Assembly for measuring total coefficient of window units' light transmission and measuring unit

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: assembly and measuring unit can be used for measurement and registration of light transmission of window units and other light-transparent structures and their members. Assembly for measuring total coefficient of window frames light transmission has A type diffusion light source, which has semi-sphere, illumination devices disposed inside semi-sphere, shields protecting against incident light, external photoelectric member, light-measuring chamber which has semi-sphere and non-transparent partition provided with opening for placing window unit, measuring unit, which has internal photoelectric members, analog signal switch and measuring unit. Semi-spheres of diffusion light source and of light-measuring chamber have the same structure and are mounted in a such way that axis of symmetry of assembly is directed along horizontal line; units are connected one to another for placement of window frame in opening of partition of light-measuring chamber, which partition is mounted in vertical. Diameters of semi-spheres do not exceed 1,2 maximal size of diagonal of tested window unit. Non-transparent partition provided with opening for placement of window unit is unmovable connected with semi-sphere of diffusion light source and it is provided with small-sized lockers which determine position of window unit. Illumination devices are connected with power circuit through voltage stabilizer. Opening is protected by screens against direct light coming from illumination devices. Measuring unit of assembly for measuring total coefficient of light transmission has internal photoelectric members and analog signal switch. Any internal photoelectric member is connected with analog signal switch through "current-voltage" electron converter, which has input voltage lower than 1 Ohm. Output of analog signal switch is connected with first measuring channel, which has digital milli-voltmeter with double integration and with second measuring channel which has analog-to-digital converter with preamplifier. Outputs of first and second measuring channels are connected by data buses through digital signal switch with matching unit, which is in turn connected by data buses and control buses with computer and with control bus provided with control unit, which both are connected with analog signal switch, analog-to-digital converter and digital double integration milli-voltmeter with through control buses.

EFFECT: reduced sizes of assembly; reduced number of illumination devices; reduced power consumption; higher comfort at use; reduced error of measurement; higher speed of measurement process; simplified processing of results of measurement.

 

The invention relates to the field of measurement and control of light transmission window units and other translucent building constructions and their elements.

Known installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units (figure 1 shows the General view, figure 2 is a section along a-a in figure 1), including the diffuse source light type And [next - the source of diffuse light], which contains hemisphere 1, the lighting devices 4 located inside and connected through a voltage regulator of the lighting devices 10, 5 internal photocells from direct exposure to light from a source of diffuse light, external photocell 6, directed photosensitive surface in the direction of the hemisphere 1 source of diffuse light, svetosilnuju chamber containing hemisphere 2 and opaque wall 3 with an aperture for placement of the window unit, the measuring unit that includes an internal photocells 7, aimed photosensitive surfaces in the direction of the hemisphere 2 svetonosnoy camera, switch analog signals 8 and the measuring device 9 - ammeter or galvanometer, and the hemisphere 1 source of diffuse light is located on the supporting cylinder 11 and has a larger diameter than the hemisphere 2 svetonosnoy camera, opaque partition 3 with opening provided with a supporting Reshetko is for the installation of the window unit and located in a horizontal plane, and the axis of symmetry of the installation is vertical (GOST 26602.4-99. The blocks window. The method of determining the total light transmittance. P.6 - prototype). To determine the total light transmittance of the inner solar cells otkalibrovana so as to ensure a linear dependence of the output current of the photocell from the light falling on it stream with an error of no more than ±1%. The measurements are carried out (GOST 26602.4-99, P.7) alternately with each of the three fixed values of illumination E: (500, 750, 1000) LC ±5%, created a source of diffuse light in the plane of the opening of an opaque partition having a maximum size corresponding to the maximum size of window units: 1460×1470 mm

Disadvantages installation of the prototype are: large overall dimensions due to the significant differences in the size of the window unit and the diameter of the hemispheres source of diffuse light and svetonosnoy camera (diameter 3-4 times the size of the window block), which also complicates the manufacturing process hemispheres and increased cost; the vertical arrangement of the axis of symmetry of the setup requires a large height of the room in which it is installed, because the diameter of the hemisphere 1 four times greater than the width of the opening of an opaque partition, and the height of the window block the ri measurements - 3 m, with the installation of window unit on the supporting bars hemisphere 1 rises, so the ceiling height in the room should not exceed 6 m; in addition, large overall dimensions of the prototype require to create the necessary illumination of a large number of lighting devices and, consequently, the large power consumption; the inconvenience of use of the installation due to the location of an opaque partition with an aperture in the horizontal plane, resulting in the lifting of the test window unit to a considerable height and, in addition, to increased pollution of the hemisphere svetonosnoy camera; lack of accurate determination of the total light transmittance due to the fact that the supporting grid in the opening of the opaque partitions overlaps a portion of the light flux, and the difficulty of ensuring the linearity of the conversion luminous flux - voltage due to the need for internal calibration of solar cells, a significant amount of time on the process dimension and process performance, as the measurement and processing of measurement results is performed manually.

Technical problems to be solved by the invention, are: reducing the size, reducing the number of lighting and electricity for their power, increase ease of installation, smart is the solution of the error to determine the total light transmittance, the acceleration of the measurement process and the simplification of the processing of the measurement results.

The technical problems are solved as follows.

In the installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units, including the diffuse source light type And containing hemisphere, lighting inside her, screens from direct exposure to light and external photocell directed photosensitive surface toward the hemisphere of the source of diffuse light, svetosilnuju chamber containing hemisphere and opaque wall with an aperture for placement of the window unit, the measuring unit containing the inner solar cells aimed photosensitive surfaces in the direction of the hemisphere svetonosnoy camera, switch analog signal and the measuring device, hemispheres source of diffuse light and svetonosnoy cameras are identical in construction, are mounted so that the axis of symmetry of the setup is directed horizontally, and are connected with the possibility of placing the window unit in the opening vertically installed opaque partitions svetonosnoy camera, the diameter of the hemispheres is not more than 1.2 maximum diagonal size of the test window unit, opaque wall with an aperture for placement of the window block NEPAD is tenderly connected to the hemisphere source of diffuse light and is provided with small tabs provisions of the window unit, lighting devices connected to the power supply through the voltage regulator, and the opening is protected by screens from direct exposure to light lighting fixture.

To ensure a uniform stable in time illumination in the plane of the aperture of the opaque partitions svetonosnoy camera and set the required light on opaque septum near the axis of the aperture installed in pairs on mutually perpendicular lines 4, 6 or 8 lights, which through the switch of lighting units connected to the voltage regulator.

To ensure the linearity of the conversion of the light flux in voltage of each of the internal cells connected to the measuring device via an electronic Converter "current - voltage"that has an input resistance of less than 1 Ohm.

The proposed design of the installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units with horizontal axis of symmetry allows us to reduce the dimensions of the device, creates great convenience due to the vertical placement of the window block and use a voltage stabilizer power lighting instead of the voltage regulator, allows to obtain more uniform and stable over time to the desired illumination, to reduce the number is in lighting and therefore, the consumption of electricity to power nine times (because the inner surface of the hemisphere source of diffuse light is proportional to the square of its diameter, the reduced diameter of the hemisphere in three times and reduces the number of lighting fixtures and electrical energy to power nine times); to improve the accuracy of the measurement.

To improve measurement accuracy, simplify ensure the linearity of the conversion luminous flux - voltage, significant acceleration of the process of measurement and processing of their results in the measuring unit contains the inner solar cells aimed photosensitive surfaces in the direction of the hemisphere svetonosnoy camera, and switch analog signal, each internal photocell is connected to switch analog signals through an electronic Converter "current - voltage"that has an input resistance of less than 1 Ohm, the output switch analog signals connected to the first measuring channel, including digital millivoltmeter with double integration, and the second measuring channel including an analog-to-digital Converter with pre-amplifier, the outputs of the first and second measurement channels are connected by a data bus through a switch digital signals with a connection unit that connects the ins data and control buses with a computer and a control bus from the control unit, United tire control switch analog signals, analog-to-digital Converter, a digital millivoltmeter with double integration.

Through the use of electronic converters "current - voltage"that has an input resistance of less than 1 Ohm, two measuring channels based on the digital millivoltmeter with double integration and analog-to-digital Converter with pre-amplifier, computer simplified ensure the linearity of the conversion luminous flux - voltage, improved measurement accuracy significantly accelerate and simplify the process of measurement and processing of measurement results

The invention is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 3 shows a General view of the installation of the invention with a closed svetonosnoy camera; 4 - the same, with an open svetonosnoy camera; figure 5 is a functional diagram of the measuring unit.

Refer to figure 3-5: 1 - hemisphere source of diffuse light; 2 - hemisphere svetonosnoy camera; 3 - opaque partition with opening 3-1 for installation of the window unit; 4 - lighting installed inside the hemisphere of the source of diffuse light; 5 - screens from direct exposure to light luminaries; 6 - external photocell; 7 - internal photocells; 8 - switch analog signals; 9 - measuring device is on (ammeter or galvanometer); 10 is a voltage regulator, 10A - switch lighting; 11 - a frame for mounting hemisphere source of diffuse light and opaque partitions; 12 - electronic Converter "current - voltage"; 13 - digital millivoltmeter with double integration; 14 - pre-amplifier; 15 - analog-to-digital Converter; 16 - switch data bus; 17 - control; 18 - interface unit 19 - computer; 20 - bus control; 21 - data bus; 22, 23 - position switch data bus 16; 24 - small locking position window block; 25 - fastening elements of the window block.

Installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units includes a source of diffuse light, which contains hemisphere 1, the lighting devices 4 mounted inside near the axis of the opening 3-1 opaque wall 3, for example, as shown in figure 4 for eight lighting, screens 5 from direct exposure to light lights, external photocell 6, directed photosensitive surface toward the hemisphere of the source of diffuse light 1, svetosilnuju chamber containing hemisphere 2, an opaque partition 3 with opening 3-1 for placement of the window unit, the measuring unit that includes an internal photocells 7, aimed photosensitive surfaces in the direction of the hemisphere 2 SV is tomarnos camera, electronic converters "current - voltage" 12, the switch analog signals 8 and the measuring device 9. The inner surface of the hemispheres are covered in opaque white diffuse reflecting paint on the basis of barium sulphate [Reference book on lighting /edited Ubierna. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1995. P.32] special technology [Tikhodeev PM Length dimension in lighting technology (Photometry). - M. - L.: Gosenergoizdat, 1962]. The lighting devices 4 connected to the power supply through the switch 10A of lighting devices and the voltage regulator 10. Hemisphere source of diffuse light and svetonosnoy cameras 1 and 2, respectively, are connected, for example, hinge, as shown in figure 4. Opaque partition 3 is installed vertically on the frame 11 for mounting hemisphere 1 and partition 3 fixedly connected to the hemisphere 1 source of diffuse light and is provided with small tabs provisions of the window block 24. After placing a window unit for the measurement of the hemisphere 1 and 2 are fixed in the closed position, as shown in figure 3. Internal photocells 7 and compact locking position of the window block 24 is located on the fastening elements 25 of the window unit. External photocell (6) are fixed, for example, on a small rod or braces so that is in the center of the opening n of the transparent wall 3. As external and internal photocells are used selenium solar cells (see, for example, Aksenenko PPM, Baranochnikov M. the detectors of optical radiation: a Handbook. - M.: Radio and communication, 1987), which are used for measurements in the wavelength range 0,4... 0,7 µm and are compared with other relatively high sensitivity that is closest to the relative sensitivity of the eye. To the shock of the selenium cell was proportional to the incident light flux, it is necessary that the load resistance was small compared with the internal resistance of the photocell and did not exceed 10 Ohms [Gurevich MM Photometry. Theory, methods and devices. - L.: Energoatomizdat, 1983]. In the proposed setting, the role of the load resistance of each of the internal photocell plays electronic Converter "current-voltage" 12, which is made on the basis of the integrated operational amplifier with negative feedback in the form of a resistor of resistance R. This Converter has almost zero input resistance, so the voltage Uiat the output i of the Converter is determined by the expression Ui=Fi·Si·R, where fiand Si- the incident flux and the sensitivity of the i-cell, R is the resistance of the resistor. Thus, the use of electrical energy is the R converters "current-voltage" provides not only the linearity of the transform, but the gain of the signal at once.

To ensure required for measurement of illuminance (500, 750, 1000) Lux lighting consistently include, for example, according to the scheme 4+2+2 using eight illumination devices through the switch of lighting devices and a voltage regulator.

The measurement process is alternately conduct three cycles of removing measurements from the inner solar cells via an electronic Converter "current - voltage" without window unit and with a window unit mounted in the opening of the opaque partitions, while three indicated values of illumination.

If using a standard measuring device, the measurement results are read with a microammeter or galvanometer are averaged and the average values calculated total light transmittance of the window block.

If the proposed use of the measuring unit and the first measurement cycle is carried out without installation of the window unit in the opening of the opaque walls with a light level of 500 Lux. In accordance with the program switch digital signal 16 is set in position 22, including the first measuring channel, then switch analog signal 8 with a programmed time interval alternately outputs the internal photolum Nov 7 electronic converters "talk voltage 12 are connected to the digital millivoltmeter with double integration 13 and using the interface block 18 the results of measurements of nicorresponding to the light flux incident on the aperture from the hemisphere of the source of diffuse light, is read and accumulated in the memory of the computer 19. Then switch digital signal 16 is set in position 23, including a second measuring channel, and switch analog signal 8 with a programmed time interval alternately outputs of the internal photocells 7 electronic converters "current - voltage" 12 are connected through a preamplifier 14 to the analog-to-digital Converter 15, which provides up to thirty thousand measurements per second, which also accumulate in computer memory for further statistical processing. The measurement cycle is repeated three or more times. The second and third measurement cycles are performed similarly, when the illumination 750 and 1000 Lux.

Then in the aperture of the opaque partitions installed window unit and the first, second and third measurement cycles are repeated, while in the computer memory to accumulate the results of measurements of nτcorresponding to the light flux passing through the window unit in svetosilnuju the camera.

In the simplest case of processing the measurement results are averaged according the methodology, featured GOST 26602.4-99, p.6-7, and calculates the total light transmittance (OCRP) window unit τ=nτ average/ni mean. In more complex cases, processing of the measurement results is the fourth cycle of measurements under illumination 0 Lux (dark values) and when calculating the OCRP considered received dark values, and values of corrections.

The use of two measuring channels facilitates mutual performance monitoring channels and increases the reliability of the measuring system. Using a standard digital voltmeter with dual integration facilitates the certification of the installation and allows to reduce the random measurement errors due to noise from mains supply. Using a fast analog-to-digital Converter allows you to store a large number of measurement results for further processing. Using the computer allows you to speed up the measurement process, apply different methods of processing collected data and choose the best of them, to simplify the processing of measurement results and to reduce the measurement error in the current installation to determine the total light transmittance measurement error was less than 5%.

The proposed installation is zgodovina and included in existing equipment IC IMS CJSC Siniestro". It is, essentially, the first in the Russian Federation of small specialized unit, designed to determine the total light transmittance of window units, and other translucent building constructions and their elements.

1. Installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units, including the diffuse source light type And containing hemisphere, lighting inside her, screens from direct exposure to light, external photocell directed photosensitive surface toward the hemisphere of the source of diffuse light, svetosilnuju chamber containing hemisphere and opaque wall with an aperture for placement of the window unit, the measuring unit containing the inner solar cells aimed photosensitive surface in the direction of the hemisphere svetonosnoy camera, switch analog signal and the measuring device, characterized in that hemisphere of the source of diffuse light and svetonosnoy cameras are identical in construction, installed in such a way that the axis of symmetry of the setup is directed horizontally, and are connected with the possibility of placing the window unit in the opening vertically installed opaque partitions svetonosnoy camera, the diameter of the hemispheres is not b is more 1,2 maximum diagonal size of the test window unit, opaque wall with an aperture for placement of a window unit is still connected to the hemisphere source of diffuse light and is provided with small tabs provisions of the window unit, the lighting devices connected to the power supply through the voltage regulator, and the opening is protected by screens from direct exposure to light lighting fixture.

2. Installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units according to claim 1, characterized in that the 4, 6 or 8 lighting fixtures installed on an opaque wall near the axis of the aperture pairs on mutually perpendicular lines and connected to the voltage regulator through the switch of lighting devices.

3. Installation to determine the total light transmittance of window units according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that each of the internal cells connected to the measuring device via an electronic Converter "current - voltage"that has an input resistance of less than 1 Ohm.

4. The measuring unit to determine the total light transmittance of window blocks containing the inner solar cells aimed photosensitive surface in the direction of the hemisphere svetonosnoy camera, and switch analog signals, wherein each internal photoelement is connected to switch analog signals through an electronic Converter "talk voltage, having an input resistance of not more than 1 Ohm, the output switch analog signals connected to the first measuring channel, including digital millivoltmeter with double integration, and the second measuring channel including an analog-to-digital Converter with pre-amplifier, the outputs of the first and second measurement channels are connected by a data bus through a switch digital signals with a connection unit that is connected by a data bus and bus control computer and the control bus from the control unit connected to the bus control switch analog signals, analog-to-digital Converter, a digital millivoltmeter with double integration.



 

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