Method of control of power supply systems of orbital spacecraft cluster equipped with electric jet engines
FIELD: power supply systems for high-orbit and geostationary orbit communication satellites whose orbits are corrected by means of electric jet engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in determination of power requirements for each items of onboard using equipment for all spacecraft of cluster, electric jet engines inclusive. In case some items of onboard using equipment are not provided with electric energy at interval of dynamic mode with the aid of electric jet engines, this mode is changed-over for another permissible interval. In case of absence of permissible intervals, duplicate spacecraft of equivalent payload are selected. Items of equivalent using equipment of main spacecraft which are not provided with electric power are changed-over to duplicate spacecraft which are provided with required electric power. Spacecraft equipment items are changed-over till restoration of power supply on board main spacecraft (upon completion of dynamic modes of these spacecraft). Then control of power supply is performed for spacecraft of orbital cluster of later performance of dynamic modes. Main spacecraft are used as duplicate spacecraft.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements of cluster spacecraft; possibility of supplying power for additional items of using equipment.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
The present invention relates to the management of spacecraft (SC)included in the target orbital space groups.
There is a method of control of a power orbital constellation SPACECRAFT, see , including the determination of the power consumption on-Board consumers and defining intervals for dynamic modes.
This addresses the governance of communication and broadcast satellites in elliptical orbits, which emulates the characteristics of a system of satellites in geostationary orbit.
As the target (utility) load on Board satellites posted by space station, representing a repeater (transceiver) equipment with antennas for transmission and reception of radio signals.
Typically, the number (I) on-Board relays installed on the satellites, known in advance, even before the launch of the satellites, where i=1, 2, 3, ..., I - the total number of repeaters (consumers payload) in the orbital grouping, with power consumption of each (Ni), see . There are also data on the j-th number of satellites in the orbital grouping, where j=1, 2, 3, ....
For the case considered in , the orbital group contains, in particular, 4 satellite, which emulates two stationary positions shifted by 180° longitude. In the example, when asked to use are considered known satellite systems "Zip", "Sirius", "Odyssey" and others.
Periodically, to keep the set of orbital parameters is their correction. For this purpose chemical liquid rocket engines (LRE).
Managing power consumption of each SPACECRAFT in the orbital grouping is done as given and excluding working LRE. In this case, because the electricity produced on Board each of these SPACECRAFT are covered by any peak current loads.
The power consumption of the electric power working LRE is in the General list of consumers low energy (tens of watts) and costs mainly go to work systems preparation and supply of rocket fuel in the chamber rocket engine (on the operation of the solenoid valves, heat exchangers-gasifiers for rocket fuel etc). The kinetic energy of the jet emanating from the engine and generates reactive cravings, get through conversion of chemical energy inside the combustion chamber of the engine. Therefore, the direct cost of electricity to create thrust in a rocket engine is not performed.
Among LRE maximum speed of expiration ˜ 4.5 km/s provide oxygen-hydrogen engines. But it is, however, small for long flights KA, requiring large values of the characteristic speeds of the expedition..."for the achievement of which requires a large C the waste mass of rocket fuel. This is the main drawback in the use of rocket engines on the AC components of the orbital space group purpose, since the duration to perform their mission program depends on on-Board stocks of rocket fuel.
So recently increasingly used on the SPACECRAFT are the engines of high velocity, expiration jets, require external energy sources.
Energy in space (solar, nuclear) cheaper than the mass, so this transition is in most cases justified.
As such engines electrical propulsion (ERD). In these engines supplied to them electrical energy is converted into kinetic energy of the jet flowing from the engine and creating a jet thrust.
Among ERD found the greatest application of stationary plasma thrusters (SPT) (see ), in which the flow rate of the working substance is ˜ 15...30 km/sec. the cost of mass of the working fluid on the performance of a program flight may be ten times less than when using the LRE. These engines have low thrust from 25 to 330 mn, see .
Therefore, the dynamic modes, held on the SPACECRAFT using as the Executive bodies of the ERD, as a rule, long time.
Known way to control the Oia power consumption of the orbital group of satellites with electric propulsion, for example, geostationary communication satellites (GSS), when conducting multi-turn maneuvers in the vicinity of the geostationary orbit, taken by the authors for the prototype, see . The method includes determining the energy consumption of each of the i-x on-Board repeaters installed on j-x GSS included in orbital space group determination of kj-x intervals when carrying out the manoeuvre using propulsion. As a result, the power consumption of each SCAC taking into account the power consumption dimi ERD, mounted on Board, where di=(1, 2, 3,..., D)jthe number of these engines.
Thus, the power consumption of the considered orbital constellation consists of consumption of individual SPACECRAFT, Autonomous yourself providing electricity.
The disadvantage of this method of management is the under utilization of the energy capabilities of the entire orbital constellation of SPACECRAFT in General.
So, up to 50% of on-Board energy consumption at peak falls on the ERD. On the other hand, dynamic modes using ERD is not more than 15% of the flight time of each CA that is included in a constellation. This assessment is given for the GSS series "Yamal". Therefore, ˜85% of flight time energy opportunities KA are used only napoloen is. A similar pattern of energy consumption for satellites "Express", "GALS", " SESAT" and others.
Ultimately, this leads to unjustified reduction in the number of on-Board consumers payload, which impairs economic performance space systems in General.
The objective of this technical solution is the management of power consumption of each SPACECRAFT separately, and orbital constellation as a whole. Thereby provides electricity to work a few extra on-Board consumers payload and increases the efficiency of the execution space of the program executed orbital SPACECRAFT constellation as a whole.
To achieve a technical result, in the control method of a power orbital constellation of spacecraft with electric propulsion, including the determination of the power consumption of each of the i-x onboard consumers payload (Ni), where i=1, 2, 3, ..., I - the total number of consumers that are installed on j-x KA, where j=1, 2, 3, ..., - the total number of CA included in orbital space group determination of kj-x intervals for dynamic modes using ERD for each j-th KA, where kj=(1, 2, 3, ...K)jthe determination of the power consumption of Ndjeach of the djx-ERD, where dj=(1, 2, 3, ..., D)j- the number of these engines, installed on each j-th SPACECRAFT, prior to the simultaneous holding of theKAdynamic modes belonging to Kjdetermine the power consumption of electric propulsion thrusters on eachKA
where- the number of families belonging to the Djinvolved in conductingdynamic mode on eachKA,
determine the power consumption payload on each of theKA when conducting dynamic regimes onintervals
where- the number of units of the payload belonging to the I-m onboard consumers payload included on Board eachKA when conductingdynamic modes,
check the execution conditions
where- power of electricity produced on Board eachKA when conducting dynamic regimes onintervals;
- ewnost electricity, consumption utility systems eachKA when conducting dynamic regimes onintervals, and, if conditions (1) are executed, performdynamic modes, and if anyspacecraft condition (1) is not satisfied, determine for himthe interval belonging tothe time intervals for which the condition (1) is performed, and implementing the dynamic mode on the specified interval, and if the condition (1) is not satisfied for all time intervalsproduce inbound in the orbital groupingspacecraft-doubles, equivalent functionality can be installed payload check for eachspacecraft-doubles the running conditions of the provision of power consumption when switching them on-Board consumers payloadspacecraft
where- power of electricity produced on Board each the interval for the dynamic mode;
- capacity power consumption of the switched part of consumers payloadspacecraftspacecraft alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- capacity power consumption of the payloadspacecraft alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- power consumption of the auxiliary systems of eachspacecraft-doubler when conducting dynamic regimes onthe interval for the dynamic mode,
and to thosethe spacecraft-doubles, for which the conditions (2) are fulfilled, make a serial connection of those consumers payloadspacecraft, which provided the necessary energy reservesspacecraft-doubles, until the conditions of (1) onspace is their vehicles and shall conduct dynamic modes spacecraftintervals, and at extreme conditions (2) and simultaneous failure to meet conditions (1) make consecutive off unsecured electricityspacecraft-doubles i-x onboard consumers payload installed onspace vehicles, to perform the conditions (1) and shall conduct dynamic regimes at specified time intervals tospacecraft next subsequent control of a power orbital grouping consistently produce the above image for a spacecraft with a later start time of the dynamic modes, usingspacecraft as doubles in the subsequent series of dynamic modes other spacecraft.
The technical result in the newly developed method of controlling the power consumption of the orbital group of satellites with electric propulsion concluded in increasing the total number of working onboard consumers payload (e.g., repeaters GSS) orbital space groups with the same energy opportunities that applies to the Deposit method.
To explain the essence of the proposed technical solutions provided drawing and table.
The drawing shows graphs of the variation of the load current (IHand current SB (ISAT) prior to the maneuver, during and after the maneuver GSS "Yamal".
The table shows the data developed ballistic flight plan orbital constellation SPACECRAFT when conducting multi-turn maneuvers using ERD, see [4, 5].
In the table the above symbols: vertical coils (day) flight; required quantity maneuvers on the specified 10-day interval for each KA (1, 2, 3) space group; the distribution of maneuvers on transversal and lateral; the forbidden intervals for conducting maneuvers; the directions of the arrows shown different time (for GSS Yamal from shifting in the day ˜ 12 hours) the aiming point (mid-defined intervals) for holding maneuvers.
Each of the planned maneuvers characterized by: date, start and end time, with an average duration of 3.5 hours, the value of the characteristic velocity (dV, m/s); type (transversal or lateral).
In addition to the maneuvers, the ERD can be used for unloading of power gyroscopes from accumulated momentum in those cases when such a task cannot be solved in the mA process is evrov. In the above example, the modes of discharge are not planned.
Specified in the table of information is necessary and sufficient from the point of view of the ballistic software to develop a strategy for control of a power orbital constellation SPACECRAFT.
As an example, let us consider the GSS series "Yamal" with a known number of installed onboard i-x repeaters of some power of Nisee .
The orbital group consists of j satellites, three of which operate in orbit (two Yamal-200" and one "Yamal-100"). And in the coming years it is expected numerical replenishment groups of up to 15 satellites.
The main dynamic operation on the specified KA conducted using ERD, are multi-turn maneuvers for installing the AC operating point and further maintaining their "standing" in the indicated points. For it is the determination of kj-x intervals. It is known among the SPD installed on each KA dj=(1, 2, 3, ..., D)j(no 8 pieces each), and power (Ndj). SPD-70 specified capacity is 660 W, see .
As can be seen from the graphs, shown in the drawing, to enable ERS (SPD-70) ˜ 03.17.00 (29.08.05) the average load current was approximately 72 a, And when working alternately include engines specified current was ˜ 94...96 A. this picwarehouse was ˜ 107 A. If you take the power SPD-70 660 W, see , at a nominal voltage of power supply ˜ 28 In the increment of the load current from the ERD is ˜ 24 A. the last Mentioned figure is comparable with the current load from ˜ 6 working onboard relays. Shown in the drawing existing reserves current", (ΔI=ISAT-IH)>0, are associated with nepodkljuchenija to the onboard power part of the payload (i-x repeaters).
The main on-Board source of electricity are solar batteries (SB). The power produced by SA power (NSAT) exceeds the capacity of all on-Board electricity consumers, including peak intervals of the load when working families.
To implement the method proposed below.
Dealt with in accordance with ballistic plan (see table)intervals for dynamic modes which overlap. On the first turn in the subgroupKA can be attributed KA1 and CA. The intervals for conducting maneuvers k1and k2intersect.
Before performing these dynamic regimes defined the power consumption of electric propulsion thrusters on eachKA.
the de - the number of families belonging to the Djinvolved in conductingdynamic mode.
On KA Yamal d=1, 2, 3, ..., 8, at the same time, can include one or two ERD different numbers.
Considering the fact that all the families on these SPACECRAFT are SPD-70, the power consumed by each of them Ndjcan approximately be considered equal (660 watts).
Promising KA this series provides the ability to install SPD-100, capacity is 1350 W, see .
Many Dj-x ERD installed on the SPACECRAFT, only select those that are used for dynamic regimes (d'j∈Dj).
Determined electric power consumed payload on each of theKA when conducting dynamic regimes onintervals
where- the number of units of the payload included on Board eachKA when conductingdynamic modesIn the course of the flight program happen periodic connection-disconnection of the payload on Board each SPACECRAFT. Therefore, it is necessary to make a continuous assessment of patrilineality on Board, especially for the parts of the program execution of the flight with the included powerful consumers of electricity, including for the case in question, holding maneuvers using ERD.
Next, check on the balance of power in the Board of eachKA when performing maneuvers.
The most appropriate specified test to produce, taking into account the changes in the power consumption, not the load current, as in this case considered valid and possible amendments (the"drawdown") voltage on-Board tire power supply systems.
Check the condition for eachKA
where- power of electricity produced on Board eachKA when conducting dynamic regimes onintervals;
- power consumption of the auxiliary systems of eachspacecraft when conducting dynamic regimes onthe intervals.
is determined, for example, the capacity of the power generated through SAT.
Capacity ELEH the electricity consumption determined by composition of service systems and consist of the sum of the capacities enabled devices, components and assemblies of the systems included inthe intervals.
This check is performed by the peak current loads (for example, drawing on a load current 107 (A) for intervals of dynamic modes.
Condition (1) for eachsatellite means that the total power consumption of its onboard systems, propulsion, and payload is less than the energy produced. This ensures that the two dynamic regimes. Therefore, carry out the simultaneous holdingdynamic regimes onCA.
If any CA condition (1) is not satisfied, it is advisable to transfer the dynamic mode on the specified device to another interval. This allows you to switch the onboard consumers payload associated with terrestrial systems. And thus, there is no need to produce a certain reconfiguration of the space complex whole.
Under ballistic plan (see table) we regard this possibility, noting that both the consumption and the advent of electricity are subject to change. However, not all dynamic modes in such cases is each have the right to transfer.
For example, there are tighter restrictions on the conduct of the transversal maneuvers geostationary satellites and to a lesser extent lateral maneuvers.
So for the 1st KA planned transversal maneuver on the 1st turn cannot move due to possible subsequent "ballistic losses". At the same time for the 3rd KA scheduled intervals for conducting lateral maneuvers 2 times more necessary to set the desired value of the characteristic speed at 10-day (short) interval of the flight. Therefore, in case of failure to fulfill the conditions (1) for 3rd AC side can maneuver to move, for example, on the next day, for which k'3=2, 3, ... etc
When this optimization problem on the transfer maneuver, you can decide, based on both the current day and 10-day interval for program execution of the flight.
Thus, check for KAZ additionally possible intervals 2, 3, 4 and 6-th day of the flight to conduct maneuver. And, if the condition (1) for any of the daily intervals is, hold on to this interval dynamic mode.
If the condition is not satised for all k'3-x the specified ranges, it is obvious that maneuver on CA should be on the 1st turn. In this case, it is necessary to reduce it onboard consumption. For a fixed number of the prisoners of service systems and selected for manoeuvre ERD specified reduction can be performed by turning off part of the on-Board consumers payload.
Disable part of the specified load without switching to other SC means to limit the working space of the complex as a whole. To avoid this, make searchKA-doubles in the subgroupwhich of their energy potential could take part on-Board current load on the same interval for the dynamic mode, whichCA.
On the 1st turn, for example, so the AC can be KA1, with thisThen it must satisfy the condition
where- power of electricity produced on Board eachKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- power of electricity consumed ERD eachKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- power of electricity consumed ERD eachKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- capacity of e is truenergy, consumption utility systems eachKA-doubler when conducting dynamic regimes onthe interval for the dynamic mode.
Condition (1)' characterizes the energy consumption because the energy reserves in the process of conducting maneuver 1-m SPACECRAFT enough to do your own flight program and to connect optionally, at least one i-th consumer power of NiKA (for example, CA on SA1). This functionality can be useful load KA1 and KA equal.
Next, the method of successive iterations check condition (1) when switching from CA on KA1 one unit of payload and fulfilling the conditions (1)', the other units, etc. to fulfill the conditions (1) or condition (1)'.
If conditions (1) and (1)' during the specified test simultaneously for a fixed number of switched i-x units consumers payload produce a serial connection of these consumers withKA 3 KA in the above example) onKA (1 KA in the above example).
Thus provide the desired power consumption in the subgroup KA in conducting maneuvers onoverlapping intervals.
And ifKA after the switching condition (1) fails, determine the number of i-x consumers, remaining on Board after switching on the part of consumers payloadKA until a condition is met (1)'.
We for them the definition ofKA-doubles included in a constellationequivalent functionality can be installed payload, for whichthe intervals of the dynamic modes are not conducted.
In this example,include CA for which the first stage determined the forbidden interval for carrying out maneuvers.
CombineandKA into a single subgroup KA-doublesNext, check for each of theKA-doubles the running conditions of the provision of power consumption when switching them on-Board consumers payloadCA.
where- power is ity of electricity, produced on Board eachKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- capacity power consumption of the switched part of consumers payloadKAKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- power of electricity consumed by consumers payloadKA-alternatethe interval for the dynamic mode;
- power consumption of the auxiliary systems of eachKA-doubler, including ERD, when conducting dynamic regimes oninterval.
Next, theKA-doubles, for which the conditions (2) are produced by a serial connection of those i-x the remaining consumers payloadKA, which provided the necessary energy reservesKA-doubles.
These switch prior to performing conditions (1) to CA.
As can be seen, for example, from the graphs in the drawing,KA-doubles, with off SPD, have reserves of energy that can provide additional power consumption of a significant part of repeaters (up to 6 units). After switching on-Board loadKAKA-doubles under the conditions (1) we conduct dynamic regimes onCA.
If you select all the features of the orbital grouping KA consumption of the onboard consumersThe AC off until a condition is met (1) and carried out by conducting dynamic regimes onKA. At the last stage of determining KA-doubles forKA may be saturation of consumptionKA while simultaneously limiting implementation for each of the conditions (2) and that failure to comply with conditions (1) toCA.
Only in these cases, having exhausted all possibilities of providing electricity grouping KA generally considered in other variants produced these off part of the on-Board consumers payload.
Subsequent upravleniekrovlia orbital constellation SPACECRAFT produced in the way described above for the AC with the later time of dynamic modes.
For example, at the second stage (see table) scheduled for lateral maneuvers for KA1, CA and KA. When this simultaneous conduction is possible for KA1 and CA, and the point of aiming for lateral maneuver KA shifted in time ˜ 12 hours.
After checking conditions (1) on each of the SPACECRAFT can be used "ballistic reserve on subsequent turns of the flight program, i.e. intervals arewhereK1=3, 4, 6, 7, 8;To2=3, 4, 6-10, for dynamic modes.
KA1 and CA can be compared to each other doubles, that is, they constitute the subgroupKA, equivalent functionality can be installed payload.
CA compared to SA1 and CA is a backup that can be attributed to the subgroupCA.
Then, following the above method, the produced power management orbital constellation of satellites with electric propulsion until the completion of the flight program.
In case there are other dynamical regimes (for example, unloading the SG from the stored kinetic moment) they are similarly considered in the ballistic plan and then managing power consumption of a group of SPACECRAFT.<> The most widespread use SPD as a variant of the ERD found on geostationary communications satellites (see ), where the payload used space repeaters. Therefore, the application used the specified typical case of the i-th payload. However, on the SPACECRAFT with electric propulsion thrusters can be installed and other types of payload, such as various equipment for study of the Earth's natural resources, navigation equipment, etc. At the same time set the payload on the steps of the method has no effect.
The economic effect of the application of the proposed method is to supply the additional number of operating equipment payload comprising a fixed orbital constellation SPACECRAFT.
If you take to calculate the electric power consumed one side repeater satellite communication ˜ 110 watts, due to the use of electricity intended for SPD-70, you can provide additional work ˜ 6 airborne repeaters.
Such calculations allow for the design of communication satellites to install on their Board a much larger number of transmitters (satellites Yamal about 1.6 times).
When this calculation is performed taking into account "the lack of inclusion of electric propulsion on Board" and use all the energy is such that each satellite for payload and service systems.
Further, during the flight the SPACECRAFT due to the energy of the orbital grouping plays for terrestrial consumers continuity of satellite communications with the mutual switching part repeaters on maneuvers separate satellites.
However, the more satellites in the group, the greater part of continuity in the work of the repeaters you can play. This is due to the fact that ˜ 85% of flight time on each satellite with a current load of the power supply system up to 50% integrates into untapped energy reserves orbital constellation. In turn, this helps in solving the optimization problem (combinatorial type of building mission program to consider more options to find the target extremum - maximum duration of continuous operation the total number of I-x consumers orbital constellation SPACECRAFT.
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3. SURDS Kozubski, V.M. Murashko and other LDS work in space. Plasma physics, 2003, vol 23, No. 3, s-292.
4. A.V. Sokolov, P. Ulybyshev. Multiturn maneuvers with low thrust in the vicinity of the geo-stationary is th orbit. WPI. Academy of Sciences. Theory and control systems, 1999, No. 2, p.95-100.
5. Ballistic navigation software flight management KA "Yamal-200". Instructions for preparing input data for control in flight. RSC "Energia" - Gascom, 2003.
The method of control of a power orbital constellation of spacecraft with electric rocket engines (ERE), including the determination of the power consumption of each of the i-x onboard consumers payload (Ni), where i=1, 2, 3,..., I - the total number of consumers that are installed on j-x spacecraft, where j=1, 2, 3,..., - the total number of spacecraft that are included in orbital space group determination of kj-x intervals for dynamic modes using ERD for each j-th spacecraft, where kj=(1, 2, 3,...K)jthe determination of the power consumption of Ndjeach of the djx-ERD, where dj=(1, 2, 3,..., D)jthe number of these engines are installed on each j-th spacecraft, characterized in that before the start of the simultaneous holdingmi spacecraft, where-x dynamic modes belonging to Kjdefine electric is ewnost, consumption of electric propulsion thrusters on each-m spacecraft
where- the number of families belonging to the Djinvolved in conductingth dynamic mode on each j-th spacecraft, determine the power consumption payload on each of the-x spacecraft when conducting dynamic regimes on-s intervals
where- the number of units of the payload belonging to the I-m onboard consumers payload included on Board eachth spacecraft when conducting-x dynamic modes, check the execution conditions
where- power of electricity produced on Board eachth spacecraft when conducting dynamic regimes on-x intervals;-power consumption of the auxiliary systems of eachthe space is on the device when performing dynamic regimes on -x intervals, and, if conditions (1) are met, shall conduct-x dynamic modes, and if anyth spacecraft condition (1) is not satisfied, determine for him-th interval belonging to-m intervals of time for which the condition (1) is performed, and implementing the dynamic mode on the specified interval, and if the condition (1) is not satisfied for all time intervalsthen make the definition included in the orbital grouping-x spacecraft-doubles, equivalent to-m the spacecraft functionality can be installed on them payload check for each-x spacecraft-doubles the running conditions of the provision of power consumption when connected to them on-Board consumers payload equivalent to consumers-x spacecraft
where- power of electricity produced on Board eachth spacecraft-oak the EPA on -m interval for dynamic mode;-capacity power consumption of the switched part of consumers payloadth KA-m spacecraft alternate-m interval for dynamic mode;-capacity power consumption of the payloadth spacecraft alternate-m interval for dynamic mode;-power consumption of the auxiliary systems of eachth spacecraft backup when performing dynamic regimes on-m interval for dynamic mode, and the-m space vehicles-doubles, for which the conditions (2) are fulfilled, make a serial connection of those consumers payload equivalent to consumers-x spacecraft, which provided the necessary energy reserves-x spacecraft-doubles, until the conditions of (1) on-x space is their apparatus, however, perform dynamic modesmi spacecraft on-s intervals, and at extreme conditions (2) and simultaneously not fulfilling the conditions (1) produce a consistent disconnect from unsecured electricity-x spacecraft-doubles onboard consumers payload equivalent i-m consumers set to-x spacecraft, to fulfill the conditions (1), shall conduct dynamic regimes at specified time intervals to-x spacecraft, then the control of a power orbital grouping consistently produce the above image for a spacecraft with a later start time of the dynamic modes, using-e spacecraft as stand-ins for subsequent dynamic modes other spacecraft.
FIELD: spacecraft onboard power supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes determination of charge-discharge characteristics of onboard power supply sources, transformation of energy of external power sources, maintenance of required state of charge of onboard power sources due to energy of external power sources and consumption of energy power requirements exceed transformed energy of external power sources. Intervals of flight time required for maintenance of probable and determined level of state of charge of onboard power sources are also determined. At probable level when power requirements exceed transformed energy of external power sources, amount of energy in onboard power source required for performing the program is determined. Then, intervals of time of charge and self-discharge of onboard power sources are determined; besides that, shift of beginning of charge of onboard power sources ensuring required amount of energy is determined. Required state of charge of onboard power sources is maintained at said intervals of their charge-discharge at control of power consumption in accordance with flight program. When energy transformed from external power sources exceed consumed power, onboard power source is charged and state of charge is maintained at charge-discharge intervals. Time intervals for maintenance of determined state of charge of onboard power sources when consumed power exceeds transformed power of external sources is predicted. Before beginning of these intervals, determined charge of onboard power sources is performed at said charge-discharge intervals. Then, power requirements of onboard power sources are regulated in accordance with flight program ensuring excess of discharge energy of onboard power sources by consumed energy. Upon completion of predicted interval, onboard power source is charged for subsequent maintenance of probable state of charge of onboard power sources. When necessary shift is made for above-indicated determined charge of onboard power sources after which probable and determined charge are alternated.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of method due to enhanced use of onboard and external power sources.
FIELD: power supply for spacecraft onboard supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes conversion of light energy into electrical energy on board spacecraft, accumulation of electric energy by conversion into other kinds of energy and check of onboard power requirements. In addition to conversion of light energy, other kinds of energy received from outside sources are transformed into energy consumed on board aircraft. Provision is made for prediction of time intervals when consumption of electric energy exceeds amount of electrical energy converted from light energy. Kinds of consumed energy obtained from conversion of electric energy are also determined. Before beginning of passage of intervals, respective transformable kinds of energy from outside sources are accumulated. Beginning of accumulation of these kinds of energy is determined depending on consumed amount of energy and rate of accumulation of energy with change in spacecraft parameters caused by action of these kinds of energy taken into account. At predicted interval, first of all accumulated transformable kinds of energy are consumed and when necessary, energy accumulated on board spacecraft is consumed after conversion into electrical energy.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of energy supply system due to increased total power.
FIELD: spacecraft power systems using solar batteries and electric jet plasma engines, mainly stationary engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes stabilization and change of power of power plant through regulation of consumption of engine working medium. When power of solar battery drops to level of maximum permissible power consumed by engine, consumption of working medium is changed in such way that power of solar battery might change in saw-tooth pattern and vertices of saw might be in contact with line of maximum probable power of solar battery. Device proposed for realization of this method includes matching voltage converter whose outputs are connected with engine electrodes and inputs are connected with solar battery busbars, current and voltage sensors showing solar battery voltage and power sensor connected with current and voltage sensors. Comparator connected with power sensor is also connected with controllable power setter and initial power setter. Outputs of controllable power setter are connected with comparator and comparison circuit whose input is connected with power sensor output. Output of comparison circuit is connected with amplifier-regulator of consumption of working medium.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability; simplified construction and facilitated procedure of regulation of power.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: auxiliary equipment for nuclear power plants of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nuclear plant includes nuclear reactor, radiation protection, cooler-radiator and deployment system. Plant has frame consisting of three rods located between nuclear power plant and intermediate frame; it also has three rods shifted relative above rods through angle of 60 deg. and located between this frame and spacecraft. Frame is made in form of triangular prism. Each rod consists of two beams; articulations are fitted in joint areas between beams, between beams and nuclear power plant and between intermediate frame and spacecraft. Articulations make it possible to perform angular motion of beams in longitudinal planes of nuclear power plant when it is shifted from launch position to orbital position. Electrical connecting lines are arranged on beams.
EFFECT: reduced mass and launch dimensions of plant due to compact location of components of deployment system around plant.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on continuous measurement of parameters of orbital space station motion. In addition to parameters of space station motion, its motion relative to center of mass is measured. Object of known shape and mass is separated from station in section of orbit when engines are disconnected and orientation of station is maintained with the aid of gyrodynes. Simultaneously parameters of motion of object separated from station in orbit and parameters of its rotary motion are measured. Mid-section of separated object is determined by measured parameters of rotary motion. Density of atmosphere is determined by this mid-section and measured parameters of motion of separated object. Then, mid-section area of orbital station is determined by measured parameters of its rotary motion and attitude of its movable parts. Then, mass of orbital station is determined from the respective mathematical expression by the mid-section area and atmosphere density and by measured parameters of motion. Proposed method does not require supply of calibrating and measuring pulses by power plant of cargo spacecraft coupled with station as distinguished from known methods.
EFFECT: saving of working medium; enhanced operational safety of cargo spacecraft.
FIELD: information satellite systems; forming global radio-navigational field for sea-going ships, ground, air and space vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes many low-orbit spacecraft whose number depends on conditions of global covering of access areas of users. Each spacecraft contains communication unit in addition to navigational equipment for communication of this spacecraft with two other spacecraft in its orbital plane and two spacecraft from adjacent orbital planes. Communication is performed in millimetric wave band absorbed by Earth atmosphere. At least one spacecraft is provided with high-accuracy synch generator. Thus spacecraft group is formed which is provided with noise immunity system of relaying and measuring radio lines connecting all spacecraft groups and navigational radio line covering upper hemisphere.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and accuracy; enhanced noise immunity of data fed to users of satellite system.
FIELD: highly accurate ground and space systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to frame-type stable-size bearing structures made of laminated polymeric composite material. Proposed integral framed construction made of laminated polymeric composite material consists of right angle ribs and their connecting units forming, together with ribs, a monolithic load-bearing skeleton made of layers of fibrous material impregnated with polymeric binder lying in plane of frame. Each rib and each unit has at least one layer of fibrous material fibers in which are orientated along longitudinal axis of rib, and layers of fibrous material fibers in which are orientated in directions corresponding to direction of longitudinal axes of other ribs.
EFFECT: increased stability and accuracy of positioning of frame units, reduced variations of thermomechical properties along length of ribs, provision of high accuracy of dimensions of articles.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: satellites of small mass and methods of mounting them on carriers.
SUBSTANCE: proposed mini-satellite has body in form of parallelepiped, solar battery panels secured on its side plates and units for connection with separation system which are located on one of side plates and on end plate. Each panel is made in form of tip and root parts articulated together. Root parts of panel are articulated on side plate of mini-satellite body where connection units are mounted. Mechanical locks mounted on opposite side plate are used for interconnecting the tip parts of panels and for connecting them with body. Articulation units are provided with drives for turning of parts. Articulation units are located above mechanical locks relative to plate on which these locks are mounted. Novelty of invention consists in reduction of area of end part of mini-satellite by 35%, reduction of its height in center of cross section by 23%, reduction of mass by 6-7% and increase of density of arrangement by 17-18%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased number of mini-satellites carried on adapter.
FIELD: spacecraft inter-planetary flights with the aid of cruise jet engines, mainly electrical rocket engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes injection of spacecraft into heliocentric trajectory at distance of spacecraft from Sun followed by its approach to Sun. Active motion of spacecraft is realized in part of this trajectory behind Earth's orbit during operation of jet engines. Then, spacecraft returns to Earth at velocity increment and increases its heliocentric velocity in the course of gravitational maneuver near Earth. After spacecraft has crossed Earth's orbit in section of its approach to Sun and before entry into Earth's gravisphere, spacecraft is accelerated by repeated switching-on of cruise jet engines. At the moment of fly-by over Earth when gravitational maneuver is performed, angular motion of Earth and spacecraft relative to Sun are equalized. During fly-by over Earth, spacecraft is subjected to its gravitational field changing the vector of spacecraft heliocentric velocity, thus ensuring further acceleration of spacecraft and forming inter-planetary trajectory of flight to target.
EFFECT: reduction of time required for organization of gravitational maneuver in Earth's gravity field at injection of spacecraft into required inter-planetary trajectory.
FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.
EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.
3 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: global satellite information systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system and method of organization of communication with the aid of this system includes injection of satellites into inclined elliptical orbits ensuring simplified tracking of satellites by means of ground tracking stations. Satellite orbits form pair of repeated routes (130, 140) embracing the earth's globe in projection on ground surface. Satellites are activated on each of these routes only on active arcs located considerably higher or lower relative to equator, thus emulating some essential characteristics of geostationary satellites. Parameters of satellite orbits are so set that final points of active arcs of two routes coincide; point at which active arc terminates in one route coincides with point where active arc starts on other route. Satellites placed on such active arcs are accepted by ground station located in satellite servicing zone as satellites slowly moving in one direction at rather large elevation angle. Their trajectory in celestial sphere has shape of closed teardrop line.
EFFECT: increased capacity of global satellite communication system with no interference in operation of geostationary satellites; simplifies procedure of tracking satellites.
39 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: illumination of separate sections of planet surface at night.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in illuminating the night surface of planet by sunlight. One section is formed as circle and other sections are formed as circular rings of large diameter. All sections are lighted-up by rays scanning at rate no less than several revolutions per second setting-up these sections in order of increase of their diameters. Largest circular ring whose outer diameter is equal to size of surface being illuminated is set-up last.
EFFECT: increased area of illuminated sections at one and the same sizes of solar reflectors.
FIELD: space engineering; temperature control systems of automatic spacecraft flying in near-earth orbits.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes removal of excessive heat from instruments through two first and two second evaporators interconnected in longitudinal direction; said evaporators are made in form of L-shaped adjustable thermal tubes. Removal of heat from condensers of these tubes is effected to first and to second radiators-emitters of U-shaped heat-conducting honeycomb unit located orthogonally relative to first ones. Inner surfaces of side radiators-emitters are provided with heat insulation and side radiators-emitters have edges projecting beyond boundaries of instrument container. Their inner surfaces are provided with heat-controlled coat. Temperature control system is provided with two instrument containers interconnected by their center honeycomb panels. Side radiators-emitters are located in parallel or orthogonal planes. Built in structure of each U-shaped honeycomb units are L-shaped thermal tubes in such position that their condensers are located in side radiators-emitters and evaporators are located in center honeycomb panel. System provides for narrow range of control of seats of instruments mounted on center honeycomb panels.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of temperature control; enhanced reliability of spacecraft; extended field of application.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; development of new satellites and updating of present artificial satellites, 20 to 100 kg in mass.
SUBSTANCE: some parts of onboard equipment in proposed satellite are secured on radiation surface on inner side of solar battery framework. Other parts are located in pressure container; number of parts is dictated by condition of retaining thermal mode of equipment in pressure container. Solar sensors are mounted on end face of pressure container coupled with micro-satellite separation system. Sensors for operation with ground stations and sensors of scientific equipment are located on other end face of pressure container. They are mounted on rectangular plate fitted with bracket in form of parallelepiped whose side faces carry scientific sensor equipment. Mounted on opposite surface of plate are sensors for operation with ground stations and extensible gravitational boom. Mounted on end cargo of boom are optical sensors. Four L-shaped antennae are located in parallel relative to faces of plate.
EFFECT: reduction of satellite mass (by 10-12%) and its length (by 14-15%); enhanced reliability.
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.
EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg