FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission contains in-line engine and gearbox unit, providing gear changing. Engine is shifted to rear part of vehicle, and output of gearbox is pointed to front part of vehicle. Transmission contains also power take-off to drive shipboard propulsive device arranged after engine and transfer case arranged in line after gearbox and designed to set into rotation first drive shaft transmitting motion to rear differential to set into motion rear wheels of vehicle. Engine can be arranged at least partially, before rear wheels. Shipboard propulsive device is set into motion by means of transfer case.
EFFECT: improved steerability of vehicle, increased room for passengers.
13 cl, 10 dwg
The invention relates to a transmission, in particular for use in a vehicle amphibious made with the possibility of movement on land and in the water, and more specifically to adapt conventional automotive transmission having a single-row engine with gearbox, providing shifting to drive both rear wheels, and the marine propulsion unit of the vehicle is amphibious. The invention also relates to a vehicle amphibious with this transmission.
In a known design of automotive powertrain for conventional land-based vehicle engine and gearbox for speed switch, located in front of the vehicle and oriented along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The leading end of the transmission facing the rear of the vehicle and is connected via a drive shaft, also known as the cardan shaft to the rear differential to drive the rear wheels of the vehicle.
It is also known the use of a single motor with a gearbox that provides the switching speed for the drive wheels and the marine propulsion unit of the vehicle is amphibious. For example, in U.S. patent No. 4958584 (Williamson (Williamson)) the design of transmis the AI, in which the engine and transmission are located in the rear of the vehicle, and the leading end of the transmission facing the front of the vehicle. The drive shaft provides drive from the transmission to the front differential for driving front wheels of the vehicle. The rear wheels of this vehicle have no drive. Marine propulsion unit is located behind the engine and is driven from the distribution end of the crankshaft of the engine. It is best to consider this construction can figure 5 of U.S. patent No. 4958584.
On the application for which the above-mentioned U.S. patent No. 4958584 is generic, received U.S. patent No. 4838194 (Williamson). This patent also describes the vehicle is amphibious with the design of the transmission in which a single motor with gear box are located in the rear of the vehicle, and the leading end of the transmission facing the front of the vehicle. The front wheels are driven shaft from the transfer case, which also provides for the transmission of movement to the rearward-facing drive marine propulsion unit. Drive marine propulsion unit has a long driveshaft going to propeller screw, and both of them - together with the wheel - m what should be lifted for movement on the road and lowered for movement on the water. This design leaves little room in any part of the vehicle engine and transmission, providing switching speeds, and a place for these design elements in the above-mentioned patent is not explicitly specified.
If the engine and gearbox are located behind the rear axle of the vehicle (as in the case of continuation-in-part application, which received U.S. patent No. 4958584), they either have to have the propeller shaft, raising the center of gravity at the expense of control of a vehicle on land and on the water, or set to one side of the propeller shaft, which leads to uneven distribution of masses and problems of sealing. Any of these options would require the installation of asymmetric transmission to the transfer case, which would result in power loss and possible problems SWNH (noise, vibration, neplatnosti course). It should also be noted that long adjustable vertical drive shaft could create problems of seals on the bottom of the body of the vehicle, which could lead to water penetration and corrosion problems in the junction box. Moreover, from the known solutions, it is hardly possible to develop a practical scheme of the vehicle is amphibious.
In European patent No. 0341009 (Roil (Royle)) given the n another example of the vehicle is amphibious, in which a single engine and transmission are provided in the rear of the vehicle, and the output of the gearbox facing the front of the vehicle. In this scheme, the transmission drives the rear wheels of the vehicle with the drive shaft, while the marine propulsion unit located behind the engine, is driven from the distribution end of the engine.
In the above known constructions vehicles manufactured from serious shortcomings, which are especially noticeable in connection with a pending below the high requirements of modern vehicle when driving on the road.
When the vehicle receives the acceleration in the forward direction, the front part of the vehicle tend to rise up in response to rotational acceleration of the wheels relative to the vehicle. This occurs regardless of whether the actuator - front or rear-wheel - has the vehicle, and can lead to loss of adhesion between the wheels and the road during acceleration. This problem is compounded in known vehicles, amphibians, where the engine is located behind the rear wheels of the vehicle. Its reason is that the weight of the engine,when it is located behind the rear wheels, increases lifting force, in contrast to the conventional design of the transmission with the engine in front of the vehicle, where the weight of the engine has its own lifting force. Therefore, in the known constructions of vehicles amphibious front wheels will have a tendency to lose traction (road) during acceleration. In practice, this causes unnecessary spinning wheels and excessive tire wear. This is a problem in circuits Williamson, in accordance with which the vehicle has the drive to the front wheels.
In addition, when the vehicle exits a turn, the grip between the tyre and the road surface must resist the forces of acceleration and centrifugal forces. If the sum of these forces reaches a certain value, corresponding to the limits of adhesion or beyond these limits, there will be a state in which the vehicle will be bad to obey the helm. In conventional constructions transmissions of vehicles mentioned above, the weight of the engine is concentrated in the front part of the vehicle, which reduces the tendency for the situation in which the vehicle cannot control steering when turning. However, in the known constructions of vehicles amphibians, in which the weight of the engine is usredotocen behind the rear wheels, there will be a decrease in the load in front of the front wheels, which increases the likelihood of a situation in which the vehicle is poorly helm.
It is also known that conventional land-based motor vehicles can be equipped with four-wheel drive with single-row engine with gearbox, providing switching speeds, in front of the vehicle. In such constructions the output end of the gearbox facing the rear of the vehicle, and the transfer case is used to selectively driving only the rear wheels or the front wheels and the rear wheels.
Automotive transmission of this type is proposed to use for the drive of the vehicle is amphibious with the use of rear-wheel drive to actuate the marine propulsion unit and drive to the front wheels for driving the front wheels. To use the transmission thus, it is necessary to install the engine and gearbox in the normal position, i.e. to shift to the front of the vehicle.
Due to the fact that the vehicle is amphibious required, causing the displacement of the mass backwards while on the water, we discovered that the placing on the Sabbath. " and the transmission is in the normal position is unsatisfactory. Also discovered that, unlike patents Williamson, drive only the front wheels of the vehicle amphibious carried out from the engine, located in the middle or the back, is unsatisfactory, because the mass of the engine is over the drive wheels. This limits the traction on wet and slippery roads, resulting in problems associated with residual water, and can lead to spinning wheels and rapid wear of the tyres on the road.
The present invention is to develop a transmission for vehicles-amphibious, which uses a conventional single-row engine with gearbox, providing switching speeds, and in which the above disadvantages are reduced or essentially eliminated.
In accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, the proposed transmission for vehicles-amphibious containing a single node of a motor with a gearbox that provides switching speeds, adapted so that the motor can be shifted to the rear of the vehicle, and the output of the gearbox facing the front of the vehicle, and the transmission also includes a tool PTO, adapted to drive the marine propulsion unit, RA is laid on the back of the engine, wherein the provided handout transfer, oriented as well as transmission, and adapted for driving rear wheels of the vehicle using the first drive shaft, which runs next to the engine so that the engine can be located, at least partially, in front of the rear wheels of the vehicle.
In a specifically preferred embodiment, the transmission is adapted so that the engine is mounted between the rear wheels and the front wheels of the vehicle.
In one preferred specific embodiment, the tool PTO implemented in the form of the transfer case, which sets in motion the marine propulsion unit by means of the second drive shaft, which runs essentially parallel to the engine and below it. In an alternative embodiment, the second drive shaft may be essentially parallel to one side of the engine and along it. In this latest design will be preferred such arrangement of the first shaft, at which he runs along the side of the engine opposite to that along which the second drive shaft.
In an alternative preferred specific embodiment, the means of power take-off is provided in the step with the crankshaft on the distribution end of the engine.
In yet another alternative preferred specific embodiment, the tool PTO contains additional transfer gear mounted on a first drive shaft and driven them into action.
Marine propulsion unit may be a jet pump or a ship's propeller.
In the chain drive from the PTO to the marine propulsion unit may be provided for disconnecting the device to enable selective switching on and off of the drive marine propulsion unit.
The first drive shaft, preferably, adapted to drive the rear wheels of the vehicle through the rear differential. If you want four-wheel drive, transfer case transfer may also result in the movement of the third drive shaft, which is adapted to drive the front wheels of the vehicle through the front differential.
In an advantageous specific embodiment, the breakaway device is provided in the chain drive between the transmission and at least one of the driven road wheels, so you can selectively enable or disable the actuator, at least one follower wheel
If disconnecting the device is intended to connect the actuator to the drive shaft of the wheels, this disconnect is provided, the device may include a mechanism with synchronized gear pairs, and can also be combined with the cardan CV joint
In accordance with the second aspect of the invention proposed vehicle amphibious, with the transmission in accordance with the first aspect of the invention.
Now, as an example, provides a description of several specific embodiments with reference to the drawings listed below.
figure 1 is a perspective image of the first specific variant of implementation of the transmission for vehicles-amphibious in accordance with the invention, in which the means of power take-off connected to a crankshaft pulley of the engine,
figure 2 is a view in plan of the transmission shown in figure 1,
figure 3 is a side view in partial section of a modified form of the transmission shown in figure 1 and 2
4 is a perspective representation of a second specific variant of implementation of the transmission for vehicles-amphibious in accordance with the invention, in which the means of power take-off connected to the first drive shaft, drive the rear differential of the vehicle,
5 is a view in plan of the transmission shown in figure 4,
6 is a perspective representation of a third specific variant of implementation of the transmission for vehicles-amphibious in accordance with the invention,<> Fig.7 is a view in plan of the transmission depicted in Fig.6,
Fig - side view in partial section of the transmission depicted in Fig.6,
Fig.9 is a view in plan of the fourth specific variant of implementation of the transmission for vehicles-amphibious in accordance with the invention,
figure 10 is a side view in partial section of the transmission depicted in Fig.9.
In all the drawings indicate the same position for part numbers are common to various specific embodiments.
Figure 1-3 intended for use in a vehicle amphibious transmission is indicated as a whole by position 20 and includes a node of the longitudinal transmission containing the motor 8 and the gear box or 9 gears, providing a switching speeds, oriented along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Distribution end 10 of the engine is shifted to the rear of the vehicle, and the output from the gearbox facing the front of the vehicle.
In the same orientation as that of the output end 11 of the box 9 of the transmission, installed transfer case transmission 13, which transmits motion from box 9 of the gear to the intermediate shaft 14, the axis of which is offset relative to the longitudinal axis a of the engine 8 and box 9 of the transmission. The intermediate shaft 14 is connected to the first drive shaft 15, which is done the n in the form of a cardan shaft and is parallel to one side of the engine 8 and along it to transmit movement to the rear differential gear 6. Rear differential 6 provides transmission of movement to the right (in accordance with the image in figure 1) of the rear wheel of the vehicle through the transmission shaft 7 and the additional drive shaft 12, and a differential 6 simultaneously actuates the left (in accordance with the abovementioned image) rear wheel through the drive shaft 18.
In the chain drive to provide a disconnect device or separating device (not shown) between the gearbox and at least one of the driven road wheels to selectively disable drive on these wheels, when the vehicle is operating in the mode of movement on the water. For example, you could provide a separating device between the intermediate shaft 14 and the first drive shaft 15. Alternatively, you could provide a disconnect device or separating device between the differential 6 and one or both rear wheels. In this latest designs single or each disconnecting device could be provided between the differential gear 6 and the drive shaft 12, 18 wheels, or between the drive shaft 12, 18 wheels and its corresponding rear wheel. When disconnecting the device is used to disable the drive to the drive shaft 12, 18 wheels, this disconnecting device may be the a device type, which includes a mechanism for synchronization gear pairs and combined with the cardan CV joint. This disconnecting device described in simultaneously considering international patent application no PCT/GB 01/03493 filed by the Applicant, the contents of which are mentioned here for reference.
The means of power to actuate the marine propulsion unit 5, located behind the engine, is driven by a crankshaft of the engine on the distribution end of the engine. In this particular embodiment, the tool PTO made in the form of attachment 1, which is installed on the pulley 2 of the crankshaft of the engine 8 and is driven by this pulley. The pulley 2 of the crankshaft is on the distribution end of the engine 8. The second drive shaft 3 is connected by one end to the coupling 1 and the other end with a breakaway device 4, which selectively enables and disables the drive from the second drive shaft 3 to the marine propulsion unit 5. Marine propulsion unit may be a jet pump or a ship's propeller.
In those situations, when the distribution end of the crankshaft there is no pulley, with this distribution end of the crankshaft using any suitable means of fixing the ü vehicle PTO. For example, the tool PTO could be connected with a sprocket wheel provided on the distribution end of the crankshaft, or the means of power take-off can be connected directly to the junction end of the crankshaft, if it is a suitable option.
In the shown construction the intermediate shaft 7, which results in the movement of the right rear wheel is located between the engine 8 and the marine propulsion unit 5. This gear shaft 7 may be located below the second drive shaft 3, as shown in figure 1, or 2, or above the second drive shaft 3, as shown in figure 3, depending on the schema of the vehicle.
When you need to be able drive on four wheels, the intermediate shaft 14 can be connected to the third drive shaft 16, which drives the front wheels (not shown) through a front differential 17. In the chain drive can be provided disconnecting the device or disconnecting device (not shown) between the intermediate shaft 14 and the differential 17 or between the differential 17 and any or both of the front wheels to allow selective enabling and disabling of the drive to the front wheels.
Now with reference to figure 4 and 5 will be described a second particular embodiment of the invention. The engine 8, Corot is ka 9 transmission and transfer case transmission 13 are the same as in the above first specific embodiment, the first drive shaft 15 transmits motion to the rear differential gear 6 from the transfer case transmission 13.
However, in this particular embodiment, the tool PTO is an additional handout transmission 22, which transmits motion from the first drive shaft 15 to the second drive shaft 3 to drive the jet pump 5. Breakaway device 4 selectively enables and disables the drive from the second drive shaft to the jet pump 5. Additional transfer transfer 22 transmits motion from the drive shaft through a belt or chain, although the transmission of movement is possible and by means of toothed wheels.
Chain drive differential 6 to the rear wheels can include one or more breakaway devices 24, 26 to ensure selective disconnection of the drive to the rear wheels when the vehicle is operating in the mode of movement on the water. In a particular preferred embodiment, the breakaway device 24, 26 may be provided within the universal joints 28 and 30 of equal angular speeds, also installed in the chain drive. If you really want to save free space inside the vehicle, disconnecting devices 24, 26 may be devices in Sopianae type, which include the mechanism of synchronization gear pairs and which are combined with cardan hinge of equal angular speeds. In this design, a separate universal joints 28, 30 are identical angular velocity is not required. Alternatively, the installation of breakaway devices in the chain drive between the differential 6 and the rear wheels, you can enter one or more separating devices in the 6 differential or transfer case transmission 22 or install these devices before mentioned differential or transfer.
When you need a four-wheel drive, it can be implemented in the same manner as described above in connection with the first specific embodiment.
Now, with reference to Fig.6-8, will be described a third particular embodiment of the invention. The transmission 50 includes a motor 8 and box 9 passes, oriented along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The engine is mounted in the rear of the vehicle, and the output end 11 of the box 9 of the transmission facing the front of the vehicle. At the output end 11 of the box 9 transmission installed transfer case transmission 13, which contains the leading toothed drum 18, which is connected to the drive capability of the output shaft 42 box 9 transmission. Driven sprocket 18 is connected in drive C is Ceplene through a belt 32 with the first leading asterisk 34, installed on the first intermediate shaft 14, and the second leading sprocket 36 mounted on the second intermediate shaft 37.
The first intermediate shaft 14 is connected via a disconnecting device 38 with the first drive shaft 15, which transmit the movement to the rear differential gear 6. Rear differential 6 with gear shaft 7 is located at the rear of the motor 8 for driving the rear wheels (not shown) of the vehicle.
The second intermediate shaft 37 is connected via a disconnecting device 40 with the second drive shaft 3. The second drive shaft 3 passes under the engine 8 to the rear portion for connection with a marine propulsion unit 5, such as a jet pump.
As in the previous specific variants of implementation, it is possible to provide the four-wheel drive by connecting the first intermediate shaft 14 with the third drive shaft 16 for driving the front wheels through a front differential 17. As shown in the drawings, the first intermediate shaft connected to the third drive shaft 16 through the breakaway device 41, so that you can selectively enable and disable the drive to the front wheels.
Now, with reference to figures 9 and 10, will be described a fourth particular embodiment of the invention. The fourth specific implementation, p is essentially identical to the third specific variant implementation, except that the second drive shaft 3, which actuates marine propulsion unit 5 is thus that runs along one side of the engine 8, and not under this engine. In the depicted specific embodiment, the second drive shaft 3 runs along the side of the engine opposite to that along which passes the first drive shaft 15, the lower part of the cylinder block, below the row of cylinders. This design allows you to position the engine in the vehicle is lower, resulting in a lowered center of gravity, which improves handling characteristics of the vehicle in the water and on land.
In the transmission corresponding to the invention, where the first drive shaft is driven from the transmission through the transfer case, the axis of the first shaft is offset relative to the longitudinal axis of the engine 8 and box 9 of the transmission. It is therefore possible location of the engine and the transmission directly in front of the rear wheels and the passage of the drive shaft 15 along one side of the engine to the transmission to the rear differential gear 6 and the rear wheels. This design eliminates many of the problems associated with the known schemes of vehicles amphibians, in which a single motor is spruce with a gear box located behind the rear wheels. In the case where the engine is located directly in front of the rear wheels, the weight of the engine with the gearbox helps to counter the rise of the front of the vehicle during acceleration. In addition, in comparison with the known constructions, the center of gravity of the vehicle is shifted towards the center of the vehicle, which improves handling on the roads and maneuverability of the vehicle on land. However, the engine and transmission still shifted to the rear of the vehicle, which provides a more favorable weight distribution for the movement of the vehicle through the water.
In alternative specific embodiments of implementation (not shown) of the engine 8 can be set so that only part of this engine will be located in front of the rear wheels. This can benefit by creating more space for passengers without placing the engine behind the rear axle, as in the known constructions. However, it will be advantageous if the entire engine would be located between the front and rear wheels, because then the engine can be installed below the vehicle. This contributes to lowering the center of gravity of the vehicle that oblige the controllability of the vehicle, as explained above.
Although the invention is described in connection with specific options for implementation, which are currently considered the most practical and preferred, it is understood that the invention is not limited to the described structures and should be considered as encompassing various modifications and equivalent constructions falling within the scope of the claims of the invention. For example, is not significant the fact that the transmission of motion between the tool PTO and ship propulsion unit can be enabled by disconnecting device. In addition, the first drive shaft 15 could be positioned in such a way that it would pass below the engine 8, and not along one of its sides.
1. Transmission for vehicles-amphibious containing a single node of engine and transmission, providing switching speeds, the output of which is directed toward the front of the vehicle, the vehicle PTO to drive the marine propulsion unit located at the rear of the engine, shifted to the rear of the vehicle, and transfer the transfer button in the line for transmission and is used to actuate the first drive shaft that transmits the movement to the rear differential gear for driving back the wheels of the vehicle, thus, the motor can be located, at least partially, in front of the rear wheels, and drive marine propulsion unit is provided with the transfer case.
2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the engine may be located between the rear wheels and the front wheels of the vehicle.
3. Transmission according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the means of the power take-off is made in the form of the transfer case to actuate the marine propulsion unit by means of the second drive shaft, which is essentially below the engine.
4. Transmission according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the means of the power take-off is made in the form of the transfer case to actuate the marine propulsion unit by means of the second drive shaft, which runs essentially parallel to one side of the engine and along it.
5. Transmission according to claim 4, characterized in that the first drive shaft runs along the side of the engine opposite to that along which the second drive shaft.
6. Transmission according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the tool PTO contains additional transfer gear mounted on a first drive shaft and driven them into action.
7. Transmission according to any preceding paragraph, characterized the eat, that marine propulsion unit is a jet pump or a ship's propeller.
8. Transmission according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the chain drive from the PTO to the marine propulsion unit is provided for disconnecting the device to enable selective switching on and off of the drive marine propulsion unit.
9. Transmission according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the first drive shaft serves to drive the rear wheels of the vehicle through the rear differential.
10. Transmission according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the distributing transmission also drives the third drive shaft for driving the front wheels of the vehicle through the front differential.
11. Transmission according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the chain drive between the transmission and at least one of the driven road wheels is provided for disconnecting the device to enable selective switching on and off of the drive, at least one driven wheel.
12. Transmission according to claim 11, characterized in that at least one separating device is to provide the opportunity to connect the drive to the drive shaft of the wheels, and this disconnecting device including the em in the mechanism of synchronization gear pairs and combined with the cardan CV joint.
13. The vehicle is amphibious, characterized in that it comprises a transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 12.
10.08.2000 according to claims 1-5, 7-11, 13;
FIELD: transport engineering: cross-country vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has engine, body with bottom and wheel suspension at least two of wheels are made for fitting of detachable devices, each provided with propulsor for reduced density medium and interconnected by closed flexible member. Each propulsor of detachable device is made in form of blade at one side of which flat rib is secured provided with cutout for fixing flexible member, and at other side, foot is hinge-mounted for fastening in disk of wheel whose suspension permits tilting of wheel under body. Bottom of body is made water tight for sliding in medium of reduced density.
EFFECT: increases speed of movement in reduced density medium (snow, water), increased reparability of detachable device.
10 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to development of hydrodynamic device of amphibian vehicle to improved weather worthiness. Proposed wash plate of amphibian vehicle is designed to reduced hydrodynamic resistance and wettability of hull bow. To improve handling during motion afloat and increase efficiency, wash plate is made for turning relative to in coming flow to form additional side force providing movement at smaller radii of turning circle to increase total turning moment and with distance to hull changing under action of hydraulic cylinders to find optimum position under different operating conditions.
EFFECT: improved performance of amphibian vehicle by improving its handling.
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; manufacture of amphibian-automobiles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian-automobile has engine mounted transversely in center or in rear part of automobile. Engine is so constructed that rear wheels and propulsion unit for motion in water may be placed in operation by means of axial transmission in parallel with longitudinal axis of automobile. Engine is so mounted on propulsion unit that its bottom is below axis of transmission shaft. Bottom of automobile ensures gliding during motion in water. Wheels may be retracted to raised position for motion in water. Rear wheels may be placed in operation by engine through differential gear; divider may be mounted between differential gear and at least one rear wheel. Height of center of gravity relative to center of buoyancy is reduced, thus enhancing stability of automobile according to road clearance; metacentric height preferably ranges from 370 to 180 mm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
19 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: automobile suspension systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed suspension system for automobile-amphibian includes the control lever mounted rotatably on automobile body passing to wheel bracket. Control lever and wheel bracket are mounted for rotary motion relative to each other. Wheel bracket includes automobile wheel supports. Suspension system is provided additionally with drive unit mounted rotatably on automobile body at spatial connection relative to control lever and for rotation of control lever around its swivel joint with body for shift of wheel bracket and consequently for shift between two limiting positions of automobile wheel. In first limiting position, wheel is mainly located vertically for grip with road and in second limiting position, it is retracted for motion of automobile in water. Drive unit is mounted rotatably on body in center position relative to its length so that it should turn during motion of wheel bracket between the first and second limiting positions.
EFFECT: increased motion of automobile forward and inside at retraction.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; reactive hydrodynamic facilities for improving in-water running characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tracked amphibious vehicle has drive wheel arranged in front portion; vehicle is equipped with hydrodynamic unit which is made in form of centripetal paddle wheel and guide cone mounted integral on drive wheel before stream crossing. During rotation of drive wheel, water sucked by paddle wheel in radial direction gets in contact with cone forming flow which is thrown in axial direction through central hole, thus forming lateral reactive force. At rectilinear motion, lateral reactive forces get balanced, thus steering the vehicle on steady course due to reduced effect of difference in track thrust forces. At braking of one of tracks and consequently stop of drive wheel, thrust force of leading track is summed-up with lateral reactive force, thus increasing the turning moment towards lagging side.
EFFECT: enhanced maneuverability and stability of course; simplified construction.
FIELD: transport engineering; wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cross-country wheeled vehicle has body with flat bottom, driving and steerable wheels, inflatable member secured on flat bottom and connected with pneumatic system of wheeled vehicle. Wheeled vehicle has additional flat bottom secured below inflatable member and connected with vehicle body by means of pneumatic cylinder, springs and levers interconnected by tire-rod. Additional flat bottom is provided with edges curved upwards to radius.
EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity of vehicle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cross-country vehicles for operation in regions from tundra to desert which can run along ground, hard-surface roads, swamps, snow and water. It can be as consumer goods for fishers, sports purposes, forest conservation, ESM, frontier guards, customs personnel, etc. Proposed vehicle has carrying frame with axle for front wheels spaced at both sides and axle for rear wheels interconnected and installed behind driver's seat, engine interacting with rear wheels, and steering gear. Interaxle distance of carrying frame is 1.7-2.0 relative to diameter of rear wheel. Rear wheels are intercoupled, and they can be provided with ring recess in between or with ring recess accommodating blades made in form of its cross section or made integral with solid support surface. width of front part of carrying frame is less than width of rear part. Rear and front wheels can be made with low-pressure tires. Diameter of rear wheel exceeds diameter of front wheels. Front wheels can be replaced by skis, when necessary.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of vehicle, simplified design, reduced mass and cost.
15 cl 3 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission 3 for amphibian vehicle contains engine 12, gearbox 14 and differential 16. Axis of crankshaft of engine 12 can coincide with longitudinal axis 32 of vehicle or it can be parallel to longitudinal axis. Gearbox 14 is installed crosswise relative to engine perpendicular to engine. Gearbox can be manual, with successive change of gear ratio, automated, manual automatic or stepless. Drive shaft 42 of transmission set into motion by engine crankshaft drives propulsion unit 48 of vehicle, and gearbox 14. Engine can be displaced from central line of vehicle.
EFFECT: provision of transmission for amphibian vehicle in which conventional cross automobile transmission is used adaptable for amphibian vehicle.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: war materiel; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of exhaust gases of power plant to cavities of casings mounted on the outside of vehicle by means of controllable intake and exhaust valves. In case of rectilinear motion of vehicle, delivery of exhaust gases to cavities of port and starboard casings is performed smoothly and in case of turn delivery of exhaust gases is regulated in such way that pressure in cavities on side of turn and on opposite side decreases or increases in proportion to square of speed of vehicle and inversely relative to radius of its turn.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: building of transport amphibian hovercraft with elastic guard.
SUBSTANCE: propose amphibian hovercraft has platform with built-in receiver provided with compartments, hull with compartments, engine, fan, transmission, propeller in aerodynamic ring, aerial rudder, flexible guard in area of increased pressure, controllable wheeled pneumatic undercarriage, buoyancy units articulated with platform body and elastic guard and safety strake located over perimeter of amphibian hovercraft; it is provided with two deceleration flaps and control system, guide knives and deceleration tenons. Knives are rigidly secured to lower elastic plates of deceleration flap driven by pneumatic cylinders; deceleration tenons are elastically secured to upper plates of deceleration flap and are driven by pneumatic cylinders and corrugated air chambers. Amphibian hovercraft is provided with controllable reactive grate -compensator with horizontal blades for counter-acting to capsizing moment of propeller; it is kinematically linked with contact pitch sensor located in fore portion of hull. Deceleration flap may be divided in plan into two parts located symmetrically relative to longitudinal axis of amphibian hovercraft at distance of 0.3-0.5 of height of air cushion from each other and interconnected by means of flexible spring.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of amphibian hovercraft.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: armored equipment, in particular, armored caterpillar vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the vehicle is provided with folding water displacement tanks, whose spaces communicate with the inner space of the hull, sections of hinged flaps-pontoons, hinge-joined along the hull on the sides and that can in the non-operating position be packed up on the left-hand and right-hand flaps of the hull from the top, built in the rear sections of the flaps-pontoons on the sides of water - motion propellers of the "packed propeller" type with a drive from the power plant, that can in the inoperating position be packed up in the recesses in the upper rear part of the hull and be hinged together with the rest sections of the flaps-pontoons, hydrofoil in the nose section of the hull. A 12.7-mm machine gun with a circular rotation is installed on the hull roof with a forward shift. The vehicle has a mass up to 5.5 tons.
EFFECT: enhanced speed and stability of motion afloat.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creating amphibian with open seat and common drive for simultaneous or in-turn operation of ground and water propulsion drives. Proposed amphibian vehicle with open seat is furnished with drive engine to operate, either in turn of simultaneously, ground propulsion or water propulsion drive made in form of jet drive by means of two independent clutches. Ground propulsion drive is made as all-wheel-drive. Drive engine is installed between ground propulsion axles under seat. Front and/or rear wheels are made for turning opposite to direction of vehicle movement when moving over water. According to proposed method, ground propulsion drive is engaged at water movement, and front and/or rear wheels are set into rotation opposite to direction of movement. At movement over water control is effected by means of rotary reactive nozzle and by control of front wheels.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians on pneumatic wheels.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has hull with smooth bottom and pneumatic wheels with drive and treads. Tires of pneumatic wheels are furnished with water-gripping treads. Skis are installed at adjustable angle of incidence under smooth bottom behind wheels at a distance from wheels. Skis are made adjustable in height through ski clearance and they have width not less than thickness of wheels. Ends of skis are truncated upwards, and redans are made before wheel drive axles.
EFFECT: possibility of moving over water at higher speed without considerable increase in engine power rating.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steering gear of amphibious vehicle has levers arranged in control cabin at working place of driver, and control tie-rods coupled with ground and water-propelled units. Proposed gear is furnished with turning mode selector arranged between said levers and control tie-rods. Turning mode selector is made for changing to control side gearbox distributors when moving over ground and to control rudders of water-propelled units and transmission of increased control force when moving over water. Change-over is provided through summing lever installed on axle under floor of control cabin, traction-and-lever mechanism furnished with hydraulic booster and made for converting translation of tie-rods into rotation of telescopic propeller shaft, and through mechanism to convert rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod. Steering tie-rod is coupled with inner blades of rudders of left-hand and right-hand water-propelled units. Turning mode selector can be made in form of roller clutches with rods coupled by link and installed for axial displacement by means of two-position link with fixing in operating positions by ball stop. Making of telescopic propeller shaft hydraulic system of rudder booster of water-propelled unit and mechanism for converting rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod is shown.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and operating characteristics of steering gear with possibility of control by levers both when moving over ground and over water.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian has hull including deck and bottom; located under hull are pneumatic bottles and elastic protective shock-absorbing bottom in form of skin made from strips of material possessing high abrading resistance which are laid transversely overlapping each other. Amphibian is provided with motor plant and control member. Bottom skin extends as far as upper portion of hull; it is secured at clearance between sides and skin due to projection of extreme pneumatic bottles beyond surface of bottom. Skin strips are secured by means of rope lacing on the outside of amphibian perimeter. In case of availability of fender guards on sides, rope lacing may be made by means of lacing eyes. It is good practice to build bottom of two parts: upper and lower with clearance between them which is filled with elastic deformation material. Pneumatic bottles located between bottom and skin may be assembled from components of different diameters. Extreme bottles may have similar diameters of greater magnitude. Diameter of remaining intermediate pneumatic bottles may be lesser as compared with diameter of extreme bottles.
EFFECT: simplified construction of amphibian; enhanced protection; reduced mass; enhanced strength; increased running speed; enhanced maneuverability and economical efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: amphibian aircraft control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes water touchdown sensor, unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors and computer for forming elevator automatic deflection signal. Control system includes optimal pitch angle setter and unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors includes sensor of speed made good through the water and present pitch angle sensor. Computer includes preset pitch angle stabilization unit and smooth connection unit.
EFFECT: improved safety characteristics; enhanced seaworthiness.
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibian vehicles, particularly, to post of hydraulic systems suspension. According to invention, vehicle has at least one wheel shifted out from vehicle body to support vehicle when it is used on the ground and retracted for use on water. Vehicle is furnished additionally with hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic fluid, piston installed for movement inside cylinder and dividing the cylinder into first and second chambers, device to connected piston with suspension lever mechanism connected with wheel, first two-position valve designed to control fluid flow between first and second chambers at least on section of working stroke of piston, and second two-position valve connected only with one of first and second chambers. When first valve is open, and second valve is closed, post provides functions of suspension and/or damping of wheel vibrations. When first valve is closed and second valve is open, post serves as drive to move wheel between extended and retracted positions.
EFFECT: provision of retraction and extension of wheel through distance exceeding that required for normal riding.
13 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.
EFFECT: improved layout of power train.
19 cl, 8 dwg