Parasiticidal compositions and methods for their application

FIELD: medicine, parasitology.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with preparations to be applied for parasites control. The suggested parasiticidal composition for local application for an animal contains pyrethroid or pyrethrin and a carrier. As a carrier it contains an alkylglycol ether with terpene or terpene's derivative. The method for fighting with infecting by ectoparasites in animals deals with local application of the suggested parasiticidal composition. The innovation enables to decrease crystallization of the active substance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

18 cl, 5 ex, 11 tbl

 

The present invention relates to compositions for combating ectoparasites. More specifically, the present invention relates to parasiticidal PYRETHROID - and paratransgenesis compositions, including solvents including ethers, glycols and/or terpenes.

Pyrethrins are natural compounds extracted from the flowers of the tropical species of the chrysanthemum (Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium). Pyrethroids are synthetic analogues of pyrethrins. And pyrethrins, and pyrethroids used to control parasites (such as fleas, flies and ticks ticks)that infect animals, as described, for example, in U.S. patent US 4020181. Preferred for this purpose, the PYRETHROID is permethrin.

To use a PYRETHROID or pyrethrin usually mixed with a liquid carrier and then topically applied to the animal, which must be free from flies or other ectoparasites. The preferred media are solvents that can be mixed with the active substance and to obtain a composition, which can be poured out on the beast. Media for pyrethroids and pyrethrins include, for example, aromatic oil, such as xylene and toluene, cyclohexanon, alcohols, corn oil, eucalyptus oil and ethers of ALKYLPHENOLS. While the relevant prior art soda is containing a PYRETHROID insecticidal compositions contained only up to 50 wt.% PYRETHROID, in U.S. patent US 5236954 disclosed compositions pyrethroids, in particular compositions permethrin in which the concentration of permethrin was more than 50%, provided the use of a simple ester alkylphenol, such as onomatology ether of diethylene glycol. Insecticidal composition having such a high concentration of active component can be used in small, easily plotted and yet effective doses.

At concentrations that comprise more than 50 wt.% the active component, the local application is more convenient and more acceptable from an aesthetic point of view. The higher the concentration, the smaller the dose required for effective control of ectoparasites. A lower dose can be applied to a relatively small area of the skin and therefore the owner is not covered by the solvent. This composition and method of application is particularly useful for the treatment of domestic animals, such as dogs, since the animal is not dripping the solvent and it is not sticky to the touch, if immediately after applying to him play. Such small doses can be applied to the animal without warning, which facilitates the application. Although the composition is applied as one or more small doses to specific parts of the animal body, PYRETHROID moves and effectively combats infection by ectoparasites almost in the eat the animal. Thus, compositions containing more than 50 wt.% PYRETHROID, provide many advantages that are not present in the compositions in which the maximum concentration is only up to 50 wt.% the total weight of the composition.

When greater concentrations of the active component, such as, for example, a solution of permethrin concentration of 65% or more in the composition does not contain a large quantity of solvent and found that pyrethroids and pyrethrins can yet to crystallize out of solution at lower temperatures, e.g. below about 20°C. Is unfavorable, because it means that the concentration of PYRETHROID or pyrethrin in solution and the amount available for application to the animal is reduced. In accordance with this need, the solvent system, which prevents or minimizes the crystallization of pyrethroids or pyrethrins at lower temperatures.

It is also necessary to develop a composition which would have a longer period of effectiveness than is provided by the products commercially available at the present time. Products that are effective for longer periods of time, obviously, are desirable because they are economical and require less frequent application to ensure effective protection.

This izobreteny who satisfies such a need by providing materials and methods for combating infection by parasites.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to parasiticidal compositions intended for topical application to an animal, which contains a PYRETHROID or pyrethrin and the media, and the specified media includes terpenes, such as d-limonene. In another embodiment of the present invention, the carrier also includes a simple broadcast alkylphenol. Preferred ethers of ALKYLPHENOLS include onomatology ether of propylene glycol, onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol and/or onomatology ether of diethylene glycol. Particularly preferred compositions contain PYRETHROID or pyrethrin in excess of 50% of the total weight of the composition. Even more preferred are compositions containing PYRETHROID or pyrethrin in number equal to not less than about 65% of the total weight of the composition. The preferred PYRETHROID is permethrin.

All the links provided in the present invention, is included for reference in their entirety.

The present invention relates to compositions for combating ectoparasites, which can be found on animals, particularly domestic animals, including dogs and cats, but also horses and animals, providing food, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. The composition can be used for processing actopan is its country visits, including fleas, ticks, causative agent of scabies, mites, mosquitoes, disturbing and stinging flies, lice, human disease vectors, as well as internal parasites such as nematodes, ankylostomas and parasitic worms.

Compositions corresponding to the present invention, include PYRETHROID or pyrethrin and media, including the terpene or derivative of a terpene or a combination of the terpene or derivative of terpenes with other media, such as a simple broadcast alkylphenol. Unexpectedly, it was found that, if as a carrier to use a terpene such as d-limonene (CAS#5989-27-5; CAS# is the number in the database of the journal Chemical Abstracts), the crystallization can be minimized and/or prevented. In a preferred embodiment, the carrier includes a combination of a terpene with monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol or a combination of terpenes with monomethylamine ether of dipropyleneglycol (CAS#107-98-2). Preferably, the composition includes from about 30 to about 70 wt.% the terpene or a combination of the terpene - simple broadcast alkylphenol.

Pyrethroids, which can be used to implement the present invention include permethrin, phenothrin, acrinathrin, allethrin, bioallethrin, bifenthrin, bioresmethrin, cicloprofen, cypermethrin, cigalotrin, lambda cigalotrin, cyfluthrin, cyphenothrin, tralomethrin, telocity, the deltas of the trine, empenthrin, fenpropathrin, kadethrin, prallethrin, pyrethrins, resmethrin, fluvalinate, tefluthrin, tetramethrin, TRANS-flutin, flovent, flumethrin and fenvalerate. For use in the present invention the most preferred PYRETHROID is permethrin (CAS#52645-53-1). Permethrin has a molecular weight equal to 391,28 g/mol, and technical permethrin contains from about 25 to 80 wt.% the CIS-isomer and from about 20 to 75 wt.% the TRANS-isomer. For insecticidal compositions corresponding to the present invention, suitable technical permethrin and preferably to contain the minimum amount of TRANS-isomer, equal to about 45 wt.%, and the minimum amount of the CIS isomer, equal to about 35 wt.%.

In ectoparasiticide compositions of the present invention, the concentration of permethrin or other PYRETHROID is usually from about 30 to about 95 wt.%, and the preferred value is not less than about 45 wt.%, and even more preferred from 50 to 75 wt.%. The remainder of the composition is a carrier.

In addition to d-limonene for use in the present invention other suitable terpenes, including α-pinene, β-pinene, β-MIRCEN, terpinolene. In addition, as a carrier or a component carrier can be used derivatives of terpenes, is whether terpenoid. When used in the present invention, the terms "derived terpenes", or "terpenoid"includes terpene alcohols, such as geraniol, terpineol and linalool, terpene aldehydes, such as citronellal, and terpene ketones, such as polygon, which are all suitable for use as a carrier or a component carrier in the compositions of the present invention.

The terpene or alcohol, aldehyde or ketone of terpenes in the compositions of the present invention, can be used as the sole liquid carrier. Alternatively, the carrier can include a combination of a terpene or derivative of terpenes with other media, such as a simple broadcast hexyleneglycol or alkylphenol. Preferred ethers of ALKYLPHENOLS include onomatology ether of propylene glycol, onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol and onomatology ether of diethylene glycol. If you use a mixture of terpene or derivative of a terpene with a simple air alkylphenol, it is preferable that the mixture contains at least 10 wt.% terpene component. Preferably, the ratio of terpene to the number of ordinary ether alkylphenol ranged from about 3:1 to about 1:3. More preferably, the ratio of terpene to the number of ordinary ether alkylphenol sostav the lo from about 2:1 to about 1:2. In combination with terpene or terpene derivative, you can use other conventional media.

Compositions corresponding to the present invention are effective against ectoparasites and are non-irritating and non-toxic to the host. Because it is possible to prepare compositions with a high concentration of the active component, they can easily be applied in small but effective doses. A particularly effective method of application consists in applying the composition to one or more separate parts of the host body, such as applying a small spot of the composition to the animal in its blades. Larger animals can be treated, causing the second spot of the composition in the rump. It is assumed that the PYRETHROID component moves within a relatively short period of time and effectively covers the entire surface of the host body. For the application do not require special skills, so that pet owners can do this without the help of health workers, and without the use of special equipment.

In this composition, if desired, you can add other inert components. Such components include substances that contribute to the distribution on the surface, synergists, attractants, repellents, substances that improve edge the Oia, surfactants, stabilizers, conditioners for the skin, perfumes, substances that mask the odor of a substance, the batter taste, the substance that gives hair Shine, and colorants. In the composition, corresponding to this invention, it is possible to include additional active ingredients, such as other insecticides and insect growth regulators.

Suitable substances that promote the distribution on the surface, are liquids which are particularly easy themselves are distributed on the skin. Commonly used substance, contributing to the distribution on the surface is isopropylmyristate. Desirable characteristics of the substances contributing to the distribution on the surface, which is sometimes referred to as distributing oils, typically well known to specialists in this field of technology. Attractants include pheromones, such as 2,6-dichlorphenol. Repellents include citronellol, diethyltoluamide, dimethylphthalate etc.

Other inert components that can be used in the present invention are substances that improve adhesion. Substances that improve adhesion include carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives and starch derivatives, polyacrylates, alginates, gelatin, gum Arabic, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, copolymers is livinallongo ether with maleic anhydride, the polyethylene glycols, paraffins, oils, waxes and gidrirovannoe castor oil, colloidal silicic acid and mixtures of these substances.

Compositions corresponding to the present invention, typically do not contain surfactants, but if desired, you can enable them. Surfactants (representing emulsifiers and wetting agents) include (i) anionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate, sulfate ethers of fatty alcohols and acids and monoethanolamine salts of esters of phosphoric acid and mono-dialkylphenols ether, (ii) cationogenic surfactants, such as cetyltrimethylammonium, (iii) affilie surfactants such as disodium-N-lauramidopropyl and lecithin, and (iv) nonionic surfactants, such as, for example, polyoxyethylene castor oil, polyoxyethylene servicemanual, servicemonitor, ethyl alcohol, glycerylmonostearate, polyoxyethylenated and alkylphenol ethers.

To prevent chemical decomposition, which occurs in the case of some active compounds, it is also possible to use stabilizers, and they include, for example, antioxidants, such as Tocopherols, butylhydroxyanisole, Buti shall hydroxytoluene and carbodiimide, for example, 2,2,6,6-tetraisopropyldisiloxane, and sinks, such as epichlorohydrin. Colorants include basic dyes, which are soluble in the carrier corresponding to the present invention, such as Sudan red and butter yellow gold.

For the preparation of insecticidal compositions corresponding to the present invention, PYRETHROID heated to 65-80°while containing crystals will not turn into liquid. The liquid is then stirred until homogeneous. In a separate unheated vessel is placed a liquid solvent carrier. Then in a vessel add the permethrin. After that, permethrin and solvent-carrier is stirred until homogeneous. The vessel is also possible to add additives such as those listed above (for example, the air conditioner for the skin, perfume, a substance that gives hair Shine, and substances that contribute to the distribution of the surface and mix with the song.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention permethrin heated to about 65°C. In a clean container was placed a mixture of d-limonene with monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol composition 2:1 or 1:2, add permethrin and mix until smooth. After making permethrin in this simple liquid mixture this mixture can serve as a basis for preparation of compositions which local actions in other physical States. For example, you can add gelling agents and to obtain the composition of the local action in the form of gels and sols. You can add gases and to obtain compositions local actions that can be used in the form of aerosols. To obtain ointments and pastes to the liquid mixture is possible to add other substances used in the preparation of the compositions.

Insecticidal composition corresponding to the present invention is suitable for application to any mammal, including humans, horses, dogs, cattle, giraffes and domesticated animals such as dogs. Because it is non-toxic, it can be applied to young animals, for example, at the age of 3 weeks, as well as in adult animals. It is also effective against various parasites, including ticks, fleas, flies, sheep flies and ticks.

The composition corresponding to the present invention is particularly useful for horses and other large mammals, as necessary dose is much less than that used in the case of a PYRETHROID compositions having a concentration of 50 wt.% or below. Insecticidal composition corresponding to the present invention are suitable for combating arthropodal, insects and acaridae ectoparasites, such as fleas, ticks, flies, sheep flies and ticks. Most preferably used is to use it to fight with ixodid ticks and fleas in dogs.

The composition can be applied to an animal host by any method suitable for application of topical compositions, for example by applying small drops of liquid composition on the mammal. One advantage of using a highly concentrated composition is that only needed a small amount. Put thus, the composition, apparently, moves, and PYRETHROID component is supplied to other parts of the body of the animal. This effect movement or distribution allows for combating ectoparasites apply PYRETHROID almost the entire surface of the animal's body.

Composition having a concentration of PYRETHROID exceeding 50 wt.%, can be packaged in a package containing a single dose. For example, equal to one (1) cubic centimeter (cm3) dose liquid composition containing permethrin and solvent ethanol, can be Packed in soft tube of 1 cm3. Because the composition is not actively used, organic solvents, such as xylene, cyclohexanone and toluene, has a wider choice of materials for the tube. The vessel, containing a single dose, make the storage and removal more convenient for pet owners. Multiple doses of liquid compositions can be packaged in a container with a capacity of more than 1 cm3. The fact that the composition has a bol is e high concentration, leads to decrease the necessary size of containers for multiple doses, as well as containers for single doses intended for larger animals. You can use the packaging system described in U.S. patent US 5344018.

Since the composition has a high concentration of PYRETHROID, causing the animal a small amount in the form of spots or stripes will be effective to combat infestation by insects and arachnids parasites in mammals within 3-24 hours after application and for up to 4 weeks after application. This method is non-toxic and concentrated composition does not irritate the skin of animals. Although the number of compositions corresponding to the present invention, which should be applied to ensure effective insecticidal activity depends on the size of the animal and the precise concentration and the ability to highlight specific composition, found that the amount of the preferred liquid composition equal to 1 cm3effective for dogs weighing less than 15 kg is Equal to 1-2 ml volume, preferably containing 65 wt.% permethrin allocates 65-130 mg permethrin. Found that for dogs weighing more than 15 kg can be effectively applied 1 cm3compositions containing 65 wt.% permethrin, between the shoulder blades and another 1 cm3- on the root of the tail. In a preferred embodiment, Khujand is exercise for every kilogram of body weight of the host should be applied approximately 33 mg of the composition or more.

The present invention is described in more detail in the following examples, which are intended for illustration only, as to a person skilled in the art should be apparent, numerous modifications and changes.

Examples

Example 1

Andin
ComponentContent, wt.%Quantity (g)Content wt.%Quantity (g)
Permethrin (purity, 95.5%of)65,00680,6365,00680,63
d-Limonene35,00319,37*11,55115,50
Onomatology ether of propylene glycol--23,45203,87*
100,001000,00100,001000,00
*Products based on 100% active ingredient. The purity was taken into account by adding to the product of the main inert component.

The container is placed permethrin, and then the component(s) of the solvent. Then start mixing and continue it for 5 min or until the solution becomes homogeneous,if necessary, by heating for dissolution of permethrin. The contents of the container are packaged in glass containers, sealed and properly labeled.

Example 2

Andin
ComponentContent wt.%Quantity (g)Content, wt.%Quantity (g)Content, wt.%Quantity (g)
Premarin (purity of 94.6%)65,0068,7165,0068,7165,0068,71
Geraniol35,0031,29*23,3523,3517,50of 17.5
Onomatology ether of propylene glycol--11,657,95**17,5013,79**
100,00100,00100,00100,00100,00100,00
*Products based on 100% active ingredient. The purity was taken into account by adding to the product geraniol.
**These products are based on 100% active ingredient. The purity was considered by probable the Oia in product monoethylene ether of propylene glycol.

These compositions are prepared in the manner indicated in Example 1.

Example 3

Conducted research to determine whether any solvent or mixture of solvents is the best solvent to permethrin than methylcarbamoyl.

Evaluated several types of solvents. For the evaluation of selected solvents, which have better solubility at refrigerator temperatures [4°] and freezer [-10°] and approved by the EPA (environmental protection Agency environment) for use for animals (40 C.F.R. §180.1001 (e)).

The investigated solventManufacturer
Hexyleneglycol [2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol]Shell Chemical
Methylcarbamoyl® [onomatology ether of diethylene glycol]Union Carbide
Dowanol® RM [onomatology ether of propylene glycol]Dow Chemical
Dowanol® DPM [onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol]Dow Chemical
d-Limonene [1-methyl-4-Isopropenyl-1-cyclohexen]Florachem Corp.

Use solvents, obtained from the respective manufacturers or with the help of Ashland Chemical.

In each of Examples 3A-3D permethrin dissolved in rastvoriteleyj in mixtures of solvents in accordance with the method of Example 1. These solutions are poured into a test tube with a volume of 100 ml with screw caps. These tubes are placed in a bath of cold water and brought to equilibrium with the bath temperature. After the solution reaches equilibrium in the bath, in the composition make the seed crystals permethrin. Compositions with seed vigorously shaken, placed in a bath and left in the bath for 24 hours. Then look whether there was crystallization, then vigorously stirred and placed in a bath for an additional period of time. Once there was a further crystallization of selected samples of the supernatant liquid. Samples of the supernatant liquid analyzing the concentration of permethrin and the ratio of CIS/TRANS isomers.

Example 3A

To determine the relative solubility of permethrin in different solvents using the cold bath, the initial temperature is set to 25°C. (Water bath contains a mixture of ethylene glycol with water having a freezing point below -15°C.)

Prepare source solutions permethrin concentration of 70%. Make payment to the purity of permethrin, what is the typical content of 74.3 wt.% technical permethrin and 25.7 wt.% the solvent.

If crystallization does not occur, the solution further added permethrin, so that the s concentration of permethrin was 75%, and the bath temperature is reduced to 20°C. At both temperatures in the solution contribute seed crystals permethrin. After 24 hours, the tubes inspect and determine the relative degree of crystallization, which could occur in each solution. If crystallization occurs, the vessels selected samples of the supernatant liquid and the bath temperature is reduced to 15°C. Then the samples are analyzed to determine the concentrations of permethrin and the ratio of CIS/TRANS-isomers. If some of the samples fully harden at 15°C, the bath temperature increase to 17.5°S. Of solutions hexyleneglycol and methylcarbazole® (onomatology ether of diethylene glycol) repeatedly take samples for analysis.

The results of the initial study (table 1) show that d-limonene is an excellent solvent for permethrin, because the solutions in d-limonene is less crystals permethrin. Solvents onomatology ether of propylene glycol and onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol better dissolve permethrin than methylcarbamoyl®. Found that these two simple ether dissolve well permethrin, but when you study at low temperatures in monopetalum ether of propylene glycol found fewer crystals than in mono-methyl ether of dipropyleneglycol (table 3).

DN - data not what.

Example 3B

After determining the relative solubility of permethrin in various pure solvents initiated a second study to determine whether mixing the best solvents to increase the solubility of permethrin in solution. Explore the following solvent mixtures: onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol/d-limonene and mono-methyl ether of propylene glycol/d-limonene.

These solvent mixtures tested at ratios 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and then 8:2 and 9:1 (the first number refers to one of their simple esters of glycol, and the second number refers to the d-limonene). The concentration of permethrin in these mixtures vary from 55 to 75 wt.% permethrin. In all cases take into account the purity of permethrin, so the above percentage values are the actual concentrations of permethrin.

These solutions permethrin placed in a water bath at low temperatures (0, 5, 10, 20, and 25°) and make seed. This leads to a saturated solution of permethrin in the mixture of solvents and at a specific temperature. This information is then used to establish the composition with the best solubility of permethrin at low temperature.

ISS is adowanie mixed solvents (table 2-5) show what a mixture of d-limonene with any of the ethers of glycols lead to solutions in which permethrin at low temperatures dissolves better than any of the pure solvent used in the present study. These data also show that when the temperature decreases, the amount of the CIS isomer, which remains in solution, in a mixture of d-limonene with monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol and a mixture of d-limonene with monomethylamine ether of dipropyleneglycol more than any of the pure solvent.

22,89
Table 4

The solubility of permethrin in mixtures of ethers of glycols/d-limonene at 5°C.
70% permethrin in PM*/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%45,98grade of 20.0666,05to 2.29
67%42,9325,4068,331,69
50%43,8325,8269,651,70
33%44,4867,361,94
0%47,0017,7964,792,64
65% permethrin in PM*/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%39,8923,3362,731,71
67%3826,1364,861,48
50%7324.22 to64,051,65
33%39,8222,5363,081,8
0%40,5516,24to 59.512,66
70% permethrin in PDM**/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%45,98grade of 20.0666,05to 2.29
67%43,2326,1569,381,65
50%4333 25,1668,481,72
33%44,1724,9869,641,77
0%47,5218,0465,562,64
65% permethrin in PDM**/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%39,8923,3362,731,71
67%38,4327,1165,551,42
50%39,3625,4764,831,55
33%39,4024,5263,921,61
0%42,8917,6460,532,43

Table 5

The solubility of permethrin in mixtures of ethers of glycols/d-limonene at 10°C.
70% permethrin in PM*/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, % Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%41,1828,1269,301,46
67%43,8725,17EUR 69.041,74
50%44,5923,8268,401,87
33%45,0722,7467,801,98
20%45,5622,7666,921,94
10%45,6621,0466,702,17
0%No dataNo dataNo dataNo data
65% permethrin in PDM**/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%38,3227,5665,881,39
67%38,1427,8265,951,37
50%38,9525,5164,451,53
33%40,1323,77 63,891,70
20%39,0325,3364,351,54
10%40,4321,6562,081,87
0%No dataNo dataNo dataNo data
70% permethrin in PDM**/d-limonene
d-Limonene in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%41,1828,1269,301,46
67%44,6223,3667,981,91
50%44,5022,2966,702,00
33%45,2622,1267,382,05
20%45,6922,0267,712,08
10%46,1020,8566,95of 2.21
0%46,5420,0466,582,32
65% permethrin in PDM**/d-limonene
d-lim is replaced in a mixture of solvents, %TRANS-isomer, %CIS-isomer, %Just permethrin, %The ratio of isomers TRANS/CIS
100%38,3227,5665,881,39
67%39,43is 25.5064,921,55
50%39,2725,0464,301,60
33%41,5523,3964,931,78
20%40,3723,1063,461,75
10%41,0620,3661,422,02
0%41,2921,6162,901,91
*PM - onomatology ether of propylene glycol. **PDM - onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol.

Example 3C

The third study was undertaken to determine whether the observed increased solubility at lower concentrations of permethrin in these mixtures of solvents. This study was conducted for mixtures of solvents, d-limonene with monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol at -15°C. Solutions of permethrin is the concentration of 30% in mixtures of solvents, d-limonene with monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol is prepared and placed in a water bath at a low temperature.

Use the following solvent system:

100% d-limonene;

2:1 d-limonene/onomatology ether of propylene glycol;

1:1 d-limonene/onomatology ether of propylene glycol;

1:2 d-limonene/onomatology ether of propylene glycol;

1:4 d-limonene/onomatology ether of propylene glycol;

100% onomatology ether of propylene glycol.

The temperature is set equal to -15°C. the Solutions are placed in the bath and give them to crystallize and to reach equilibrium. Take samples of the supernatant solution and analyzing the concentration of permethrin and the ratio of the isomers.

The results of this study (table 6) show that the solubility of permethrin observed at concentrations above 50%, is observed at -15°when this initial concentration permetrina equal to 30%. thus, in mixed solvents increased the solubility of the CIS isomer when compared with the same initial concentration in any of the solvents in pure form at a lower temperature equal to -15°C. This increase for the CIS isomer leads to an increase in the total solubility of permethrin in these mixtures of solvents, even if it turns out that the total solubility of permethrin at this temperature is less than the initial 30%.

Table 6
d-Limonene in composition, %The permethrin solution, %The ratio of TRANS/CIS isomers
10025,932,05
67allocates 27,511,66
5027,201,75
3325,522,05
2024,782,33
023,572,83

Example 3D

The objective of this study was to determine the solubility of permethrin at 20°C. Prepare a 70% solution of permethrin in monopetalum ether of propylene glycol. Take samples of technical permethrin and the source of 70% solution to determine the concentration of permethrin and the ratio of TRANS/CIS. The solution is placed in a bath and continuously stirred. The bath temperature is reduced to 0°C. After the solution will crystallize, the bath temperature was raised to 20°and while stirring the suspension allowed to reach equilibrium within 3 days. Then on consecutive days take samples of the supernatant liquid. The crystals are separated from the liquid by filtration and the crystals washed with petroleum ether. All samples of the supernatant liquid and crystals analyzing the total content of permethrin and the ratio isomerate washed, removing the remaining solution, which could contaminate and affect the analysis results.

The results of this study are shown in table 7. These data indicate that permethrin has good solubility in monopetalum ether of propylene glycol. However, as found for all solutions of permethrin, CIS-isomer crystallizes and precipitates out of solution when the temperature is low enough. The results of this experiment show that at 20°solubility of permethrin exceeds 70%, but the ratio of the isomers is shifted to the TRANS-isomer and CIS-isomer at this temperature, is removed from the solution.

Table 7
The content of permethrin, %The ratio of TRANS/CIS isomers
Analysis of technical permethrin96,89of 1.34
Initial analysis of the 70% solution72,86of 1.34
Analysis after establishing equilibrium72,931,41
On the 2nd day after equilibrium72,961,41
Analysis of the crystals100% of the CIS isomer0

The results obtained in Examples 3A-3D at low temperature the arts, show that the greater is the solubility of permethrin and d-limonene. The order of decreasing solubility in the studied solutions is as follows:

(a) d-lemon,

(b) onomatology ether of propylene glycol,

(c) onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol,

(d) onomatology ether of diethylene glycol,

(e)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (hexyleneglycol).

In systems of mixed solvents CIS-isomer of pyrethrin detects unusual and unexpected increase in solubility at these temperatures. At concentrations below 50% continues to see an increase in the solubility of pyrethrin in mixed solvents as compared to its solubility in these solvents separately.

The solubility of permethrin in monopetalum ether of propylene glycol exceeds 70%, but the CIS-isomer crystallizes at 0°and remains crystalline at 20°when the concentration of permethrin in the solution of approximately 70%.

The TRANS-isomer of permethrin has a very good solubility in the selected solvent. CIS-isomer in these mixtures solvent has a high solubility in comparison with solutions in pure solvents.

Example 4

Efficiency of 65% permethrin 5 solvents and mixtures of solvents. Six dogs (3<15 kg and 3≥15 kg) randomly divided into the following 7 groups of clicks is ODI.

Processing groupTrack
165% permethrin and d-limonene
265% permethrin in a mixture (2:1) d-limonene with Dowanol® PM (onomatology ether propylene glycol)
365% permethrin in a mixture (1:1) d-limonene with Dowanol® PM
465% permethrin in a mixture (1:2) d-limonene with Dowanol® PM
565% permethrin in Dowanol® PM
665% permethrin in methylcarbamoyl® (insecticide for dogs Defend EXspot®)
7Control (without treatment).

Each processing group includes 3 dogs with a weight of <15 kg and 3 dogs with weight ≥15 kg Each dog with a weight of <15 kg receives 1.0 ml of the investigated compositions, which are applied on the dorsal skin of the neck. Each dog with a lot of ≥15 kg gets 2.0 ml of the investigated compositions, and 1.0 ml applied to the dorsal skin of the neck and 1.0 ml applied to the skin of the upper part of the tail.

Fleas (100 recormnended adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis) is applied on each dog in the days of the study -6, -1, 4, 11, 18, 25 and 32. Ixodid ticks (50 recormnended adult Amblyomma americanum) is applied on each dog in the days of the study -1, 3, 9, 16, 23 and 30. Fleas counted in days study 3, 7, 14, 2, 28 and 35. Ticks find, count and remove with dogs. Then dogs combed through sverhchelovek comb for fleas and live fleas were removed and counted, vicesima each dog for at least 5 min or until until you no longer find live fleas or ticks.

The people doing the calculations fleas and ticks, working blindly, not knowing which group applies to every dog. After processing all compositions signs of skin irritation not detected.

Effectiveness is evaluated using the formula of Abbott for geometric mean:

The effectiveness of various compositions against Ctenocephalides felis described in table 8.

Table 8
SolventEfficiency, % (fleas)
Day 3Day 7Day 14Day 21Day 28Day 35
d-Limonene90100100908849
GR/d-l1:29598100969863
GR/d-l 1:190 99100959775
GR/d-l 2:19010099989581
Dowanol® PM94100100999881
Methylcarbamoyl89100989648Discontinued
Control(81)(82)(81)(80)(82)(77)
PM=Dowanol PM (onomatology ether of propylene glycol (PG)

d-l=d-limonene

() indicates the geometric mean number of parasites in the con-control dogs(n=6)

Compositions containing Dowanol® PM, find initial efficiency equal to 90-95%, within 3 days after treatment. High levels of efficiency (93-100%) for compositions containing Dowanol® PM observed at 28 days after treatment, and 35 days after treatment efficiency is reduced to 63-81%. Between different compositions containing Dowanol® PM not show statistically significant differences of the logarithms of the average number of fleas per dog (p>0,05).

Composition permethrin containing only d-limonene, the possession is t efficiency profile, similar to the profile for songs Dowanol® PM, but after 4 weeks, the efficiency drops to 88%. The logarithm of the mean number of fleas per dog for permethrin in combination with d-limonene 5 weeks after treatment does not detect statistically significant differences from control (p>0,05).

In contrast, the initial efficiency of 65% permethrin in methylcarbazole (insecticide for dogs Defend® EXspot®) against fleas in 3 days after treatment is approximately 90%. However, 4 weeks after treatment, the logarithm of the mean number of fleas per dog if processing 65% permethrin in methylcarbazole does not detect statistically significant differences (p>0,05) from the control.

Ixodes Lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) is subjected to treatment with compositions permethrin in 3 days (counting 3 days), 4 days (counting 7 days) or 5 days (counting after 14, 21 and 28 days). As shown in table 9, after 3 days were destroyed approximately 58% of the ticks (range: 49-65%)treated with various compositions permethrin. Almost all ticks treated with various compositions within 4 or 5 days, were destroyed within 2 weeks after treatment dogs. The effectiveness of the compositions with Dowanol® PM and d-limonene decreased to approximately 87% (range: 78-94%) after 3 weeks of processing further to approximately 62% (range: 45-72%) 4 weeks after treatment.

3 weeks after treatment, the effectiveness of the compositions of Dowanol® PM, Dowanol® PM/d-limonene 2:1 and Dowanol® PM/d-limonene 1:1 against Ixodes ticks lone star is 88, 94 and 88%, respectively. However, the effectiveness of the compositions of Dowanol® Dowanol PM and® PM/d-limonene 1:1 through 3 weeks after treatment statistically significantly different from 90%.

4 days after treatment of ticks composition for dogs (counting 7 days) efficacy of compositions with methylcarbazole® against Ixodes ticks lone star is 98%. The efficiency decreases to 87% after 2 weeks of treatment dogs. However, equal to 87% efficiency observed after 2 weeks of treatment dogs, not statistically significantly different from 90% (p>0,10).

Table 9
SolventEfficiency, % (Lone Star ticks)
Day 3Day 7Day 14Day 21Day 28
d-Limonene6596978846
GR/d-l 1:25999917864
GR/d-l 1:16198 9588*59
GR/d-l 2:15797879468
Dowanol® PM56959888*72
Methylcarbamoyl499887*788
Control(31)(27)(22)(29)(21)
PM=Dowanol® PM (onomatology ether propylene glycol)

d-l=d-limonene

() indicates the geometric mean number of parasites in control dogs(n=6)

* indicates that the efficiency (%) statistically significantly different from 90% (p>0,10).

Example 5

In this study, the dogs associated the length of the effective impact of various insecticidal compositions in relation to the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and brown ixodid ticks dogs, Rhipicephalus sanguineus when applied in the form of spots in the field.

Forty dogs of both sexes of different breeds weighing between 2.2 to 31.5 kg randomly divided into groups of 10 dogs each. Four groups of treatment are as follows:

65% permethrin 35% Dowanol® PM (onomatology ether of propylene glycol).

Negative control: untreated who's dog.

Positive control: Defend®EXspot® (65% in the methyl carbitol).

65% permethrin (1:1) 35% Dowanol® PM and d-limonene.

On day 0 each dog groups 1, 3 and 4 are treated once. Each dog weighing <15 kg receives 1.0 ml of the investigated compositions (local application spot insecticide)applied to the skin of the back of the dog between the shoulder blades. Each dog weighing ≥15 kg gets 2.0 ml of the investigated compositions, and 1.0 ml applied to the skin of the back of the dog between the shoulder blades and 1.0 ml applied to the skin of the back of the dog before the root of the tail.

Dogs infect with 100 adults recormnended fleas (both sexes) and 50 adults recormnended brown ticks (both sexes) in the days of the study -5, -1, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40.

Fleas and ticks are counted and removed 2 days after treatment and weekly for 2 days after each infection. Ticks find, count and remove with dogs. Then dogs combed through sverhchelovek comb for fleas and live fleas were removed and counted, vicesima each dog for at least 5 min or until until you no longer find live fleas. The people doing the calculations fleas and ticks, working blindly, not knowing which group applies to every dog. Work "blindly" is provided by two people: one takes the dog out of the group and brings to explore the second is a ne fellow.

The condition of the dogs checked daily and check for signs of disease or adverse reactions. Whenever infestation handling sites and examine for signs of irritation.

Effectiveness is evaluated using the formula of Abbott (see Example 4). The results are shown in tables 10 and 11.

Table 10
SolventEfficiency, % (cat fleas)
Day 2Day 7Day 14Day 21Day 28Day 35Day 42
PMabr93.1of 99.199,099,596,294,182,2
GR/d-lb1:193,098,496,792,474,964,6-
MSc91,598,399,294,592,483,968,6

Tablica
SolventEfficiency, % (brown dog ticks)
&x0200A; Day 2Day 7Day 14Day 21Day 28Day 35Day 42
PMa85,499,3of 99.1for 95.392,6the 13.491,7
GR/d-lb1:189,499,610098,491,890,075,5
MSc10098,698,895,094,394,391,7
a - monomethylamine ether of propylene glycol

b - d-lemon

C - methylcarbamoyl

A high degree of efficacy against fleas ensured by using a combination of solvents, lasts for 21 days after treatment and unexpectedly reduced between the 21st and 28th days. Similarly, in this example, a high degree of efficiency in relation to brown ixodid ticks ensured by using a combination of solvents, lasts 35 days after treatment and then gradually decreases. The results are shown in tables 8-11 show that for permethrin applying a combination of solvents in addition to preimushestvo the solubility of the ri low temperature provides effective against ectoparasites.

As should be clear to a person skilled in the technical field, in the present invention it is possible to make many modifications and changes without deviating from its scope and nature. Described in the present invention specific embodiments of the above are examples only and assumes that the invention is limited only by the attached claims together with all its equivalents.

1. Parasiticidal composition for topical application to an animal containing PYRETHROID or pyrethrin and media, wherein the media contains a simple allylglycidyl ether with terpene or terpene derivative.

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as terpene contains d-limonene.

3. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as a simple alkylglycerol ether contains a compound selected from the group comprising onomatology ether of propylene glycol, onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol and onomatology ether of diethylene glycol.

4. The composition according to claim 3, characterized in that as a simple alkylglycerol ether contains onomatology ether of propylene glycol.

5. The composition according to claim 4, characterized in that in contains PYRETHROID permethrin.

6. The composition according to claim 5, characterized in that as terpene contains d-limonene.

7. Songs is I according to claim 5, characterized in that it contains permethrin in excess of 50% by weight of the composition.

8. The composition according to claim 7, characterized in that it contains permethrin in the amount equal to 65% by weight of the composition.

9. The composition according to claim 3, characterized in that as a simple alkylglycerol ether contains simple onomatology broadcast dipropyleneglycol.

10. The composition according to claim 9, characterized in that in contains PYRETHROID permethrin.

11. The composition according to claim 10, characterized in that it contains permethrin in excess of 50% by weight of the composition.

12. The composition according to claim 11, characterized in that as terpene contains d-limonene.

13. The composition according to item 12, characterized in that it contains permethrin in the amount equal to 65% by weight of the composition.

14. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains medium in the amount from about 30 to about 70% by weight of the composition.

15. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that in contains PYRETHROID permethrin, and as a carrier - d-limonene and simple onomatology ether of propylene glycol, the concentration of permethrin is more than 50% by weight of the composition.

16. The composition according to item 15, characterized in that it contains permethrin in the amount of 65% by weight of the composition.

17. Way of dealing with the contamination of animal ectoparasites, including local on Esenia parasiticidal composition according to claim 1 or 6.

18. The method according to 17, in which the animal is the dog.



 

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