Method of separation of minerals

FIELD: enriching or classifying of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises transporting minerals as a multi-layered system, affecting the minerals by penetrating radiation that excites luminescence, recording light beam of luminescence from the side of penetrating radiation and from the opposite side, and separating the mineral comparing the results with a reference value. The transparency of mineral is additionally determined. The minerals are separated according their transparency to the penetrating radiation. The transparency of mineral is determined from the difference of logarithms or from the logarithm of the ratio of the light beams of mineral luminescence from the side of the exciting flux to that from the opposite side.

EFFECT: improved quality of separation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of enrichment and sorting of minerals, namely radiometric separation of ores, and is intended for the Department of luminescent minerals from the others, and can be used in beneficiation of diamond ores.

The known method for the separation of minerals, including exposure to penetrating radiation, the measurement of the intensity of luminescence of minerals from the falling stream of penetrating radiation, the comparison of the amplitude of the luminescence signal of the mineral with the specified threshold value and the separation of the necessary mineral for comparison (RF patent No. 2101102 C1 IPC VS 5/342, 10.01.1998).

This method does not have a high selectivity with the beneficiation of diamonds, because many minerals have a luminescence that is comparable to the luminescence of diamonds, and is extracted together with them in the concentrate. Separators that implement this method, extract not diamonds, as contained in the ore luminescense faction. This luminestra fraction consists of diamonds, zircon, calcite, plagioclase, rock salt (halite) and other minerals contained in kimberlites.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method for the separation of minerals, including transportation of minerals in the form of monosloevogo flux, irradiation mineralprocessing radiation, check the luminous flux of the luminescence of minerals by irradiation from the side opposite to the irradiated measurement of the total signal intensity of luminescence of minerals from the incident radiation flux and the side opposite to the incident radiation flux, the comparison of the total intensity of the luminescence signal with a preset threshold value of the luminescence intensity and the Department of necessary mineral for comparison (RF patent No. 2170628 C2, VS 5/342, 20.07.2001). This method partially takes into account the degree of transparency of minerals in the x-ray range. If the mineral is transparent to x-ray radiation, some of it will reach the opposite side of the sample and the latter will luminesce. The total luminous flux of luminescence from the mineral, transparent to x-rays increases, and this mineral to be extracted concentrate more likely.

The disadvantage of this method is the low selectivity of the separation of minerals. This shortcoming is a consequence of the fact that the luminous flux of the luminescence of minerals depends on many factors: the intensity of the excitation (Ro), the sample area (S), output luminescence (η). For example, if the separation is material in size from 3 to 6 mm, ceteris paribus Svetova the flow of luminescence of this material will change 4 times only, depending on the size of the pieces. The output luminescence η (the ratio of the energy of the light flux luminescence to the absorbed energy of the exciting radiation) can vary from sample to sample in the range from 1 to 0 (aluminerie samples). Really separators registered the change range of the output luminescence from 1 to 10-4. The signal of a sensor after amplification is the range from 10 V to 1 mV. If the crystal has a high yield of luminescence, the light flux of the luminescence from the side facing the excitation source, is enough to identify this sample as a useful mineral. On the contrary, if the mineral has a low yield of luminescence, the light output of the luminescence will be small on both sides and the crystal will be sent to the tails.

The purpose of the invention is improving the selectivity of separation due to additional define the degree of transparency of the mineral for penetrating radiation, which excites the luminescence.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the method of separation of minerals, including the irradiation of minerals penetrating radiation, stimulating luminescence, registration luminous flux luminescence of minerals from the side facing the radiation flux and the luminous flux of the luminescence of minerals from the side opposite to the incident light, and the branch m is Kerala by comparing the results with specified value which further define the degree of transparency of the mineral and mineral carry out on its degree of transparency for penetrating radiation.

Moreover, the degree of transparency of a mineral is determined by the difference of the logarithms of the light fluxes luminescence of minerals from the excitation current from the opposite side or to the logarithm of the relationship of light fluxes luminescence of minerals from the excitation current from the opposite side.

The separation of minerals by this method is carried out by separating two characteristics simultaneously: use the property of the mineral luminesce under the influence of the exciting x-ray radiation and mineral property to be transparent in the x-ray range. This combination of two distinctive features provides high selectivity of separation.

When developing a method proceeded from the following considerations. The transparency of the mineral for any radiation is generally defined as the logarithm of a relationship falling on mineral flux penetrating radiation to the stream passing through the mineral. If you want to determine the transparency of the mineral, for example, x-ray radiation, the measured fluxes incident on the mineral and passed through the mineral x-ray:

Ln(Ro/R)=βd

where Roand - streams respectively the incident and passed through the mineral x-ray radiation, watts/cm2,

β is the absorption coefficient, cm-1,

d is the thickness (size) of the mineral, see

If mineral drops flow penetrating radiation intensity of Ro, exciting luminescence (figure 1), luminestra the surface of the mineral from the incident radiation emits a luminous flux luminescence

Io=RoηS,

where η output luminescence,

S is a sectional area of the mineral, cm2.

Part of the penetrating radiation will pass through the mineral and excite the glow of its surface on the side opposite to the incident flow. Luminous flux luminescence back of a mineral is defined as

I=RoηSexp(-βd).

After the measurement luminous fluxes luminescence from the side facing the x-ray flux from the opposite side, we find that the ratio of the light fluxes luminescence will be

Io/I=(RoηS)/(RoηSexp(-βd))=exp(βd), where

Ln(Io/I)=βd, or LnIO-LnI=βd.

The obtained value βd is a measure of the degree of transparency of the mineral for penetrating radiation, which excites the luminescence.

Defined in this way the degree of transparency of the mineral for excitation) the treatment does not depend on the intensity of the exciting x-ray radiation, the sample area and yield of luminescence, and linearly depends only on the size (thickness) of the sample. This circumstance allows the separation of luminescent minerals according to the degree of their transparency to x-ray radiation from measurements of the light fluxes luminescence of these minerals from the side facing the flow of the exciting radiation, and on the opposite side, for example the separation of diamonds from other luminescent minerals.

Figure 1 shows the transformation of the mineral stream falling (Ro) and passed through the sample (R) penetrating radiation, which excites the luminescence, the light outputs (Io) and (I).

Figure 2 - results of measurements of the signals from the luminescent diamonds and zircons technological class size -6+3 mm, obtained by the method of the prototype (a) and the proposed method (b). On the x-axis is the sequence number of the crystal.

On the y - axis in figure 2(a) to the total signal luminescence of minerals from the incident radiation flux and the side opposite to the incident radiation flux (IO+I);

2(b) dierence of the logarithm of the light fluxes luminescence of minerals from the incident radiation flux from the opposite side (LnIO-LnI).

Figure 3 shows the block diagram of the device for implementing the method.

The device, which can be realitv is on the separation of minerals by the proposed method (figure 3), it consists of a hopper 1, the transporting mechanism 2 for monolayer supply of minerals, x-ray source 3, photomultiplier tubes 4, 5, logarithmorum amplifiers 6, 7, differential (differential) amplifier 8, a comparator (comparator) 9, the actuator 10, the receivers tail 11 and concentrated 12 products.

The device operates as follows. From the hopper 1 conveyor mechanism 2, intended for monosloevogo move minerals, the sorted material is fed into the registration area, where the minerals are exposed to x-ray radiation from the source 3. Those that lumines cent, recorded PMT 4 and 5, and the location of the PMT is that one of these 4 registers luminescence by excitation, and the second 5 - on the opposite side. The signals from both PMTS are served on identical logarithmic amplifiers 6 and 7. After taking the logarithm, the signals are sent to the differential amplifier 8, in which the subtraction received his signals. The obtained value, proportional to the degree of transparency of the mineral x-ray is supplied to the comparator 9, where it is compared with the preset on the basis of experimental data the value of transparency. If the difference of the logarithms of the signals is less than some specified, then m is neral is transparent to x-ray range. Depending on the magnitude of this difference comparator 9 generates a command to the actuator 10. The actuator directs the material in the tails 11 or receiver concentrate 12.

An electronic circuit for signal processing can be implemented using digital methods, with the blocks 6, 7, 8 and 9 are replaced by the processor. When using digital signal processing, it is preferable to produce the logarithm of the relationship threads luminescence of Ln(Io/I)=βd.

An example implementation of the method.

A specific example is illustrated by the division of diamonds and zircons technological class size -6+3 mm These minerals extracted together in concentrate separator operating on the way-similar, i.e. the intensity of the luminous flux of the luminescence from the incident radiation.

To the obtained concentrate was measured signals from the light fluxes luminescence from the incident radiation and on the opposite side and held them together in the method prototype. Data total signal luminescence of minerals from the incident radiation flux and the side opposite to the incident radiation flux (IO+I), depicted on figa. From figure 2(a), it follows that the separation of mixtures of these minerals is impossible and the prototype method.

Then measurements were taken St the interest of transparency the same collection according to the claimed method. It is known that the weakening of the mineral x-ray radiation is determined by its absorption of this radiation, and the absorption is proportional to the fourth power of the effective atomic number of the absorbing mineral β˜cZ4eff, where C is a constant that takes into account the spectral distribution of x-ray radiation type x-ray tube, etc. (Eversky. Atomic physics, T1, Leningrad, publishing house of technical and theoretical literature, 1951). For bremsstrahlung x-ray tube with a tungsten target, which is used in our experiments, when the voltage of the tube 40 kV constant C is 1.3×10-3that was determined experimentally.

Conducted on the basis of theoretical dependency calculations give for the diamond (carbon) Z=6 and zircon (ZrSiO4) Z=14.3 absorption coefficients: β≈1.7 cm-1and β≈55 cm-1. Accordingly, given the size of the minerals in the technological class size -6+3 mm, we find that the value of the β for diamonds of this class will be β≈1-0 .5 cm-1for zircons β≈30-15 cm-1.

Measured by the proposed method, the values of transparency (βa=LnIo-LnI) for diamonds close to the calculated one. For zircons in this way the obtained values transparency (βC=LnIo-LnI), equal ≈4±1 cm-1-6part of the x-ray radiation, while the photomultiplier tube located on the opposite side of the excitation radiation, registers of 1% or more of the light flux luminescence from the mineral, facing the flow of the exciting radiation. The penetration of radiation from the excitation on the opposite side is primarily due to the partial transparency of the considered minerals in the optical range. PMT located at the side opposite to the excitation, registers the flow of luminescence through the partially transparent crystal, which is the reason for significant differences in the calculated attenuation index.

By setting the threshold of separation"that matches the value of transparency Ln(Io)-Ln(I)=2.2 (based on experimental results), we get highly selective separation of these minerals (figb).

1. The method of separation of minerals, including transportation of minerals in the form of monosloevogo flux, irradiation of minerals penetrating radiation, stimulating luminescence, registration luminous flux luminescence from penetrating radiation from the opposite side and the Department of mineral on the results than the Oia with a given value, characterized in that further define the degree of transparency of minerals and mineral separation is done according to the degree of transparency of the mineral to penetrating radiation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the degree of transparency of a mineral is determined by the difference of the logarithms of the light fluxes luminescence of minerals from the excitation current from the opposite side.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the degree of transparency of a mineral is determined by the relationship to the logarithm of the light fluxes luminescence of minerals from the excitation current from the opposite side.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry; minerals dressing and grading.

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SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of upgrading and grading of minerals and may be used at dressing of the diamond-bearing ores and quality grading of the diamonds. The method provides for the optical rays irradiation of the minerals, registration of the scattered radiation in two spectral bands of the determined width, one of which contains the line of the Raman effect, the second band does not contain the line of the Raman effect, but envelops the first band from two sides, comparison of the signals in these two bands, identification and separation of the in compliance with the results of this comparison, in which the width of the spectral bands is regulated according to the condition: ▵ν10±δ,▵ν2= ν0±2δ-▵ν1, where: ▵ν1 - the bandwidth of the spectrum containing the line of the Raman effect;▵ν2 - the bandwidth of the spectrum, which does not contain the line of the Raman effect, but enveloping the first band from two sides; ν0 - the frequency of the maximum of the line of the Raman effect; δ - the band of the a frequencies of the selected line in the Raman effect spectrum. The device consists of: the storage hopper; the feeding mechanism; the source of the optical radiation; the inlet slit; the convergent lens; the dispersing component; the measuring channel with the outlet slit of the determined width, which outer surface is reflective; the reference channel receiving the light flux reflected from the outer surface of the exit slit of the measuring channel supplied with the outlet slit; imagers; the electronic unit; the executive actuating mechanism; recipients of the concentrate product and the tailings. At that the slits of the reference channel and the measuring channel are arranged coaxially and made adjustable. The technical result of the invention is the increased selectivity of the separation due to the more exact singling out of the Raman effect from the background noise.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity of the separation due to the more exact singling out of the Raman effect from the background noise.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: enriching or classifying of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises transporting minerals as a multi-layered system, affecting the minerals by penetrating radiation that excites luminescence, recording light beam of luminescence from the side of penetrating radiation and from the opposite side, and separating the mineral comparing the results with a reference value. The transparency of mineral is additionally determined. The minerals are separated according their transparency to the penetrating radiation. The transparency of mineral is determined from the difference of logarithms or from the logarithm of the ratio of the light beams of mineral luminescence from the side of the exciting flux to that from the opposite side.

EFFECT: improved quality of separation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity and the self-acting maintenance of the level of the separation, that allows to exercise the process of the separation of the minerals more efficiently.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exciting irradiation of minerals, luminescence filtration, registration of filtered luminescent light flux part and useful component separation according to a given light flux value. Light flux registration is performed in the zone of spectral luminescence density minimum of separated minerals. During light flux filtration blue-green spectral zone within the range of 450-550 nm is separated, e.g. through a couple of SZS-3 and SS-20 filters or interference filter with maximum permeability at 520-530 nm.

EFFECT: increased process selectivity.

3 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex

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