a polynomial curve that minimizes the cost function, resulting in a selected polynomial curve represents the route that provides the greatest likelihood that the vehicle and the front or rear is instrukcii will not collide with the walls of the mine;
determine the point on the polynomial route having the shortest distance to the centre of the vehicle;
determine the angle between the longitudinal axis of the vehicle measured from a line tangent to the nearest point;
determine the shortest distance of the two distances stroke;
determine the speed required for the vehicle to go the shortest distance course during period cycle management;
determine, based on the speed, the angular speed of the vehicle to the nearest point;
determine the speed of the left and right wheels or caterpillars on the basis of the speed and angular velocity;
accelerate the vehicle controller in accordance with left and right speeds, causing the vehicle is sent to the nearest point on the polynomial route.
2. A system for managing automated dvukhchastotnym or wheeled vehicle on the route, the vehicle has a front portion pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the front design through the first truck, and the rear part pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the rear design, which is connected with the second carriage, each carriage provides any data the first time the minimum available stroke distance between the vehicle and a corresponding construction, moreover, the route defined by walls, open at the intersections, each of which has an angle essentially equal to a known value in degrees, and this system contains a controller tracks or wheels, with the period of the control cycle, the first sensor located on the left side of the vehicle, for receiving the first data set to the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall, a second sensor located on the right side of the vehicle, for receiving the second set of data about the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall, when the first and second sensors detect the width between the walls of the mine near the vehicle, means to determine for each set of data about the distance of the largest groups defined by the consecutive distances, with the difference less than the threshold value, the means for dividing for each set of data about the distance of the large group into subgroups using a recursive method, split the line, with each subgroup contains a line for each set of data about the distance tool to select a subgroup, which determines the longest line and the wall on each side of the vehicle presents the corresponding selected the subgroup, means for selecting from a table, based on values of the width of the mine passage and angles of rotation shafts, a polynomial curve that minimizes the cost function, resulting in a selected polynomial curve represents the route that provides the greatest likelihood that the vehicle and the front or rear of the structure will not collide with the walls of the mine, the means for determining the point on the polynomial route having the shortest distance to the center of the vehicle, means for determining the angle between the longitudinal axis of the vehicle measured from a line tangent to the nearest point of the tool to determine the shortest distance of the two distances progress means for determining the speed required for the vehicle to go the shortest distance course during the period of the control cycle, means for determining the angular speed of the vehicle to the nearest point on the basis of speed, means for determining the speeds of the left and right wheels or caterpillars on the basis of the speed and angular velocity, and means to accelerate the vehicle controller in accordance with left and right speeds, causing the vehicle is able to go to the nearest point on many who membered route.
3. The control system according to claim 2, characterized in that the vehicle is a mobile bridge conveyor having a left track and a right track, the front part having performed with the possibility of sliding movement of the first trolley, which is pivotally connected with the first design, which is the first bridge conveyor and the rear design, which is the second overhead conveyor, connected to other mobile bridge conveyor having a second cart, and there are two controller cards proportional-integral-adjustment of the servo-mechanism associated with the left and right tracks, the first and second sensors, which are laser scanners, infrared, means for filtering data on the distance, representing the neighboring bridge conveyor defined by the first and second sensors at the same time the bridge conveyor is not considered as part of the wall route, and the filter tool contains angular potentiometer connected between the mobile bridge conveyor and adjacent an overhead conveyor, and means for determining the shortest of the two distances progress includes the first linear potentiometer connected between the first trolley and mobile bridge conveyor and the second linear potentiometer connected between ass is her design and the second trolley.
4. The method of determining the position and orientation of the automated vehicle relative to the wall near the vehicle, in which
receive distance information from the sensor on the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft, measured by a sensor located on the vehicle,
determine the largest group, as determined consistent distances, with the difference less than the specified threshold value,
divide the large group into subgroups using a recursive method, split the line, with each subgroup represents a line
choose a subgroup, which determines the longest line that represents the great circle distance from the vehicle to the wall of the shaft, resulting in a distance from the vehicle to the wall of the shaft presents the selected entry.
5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that to determine the largest of the group carry out filtering of potentially erroneous data.
6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the vehicle is pivotally connected to the adjacent structure, and filtering of potentially erroneous data includes positioning adjacent structures and drop data, which correspond to the area on which h is located adjacent construction.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the position of the other vehicle is determined by the corner of the nearby structures relative to the vehicle.
8. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that before the separation of the biggest of the group carry out filtering of potentially erroneous data, which provides a drop data with the measured distance is greater than the defined limit value.
9. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that when receiving data on the distance measured by the sensor located on the vehicle, measure the distance between a point on the vehicle to any object near the vehicle essentially in the horizontal plane, while in the measurement measure a set of distances within the arc passing from this point essentially in the horizontal plane and the distance information consists of a set of values consistently measured distances between this point on the vehicle and any object located essentially in the horizontal plane.
10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that when determining the largest group determine the difference between measured distances between adjacent measurements, determine the fact of the possibility of exceeding this difference is a predetermined threshold value and share data about the distance between adjacent measurements, if the difference between adjacent measurements exceeds the threshold value.
11. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that selecting subgroups choose two subgroups, which define the two longest lines representing the two largest distances from the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft or of any obstacle, resulting in these two lines represent the profile of the wall of the shaft.
12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that after selecting subgroups provide the definition of the coordinate system on the basis of two very long lines.
13. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that an automated vehicle is mining mining vehicle in a mine, and the method determines the position and orientation mining automated vehicle relative to the wall on both sides of the vehicle, and according to the way:
receive the first set of data on the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft, measured by a sensor located on the first side of the vehicle;
receive the second set of data about the distance from the vehicle to the adjacent wall of the shaft, measured by a sensor located on the second side of the vehicle;
determine for each set of data about the distance the largest group, as determined consistent distances, with the difference less than a predetermined threshold value;
share for each set of data about the distance of the large group into subgroups using recursive methods split the line, with each subgroup defines the line;
choose for each set of data about the distance of a subgroup that determines the longest line and the external conditions of the mine presents the selected subset of the first and second data length.
14. Method of route planning for automated vehicle through the maze, the vehicle has a front portion pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the front structure and a rear part pivotally connected to the elongated adjacent the rear design, the labyrinth is defined by walls, open at the intersections, each of which has an angle essentially equal to a known value in degrees, and knows the position and orientation of the vehicle relative to the maze on the route, according to the method
determine the width of the maze between the walls near the vehicle;
choose from a table compiled on the basis of the years of widths of the mine passage and rotation angles in degrees, polynomial curve that minimizes the cost function, resulting in a selected polynomial curve represents the route that provides the greatest likelihood that the vehicle and the front or rear of the structure will not collide with the walls of the maze.
15. The method according to 14, characterized in that the table form offline and in addition:
form a polynomial curve for the maze with the first width of the mine passage and the first rotation angle on the basis of parameters representing a valid position and orientation of the vehicle and the back and front designs, and based on the totality of arbitrary coefficients route;
repeat the specified formation several times, each time with a different set of random coefficients;
determine the coefficients of the route polynomial curve with minimum cost function;
remember coefficients of the curve representing the minimized function value and the corresponding first width of the mine passage and rotation angle,
repeat the above step for the other values of the width of the mine passage and rotation, resulting form the table with the coefficients of the mine passage, representing the minimized function value on the I data widths of the mine passage and rotation.
16. The method according to 14, characterized also by the fact that in addition:
appreciate minimized the cost function, if the angles between the vehicle and the neighboring structures is minimized;
appreciate minimized the cost function, if the gaps between the structures and the maze during rotation maximized;
appreciate minimized the cost function, if the error tolerances for the vehicle when traveling on a curve maximized.
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for mechanization of operations in underground mines, in particular for cleaning ore fines and backfill material out of inter-rail space and side zones of railways, and also for other cleaning operations at haulage ways.
SUBSTANCE: self-propelled loading machine for mining operations contains bearing frame with rail type propulsion devices, and following devices, held on the frame: operator booth, transporter with loader, equipped with toothed bucket, interacting with rods of hydro-cylinders of its engine. Transporter in loading zone is positioned asymmetrically relatively to longitudinal axis of the machine, while operator booth is displaced in opposite direction relatively to transporter. Bearing frame is provided with bent frame capable of rotation in horizontal plane, fastened to which are bodies of hydro-cylinders of loader bucket, and bucket is provided with beams, one support of which is connected to body of corresponding hydro-cylinder, and another support - to its rod. Bucket is additionally equipped with traction bars, which are jointly connected to bucket by one end, and by other end are connected to rotary bent frame, while bottom of bucket is made with side shelves of angled shape, while unloading zone of bucket is provided with lengthening piece, and transporter is equipped with collapsible inclined drops, projecting beyond its dimensions in horizontal plane. Operation booth is located in zone of connection with inclined collapsible drops.
EFFECT: increased compactness, maneuverability and universality of machine, improved quality of cleaning of inter-rail and rail-adjacent space.
3 cl, 6 dwg
Known conveyor-loader TCC-30 of the pick-up TLC-30 designed for these purposes, containing the receiving and shipping conveyors mounted on a frame with swivel wheels 
The disadvantage of this device is the complexity of the design and inconvenience in operation due to pick-up that should be put in place of the receiving conveyor at an unloading products
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to trucks with semitrailers. Proposed trailer-train coupling gear contains pivot of semitrailer with splines in its upper part, toothed hub fitted on splines of upper part of pivot and fixed by nut with cotter pin, control piston, housing with internal toothed rim, mounting tenon made integral with pivot which is fitted between grips of tractor coupler, cover with union, and pack of friction and steel disks. Friction disks are in meshing with toothed rim of housing, and steel disks, with toothed hub. Device contains also relief valve and pair air pipelines. Brake system is connected with air pipeline with relief valve and with control piston through union for compressing said pack of friction and steel disk. Device is furnished additionally with system to regulated air pressure consisting of steering wheel turning angle sensor, electronic control unit and discharge electromagnetic valve communicating with atmosphere, and through union, with overpiston space of control cylinder.
EFFECT: improved maneuverability and decreased switch of semitrailer at cornering of trailer-train and braking, prevention of sidewise slipping of semitrailer wheels.