Mode and arrangement for definition of roughness of a surface

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: an arrangement for definition of roughness of a surface has a laser, in-series located along the laser radiation a half-transmitting mirror installed under an angle of 450 to the optical axle of the arrangement and a photo receiver electrically connected with a measuring block. The arrangement has a spheroconic system, a diaphragm rigidly fixed on the photo receiver, a unit of displacement of the photo receiver along the axle of the arrangement. At that the optical spheroconic system is located between the half-transmitting mirror and the diaphragm on the optical axle of the arrangement.

EFFECT: increases accuracy and reliability of definition of roughness of a surface.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular to methods and devices for surface roughness measurements by optical methods, and can be used to measure the RMS height of asperities.

There is a method of measuring surface roughness, namely, that cover the surface parallel beam of monochromatic radiation, determine the intensity of radiation reflected from the surface in the specular direction and in a direction different from the mirror, and determine the standard deviation of the heights of asperities on the ratio of measured intensities [1].

A known method is used in determining the roughness of Everglade polished surfaces. However, in the presence of surface anisotropy processing accuracy and the reliability of the estimation of the roughness is low. This is because in the presence of anisotropy varies significantly with the intensity of specular and non-specular component of the reflected radiation, the results of measurement of the ratio of intensities strongly depend on the orientation of the test surface relative to the photodetectors. Differences in measurement ranges, reaching for Everglade surfaces more than an order of magnitude, generate p is oblama matching the sensitivity of the photodetectors. Since the ratio of the intensities of specular and non-specular component depends on the statistical distribution of surface heterogeneity, with unknown statistics, it is necessary to calibrate the device.

A device for measuring the height of the asperities of the surface containing the laser, collimating system, translucent glass, the focusing lens in the focal plane, which is the solar cell [2].

In the known device the parallel light beam from the laser falls on the analyzed surface, reflected from it, and again passing through the semi-transparent mirror, is focused in the focal plane of the lens-Converter Fourier. As a result, the sensor registers the radiation intensity at zero spatial frequency, the magnitude of which determines the height of asperities. However, the radiation intensity at the zero spatial frequency largely depends on the chemical composition, physical state of the surface, the presence of anisotropy processing, distribution statistics of the irregularities in the surface, which significantly reduces the accuracy and reliability of determining surface roughness, especially of such parameters as the standard deviation of the profile.

Closest to the claimed method is the distribution of the surface roughness, namely, that illuminate the surface under study at right angles thereto parallel coherent light beam, decompose the reflected surface radiation in the range of spatial frequencies, register the integral intensity of the reflected radiation on the spatial frequency and the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency, which is judged on surface roughness [3].

According to the method, the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency recorded by measuring the intensity of the specular components of the reflected radiation. The integral intensity of the reflected radiation at a given spatial frequency recorded on the radiation intensity in the annular plane of the illumination cone. The annular plane of the light cone relative to the center mirror. The intensity of specular components is assessed through the optical fiber and the photodetector, and the integrated intensity in the ring plane through the light guide cone and the photodetector. Due to this known method can be seen as an attempt to determine the surface roughness relative integrated intensity of the radiation at a given spatial frequency ω axial (axial) C is the measurment of the spectrum of spatial frequencies to the intensity of radiation at zero spatial frequency. In the known method using the optical information processing system, fibre optic plug and the fiber, while the rays corresponding to the same spatial frequency, but coming from different points of the test surface, intersect the focal plane of the Desk at different angles and, therefore, when using an integrating cone spread function of the instrument depends on the type of spectrum and cannot be taken into account when measuring. When determining the RMS height of asperities anisotropic surfaces the influence of "dead zones" between the solar cells on the accuracy of measurement of the integrated intensity at a given spatial frequency increases and instead of the height of the asperities detected defect surface treatment. In addition, when an arbitrary statistical distribution of surface heterogeneity is necessary calibration of the device.

Closest to the claimed is a device for determining the roughness of the surface containing the laser, located successively along the laser radiation translucent mirror set at an angle of 45° to the optical axis of the device, and a sensor electrically connected with the measuring unit [4].

In addition, in the known device the sensor is in focus Fok is serouse lenses.

To register integrated intensity of the reflected radiation at a given spatial frequency of use of the ring the matrix of photodetectors that does not allow precise registration of the specified parameter due to the discretisation error reception intensity, and for anisotropic surfaces, the above estimate may be unreliable. In addition, the individual sensitivity of each individual sensor, non-identity changes of their parameters with aging contribute additional instrument errors in the estimation of the specified integrated intensity. Appropriate to increase the aperture of the probe beam is not implemented by the device for implementing the known method, since the increase in the width of the beam leads to a significant increase in the size of the device required to separate spatial frequencies. On the other hand, the limitation of the dimensions leads to a low resolution spatial frequencies. In the absence of information about the real statistics of the distribution of surface heterogeneity at Everglade surfaces measurements are just estimates, i.e. are only on the order of the interval in which it can be represented by the measured value.

The inventive method and device to solve the problem of increasing the accuracy and reliably the tee determine surface roughness.

The technical result achieved by the invention:

to ensure the accuracy and reliability of determining the RMS height of the asperities of the surfaces with the unknown nature of the statistical distribution of the discontinuity surfaces without additional calibration.

The achievement of the technical result is ensured by the fact that in the method of determining surface roughness, namely, that illuminate the surface under study at right angles thereto parallel coherent light beam, decompose the reflected surface radiation in the range of spatial frequencies, register the integral intensity of the reflected radiation on the spatial frequency and the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency, which is judged on surface roughness, the integral intensity of the reflected radiation to register on the axis of the optical system at an arbitrary spatial frequency, and surface roughness are judged by the mean square height of asperities on the surface, which is determined by the ratio of the integral intensity of the reflected radiation for an arbitrary spatial frequency to the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency.

The method is implemented with p the power of the device.

The achievement of the technical result is ensured by the fact that the device for determining the roughness of the surface containing the laser, located successively along the laser radiation translucent mirror set at an angle of 45° to the optical axis of the device, and a sensor electrically connected with the measuring unit further comprises an optical conal system, the diaphragm is rigidly fixed to the photodetector, the transfer node of a sensor along the optical axis of the device, while the optical conal system placed between the semitransparent mirror and the aperture on the optical axis of the device.

The inventive method of determining surface roughness is illustrated by figure 1, which illustrates the principle of converting field conal system.

According to the claimed method, as illuminating (probe) beam of coherent light using parallel beams normally incident on the inspected surface. Check the intensity of the reflected and spread out into a spectrum of spatial frequencies of the radiation is performed by the photodetector. Registration arbitrary components one photodetector in the optical axis conal system is provided that conal system converts the distribution of m is snasti light field, scattered at a certain angle to the optical axis conal system, the corresponding distribution of the sum of the spectral component along the axis of the optical conal system. Depending on the position on the optical axis of the photodetector registers the integral radiation intensity in arbitrary spatial frequency (including the zero spatial frequency).

Let us consider the transformation performs a conal system from the point of view of wave optics. Let the field distribution in a plane which is conal system is described by the function U′(ξ), where ξ - current-coordinate (see figure 1).

Phase transmission conal system is:

where k is the wave number; f is the focal length of a spherical surface conal system; α - setting of the inclination of the conical part of the conal system.

Let the plane P(x) with the current x-coordinate is perpendicular to the axis of the system at a distance of d1from the lens. Amplitude-phase distribution of the field in the plane P(x) is described by the function U(x) and is associated with the field U′(ξ) Fresnel transform as follows:

Let the plane P(y) with the current y coordinate, in which the formed image is the group of is perpendicular to the axis of the system at a distance of d2from the lens. Field in the plane P(y) is described by the function V(y) and is associated with the field U′(ξ) Fresnel transform as follows:

Substituting the values of U′(ξ)T(ξ), taking into account the properties of the definite integral, taking into account thatand when we replaceafter a series of calculations will receive

Consider what the transformation performs conal system, provided that d1=f, d2≠f and

Under these conditions, the expression (*) takes the form

where- operator Fourier transform; ω spatial frequency;

If x≪f, in this case, the expression of type Fresnel formula under the operator Fourier transform can be neglected and the field in the object plane with an accuracy to the corresponding phase of the factors will be the sum of the spectral component is symmetrical about the axis of the system-shift ω0.

Consider the power spectrum of the field:

where the function G describes the spectrum of the initial field distribution.

Obviously, Thu is when y=0 this expression can be represented in the form

which is an expression for the power sums of the spectral component is symmetrical about the axis of the system-shift ω0.

Generalizing this expression on the three-dimensional case, we can conclude that the field distribution on the optical axis conal system represents the sum of the spectral components corresponding to the capacity of the light field scattered at a certain angle to the optical axis conal system determined from the expression ω0=k0sinϕwhere ϕ - the angle between the wave vector difragirovavshej components and the optical axis of the conal system.

Thus, the system plays the role of a tapered integrator. As ω0is a function of the position of the recording plane d2then move the registration point along the optical axis of the system can measure the angular spectrum of the field with simultaneous integration over the azimuth angle.

It should be noted that the intensity at an arbitrary zero spatial frequency is registered in the same photodetector located on the optical axis of the system. Normal incidence of the illuminating beam provides axialent spectra and the possibility of registering the spectrum of the field about the optical and system. In the presence of anisotropy of surface treatment the position of the recording plane can be chosen so that the spatial frequencies corresponding anisotropy, will not coincide with ω0that avoids measurement errors due to anisotropy processing.

These factors contribute to obtaining reliable and more accurate estimation of the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency and the integral intensity at a given spatial frequency.

The estimate of the standard height of the asperities is made relative integrated intensity of the reflected radiation at a given spatial frequency N3to the integrated intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency N(ω0). However, the explicit form of the dependence of the mean square height of asperitiescan only be determined for a particular statistical distribution of surface heterogeneity. With the known statistics of the distribution of surface heterogeneity can be carried out in the static variant, setting the spatial frequency of the Desk, to the greatest extent corresponding to the range of asperities and the presence of anisotropy processing. In dynamic mode, the AVT is automatically changing the position of the plane of the Desk, measured spectral energy distribution in the scattered field by integrating over the azimuth angle, which allows to estimate the statistics of the distribution of surface heterogeneity and to determine the dependence of

This factor improves the accuracy and reliability of determining the root mean square height of asperities, including surfaces with unknown statistics of the distribution of inhomogeneities.

The figure 2 shows the optical diagram of the inventive device for determining the surface roughness.

The device includes a laser 1, arranged in series along the laser radiation is a flat semi-transparent mirror 2, the optical conal system 3, the diaphragm 4 and the photodetector 5, a node 6 moves, electrically connected with the measuring unit (figure not shown). Position 7 marked the analyzed surface.

Semi-transparent mirror 2 is set at an angle of 45° to the optical axis passing through the laser 1, and at an angle of 45° to the optical axis passing through the optical conal system 3, the diaphragm 4 and the photodetector 5.

Aperture 4 is rigidly fixed to the photodetector 5. The photodetector 5 is mounted for movement along the optical axis between the provisions of recording plane, corresponding well what eve and the selected spatial frequency.

The analyzed surface 7 installed perpendicular to the direction of the laser beam 1 in the front focal plane of the optical conal system 3.

The device operates as follows.

The laser beam from the laser 1 semi-transparent plane mirror 2 is directed along the normal to the analyzed surface 7. Reflected from the surface 7 of the optical radiation strikes a conal system 3, which converts the scattered radiation to the radiation field distribution which represents the sum of the spectral components corresponding to the capacity of the light field scattered at a certain angle to the axis of the system. The measuring unit (not shown) instructs the node 6 movement, which sets the photodetector 5 with the diaphragm 4 sequentially in the recording plane zero spatial frequency and an arbitrary spatial frequency. Integrated intensity N(ω0and N3corresponding to zero and arbitrary spatial frequency recorded by the measuring unit. In the dynamic mode of operation, the photodetector 5 with the diaphragm 4 is continuously moved along the optical axis between the planes of registration corresponding to zero and arbitrary spatial frequency. The integral intensity of the N(ω), the corresponding spatial frequency ωnot rerave is registered by the measuring unit.

The measuring unit determines the relationand according to it, the value of mean-square height of asperities σ.

Due to the optical conal system 3 there is a continuous analog integration and registration of the intensity of the reflected radiation at an arbitrary frequency ωand measuring radiation components at arbitrary spatial frequency is realized by one and the same photodetector 5.

Thanks to these characteristics reception intensity of the reflected radiation becomes possible to determine statistical distributions of surface heterogeneity and selection of an arbitrary spatial frequency, to the greatest extent corresponding to the range of asperities and the presence of anisotropy treatment that can significantly reduce the measurement error compared with the known solutions.

Sources of information

1. As the USSR №815492, IPC G01 11/30, publ. 1981.

2. Japan's bid No. 58 - 13842, IPC G01 11/06, publ. 1983.

3. The EPO application No. 0101375, IPC G01 11/30, publ. 1984 - the prototype.

4. The application of Germany No. 3232885, IPC G01 11/30, publ. 1984 - the prototype.

1. The method of determining surface roughness, namely, that illuminate the surface under study at right angles thereto parallel coherent light beam, decompose the reflected surface is rnostly radiation in the range of spatial frequencies, register the integral intensity of the reflected radiation on the spatial frequency and the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency, which is judged on surface roughness, characterized in that the integrated intensity of the reflected radiation to register on the axis of the optical system at an arbitrary spatial frequency, and surface roughness are judged by the mean square height of asperities on the surface, which is determined by the ratio of the integral intensity of the reflected radiation at an arbitrary spatial frequency to the intensity of the reflected radiation at zero spatial frequency.

2. A device for determining the roughness of the surface containing the laser, located successively along the laser radiation translucent mirror set at an angle of 45° to the optical axis of the device, and a sensor electrically connected with the measuring unit, characterized in that it contains optical conal system, the diaphragm is rigidly fixed to the photodetector, the transfer node of a sensor along the optical axis of the device, while the optical conal system placed between the semitransparent mirror and the aperture on the optical axis of the device.



 

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