Method for reducing of acrylamide formation in heat treated foodstuff, obtained foodstuff and application of asparaginase in said method

FIELD: food processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes application of foodstuff ingredient containing free asparagine, asparagine inactivation in foodstuff ingredient by contacting of asparagine-containing foodstuff ingredient with asparaginase. Said foodstuff ingredient is used as component in mixture for foodstuff production. Mixture is heated to produce foodstuff. Method of present invention makes it possible to reduce acrylamide content in foodstuff by 99.9 % or more.

EFFECT: foodstuff of decreased acrylamide content.

17 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

 

1. The technical field

This invention relates to a method of reducing acrylamide in thermally processed foods. This invention allows to produce food products with significantly lower acrylamide levels. The method is based on the creation of obstacles to the formation of acrylamide, which begins with the amino acid asparagine.

2. Description of the prior art

Chemical compound acrylamide is used in industry for a long time to process water, increase the recovery of oil, paper manufacturing, flocculation agents, thickeners, processing ore and tissues, keeping the fold. Recently, a variety of food products have shown positive results when testing for the presence of a monomer of acrylamide. Particularly large amounts of acrylamide were found in carbohydrate foods subjected to high temperature processing. For food products, which gave a positive test for arylamide include coffee, cereals, biscuits, potato chips, crackers, potatoes, grilled French bread and rolls, fried breaded meat. Since the discovery of acrylamide in food products has occurred recently, the mechanism of its formation is not yet installed. But because the presence of monomer acrylamide is in food is undesirable, it would be useful to have a way to reduce its content or completely eliminate its presence in thermally processed foods.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is a method of reducing acrylamide in thermally processed foods, which in one embodiment includes: the use of containing asparagine ingredient of the food product, the impact on this containing asparagine ingredient of the food product means inactivating asparagine, this contains asparagine ingredient of the food product as a blend component for the manufacture of a food product and heating the mixture for the manufacture of a food product for the formation of thermally processed food product. The content of acrylamide is significantly reduced due to the decrease in the number of reactive asparagine present in the food product or ingredient of a food product before heat treatment. In one embodiment of the invention asparagine is mixed with the enzyme asparaginase, with the aim of transforming the asparagine in spartanbug acid and ammonia. In another embodiment of the invention, the ingredients used for the manufacture of thermally processed food products the KTA, leach to remove asparagine before the ingredients of the food product will be heated to temperatures above 80°C. in Another embodiment of this invention, the ingredients used for the production of a food product, are subjected to fermentation in order to reduce the content asparagine due to metabolism of asparagine microorganisms for the synthesis of proteins and other microbial metabolism.

All of the above and additional features and advantages of this invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description.

Detailed description of the invention

For education arylamide in thermally processed foods require a carbon source and a nitrogen source. There is a hypothesis that the carbon source is a carbohydrate and a source of nitrogen in proteins or amino acids. Many food ingredients that have a vegetable origin, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, soybeans, potatoes, and oats, contain asparagine and are mainly carbohydrates, containing a small amount of component amino acids. Typically these food ingredients have a small pool of amino acids, which includes and other amino acids, in addition to asparagine. There are twenty standard amino acids, representing samoistselenie blocks of protein and are present in these food ingredients which include, amongst others, lysine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, histidine, glycine, spartanovka acid.

The term "heat-treated" refers to a food product or ingredient of a food product in which the components of the food product, such as a mixture of ingredients of the food product is heated at a temperature of at least 80°C. Preferably the heat treatment of foods or food ingredients takes place at temperatures of approximately from 100 to 205°C. the Ingredients of the food product can be processed at elevated temperatures separately from each other before they form the final food product. An example of a thermally processed food ingredient product can serve potato flakes, which are produced from raw potatoes, and during this process the potato is exposed to temperatures up to 200°C. other Examples of thermally processed food ingredients can serve processed oats, boiled and dried rice, culinary products from soy, corn, roasted coffee beans and roasted cacao beans. In another case, a raw food ingredients can be used in the preparation of the final food product, and the production of the final food product includes the t step heating. One example of processing of raw material, in which the final food product obtained by heating, may be the production of potato chips from slices of raw potatoes during frying at a temperature of from about 100 to 205°or the production of potatoes, fried in French, at the same temperature.

However, in accordance with the present invention it was found that significant formation of acrylamide occurs when the amino acid asparagine is heated in the presence of the monosaccharide. The heating of other amino acids such as lysine and alanine, in the presence of a monosaccharide, such as glucose, does not lead to the formation of acrylamide. But it is surprising that the presence of aspartic acid with other amino acid, such as lysine, in the presence of monosaccharide causes an increase in the formation of acrylamide, much superior to the case when asparagine is the only amino acid present.

Having established that the rapid formation of acrylamide occurs when heated asparagine in the presence of a monosaccharide, it is possible to achieve reduction of acrylamide in thermally processed foods by inaktivirovanie asparagine. The term "inaktivirovanie" means the removal of asparagine from food prod the KTA or transfer of asparagine in an inactive state during the process of formation of acrylamide by converting it or linking with other chemical product which prevents the formation of acrylamide from asparagine.

One such method of inaktivirovanie mixes asparagine with the enzyme asparaginase. This enzyme breaks down asparagine at spartanbug acid and ammonia. Asparagine as the precursor of acrylamide in thermally processed foods, can also be inactivated by leaching. The solubility of asparagine in aqueous solution increases when the pH of the solution is maintained slightly acidic or slightly alkaline, preferably pH was in the range of 5 to 9. Asparagine as the precursor of acrylamide in thermally processed foods, can be inactivated, in addition, by fermentation. Asparagine can also be incorporated into proteins to inactivate asparagine as the precursor of acrylamide. Asparagine as the precursor of acrylamide, can be inactivated, in addition, by adding a divalent cation, such as calcium, in the form of lactic acid calcium, calcium citrate or calcium maleate. Asparagine as the precursor of acrylamide can also be inactivated by increasing the amount of reducing sugar in the food product, adding glucose, fructose or ramnose.

Other methods of implementing the inaktivirovanie asparagine order on ESAT the formation of acrylamide will be obvious to specialists in this field. With lower levels of asparagine in the ingredient of the food product or food product to heat treatment significantly reduced the level of acrylamide in the final processed food product.

Several embodiments of the invention are illustrated by the examples below.

Example 1

This example shows that acrylamide is formed in the presence of monosaccharide and amino acid lysine. About 0.2 g of glucose was mixed with approximately 0.1 g of the hydrate of the amino acids L-lysine and 0.2 ml of water in a vessel entering the vapor phase with a volume of 20 ml Vessel was covered with aluminum foil and heated in a furnace for gas chromatography according to the following temperature profile: initial temperature was set to 40°C, then the temperature was increased by 20°C per minute to 200°; within two minutes the temperature was maintained at 200°s, then the vessel was cooled to 40°C. After heating the mixture become dry and black. The reaction mixture was extracted using 100 ml of water, and acrylamide in water was measured using a gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). When glucose is heated with hydrate L-lysine, arylamide was not detected (detection limit less than 50 parts per billion). If the source of acrylamide was the reaction of Maara, then the and the reaction mixture lysine would have to contain acrylamide because what the reaction mixture was toast until dark brown.

Example 2

This example shows that acrylamide is formed in the presence of monosaccharide and amino acid alanine. The methodology of the experiment in Example 1 was repeated, except that used the amino acid L-alanine. And again failed to measure the content of acrylamide in excess of the detection threshold equal to 50 parts per billion.

Example 3

This example illustrates the formation of acrylamide in the presence of monosaccharide and asparagine. Was again repeated by the method of Example 1, except that the amino acid represented monohydrate, L-asparagine. When the reaction mixture was extracted with water and the content of acrylamide was measured in GC-MS, the content of acrylamide in the reaction mixture was 55106 parts per billion. If we consider that the initial content of asparagine was 0.1 g, the yield of acrylamide was equal to approximately 9%.

Example 4

This example illustrates the formation of acrylamide in the presence of a monosaccharide, asparagine and other amino acids. Was repeated procedure of Example 1, except that the experience was used equal parts of hydrate L-lysine, and monohydrate L-aspartic acid in an amount of 0.1 g each. The reaction mixture was tested on the content of acrylamide, and acrylamide b is l found with levels of 214842 parts per billion. If we consider the initial content of asparagine and lysine, the yield of acrylamide was approximately equal to 37%.

Example 5

This example illustrates the reduction in the formation of acrylamide when asparagine and glucose are heated in the presence of the enzyme asparaginase. The enzyme asparaginase was dissolved in 0.05 M buffer trihydrochloride acid, having a pH of 8.6, with the aim of obtaining active solution of asparaginase. Also prepared a control solution of asparaginase by heating part of the active asparaginase solution at a temperature of 100°C for 20 minutes to deactivate the enzyme. In the control experiment 0.2 g glucose, 0.1 g of asparagine and 20 mils heated solution of asparaginase was mixed in a vessel entering the vapor phase with a volume of 20 ml. experience with the active enzyme, 0.2 g glucose, 0.1 g of asparagine and 20 mils active asparaginase solution was mixed in a vessel entering the vapor phase with a volume of 20 ml. Quantity of the enzyme in the vessel was 250 units of enzyme. The control mixture and the mixture with the active enzyme were processed together in two copies. The vessel was kept at a temperature of 37°C for two hours, then placed in an oven at a temperature of 80°40 hours for evaporation and obtain dry matter. After heating in each of the vessels was added to 0.2 ml of water. Then the vessel was heated in a furnace to gas chromatogra the AI in accordance with the following temperature profile: the process began with temperatures 40° C; then was heated to 200°With a speed of 20°min; the samples were kept at a temperature of 200°C for two minutes, then cooled to 40°C. the Reaction mixture was extracted with 50 ml of water, and the content of acrylamide in water were measured by GC-MS. The measurement results are shown in table 1.

Table 1

The formation of acrylamide in the presence of asparaginase and glucose
The tested materialAcrylamide (parts per billion)Percentage reduction
Reference mixture 1334810-
The control mix 2324688-
Active asparaginase 16699,9
Active asparaginase 227399,9

As you can see, the processing system enzyme, corrosive asparagine at spartanbug acid and ammonia, reduce the formation of acrylamide more than 99.9%. This experience confirms that the decrease in the concentration of asparagine or chemical activity of asparagine reduces the formation of acrylamide.

Besides inaktivirovanie asparagine, ingredients of food products of plant origin can be produced from plants is to specially bred and selectionists order to obtain lower levels of asparagine than other similar plants. The decrease in the amount of asparagine in the food ingredients of plant origin will affect the amount of acrylamide that is formed under the same conditions of heat treatment.

Although this invention has been discussed in detail and described with reference to one variant of implementation, for the person skilled in the art will understand that you can and various other approaches to iactiveaware asparagine, without departing from the scope and essence of the present invention.

1. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product, comprising the following steps:

(a) the use of the ingredient of the food product containing free asparagine,

(b) inaktivirovanie asparagine in the food ingredient product containing asparagine, by bringing into contact containing asparagine ingredient of the food product with asparaginase,

(C) using the specified ingredient of the food product as a component in mixtures for the manufacture of a food product and

(g) heating this mixture for the manufacture of a food product with obtaining a thermally processed food product is A.

2. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which the ingredient of the food product contains mainly carbohydrate.

3. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which the ingredient of the food product is chosen from a group that includes rice, wheat, corn, barley, soybeans, potatoes, and oats.

4. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which the ingredient of the food product is a potato.

5. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which the ingredient of the food product containing asparagine, contains, in addition, at least one other amino acid.

6. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 5, in which at least one different amino acid is a lysine.

7. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which step (b) inaktivirovanie includes bringing into contact containing asparagine ingredient of the food product with asparaginase in the presence of monosaccharide.

8. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed foods is the first product according to claim 7, in which the monosaccharide is glucose.

9. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product of claim 1, wherein in step (b) inaktivirovanie asparaginase is in the form of an aqueous solution.

10. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product of claim 1, wherein the mixture for the manufacture of a food product is heated in step (d) to a temperature not lower than 80°C.

11. A method of reducing the formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product according to claim 1, in which heated the mixture for the manufacture of the food product in step (d) at a temperature of 100°S-205°C.

12. The method according to claim 1, in which a thermally processed food product is potato chips.

13. Food product produced according to the method according to claim 1.

14. The use of asparaginase for treatment containing asparagine ingredient of the food product, resulting in iactiveaware asparagine and reducing the subsequent formation of acrylamide in thermally processed food product obtained after heating the mixture comprising the specified ingredient of the food product.

15. The application 14, wherein the asparaginase is in the form of an aqueous solution.

16. Use 14 or 15, in which the ingredient of the food product represents artotel.

17. The application of article 16, in which a thermally processed food product is potato chips.



 

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