Cutting development method
FIELD: forestry, in particular, execution of cutting works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cuttings into swaths with logways; felling trees on swaths using front-type felling-bunching machine and bunching trees onto workbench; laying out rounded plots at both sides of each swath logway, said rounded plots beginning on swath logway having radius equal to width of strip processed on felling-bunching machine, and center of each rounded plot being arranged in end point of rounded plot of adjacent swath logway which is curved with the same radius and center in end point of said rounded plot; felling workbench with apex oriented in direction opposite to tree logging direction, at an angle to swath logway; felling trees felled by felling-bunching machine during operation on rounded plots of swath logway so that tree apexes are laid onto logway and their butt parts are laid onto workbench.
EFFECT: increased width of swaths and reduced adverse effect of logging machines upon soil mantle.
The invention relates to the forest industry and can be used in the production of works of logging.
Currently, there are various ways to harvest using Feller-Bunchers machines (MPI) frontal type (Chernin Y.A., Bocharnikov F. W. Technology and equipment small logging and reforestation: a Training manual. - Yoshkar-Ola: Mar-GTP, 2001, p.142-144). "An indispensable requirement skidding butt forward to save the undergrowth forces off every time to return for technological corridor or one of the free bundles of ribbons in far from a loading point to the end of the tape."
When using these methods require long idle move off when switching between the tapes.
The closest in technical essence is the method proposed in A.S. 1287782. "The way of the harvest area includes a breakdown of deforestation on apiary, cutting their trees harvesting machine with stacking, limbing on skid trail, skidding whips over the top in a half-submerged position, characterized in that the laying of felled trees during felling and bunching machine from USA hauling produce the machine at an angle to the skidding rummaging, and moving to logging CCS, in front of the machine, parallel to the anee laid packs".
The disadvantages of this method include increased vulnerability of the soil cover in the plot due to the significant number of bee portages and movement of logging equipment.
The technical result obtained by the applicant, is the increase in the width of apiaries in the territory of the developed area.
The technical result is achieved in that the method of harvest, including a breakdown of documents on apiary with portages, fell trees on apiaries using Feller-Bunchers front of the machine type and placement of trees in bundles at the base of the tree, has the following features: on both sides of each bee dies pave the rounded sections, originating on the bee trail with a radius equal to the width of the tape, processed, Feller-buncher, and the center of each fillet area beekeeping trail is located at the end point of the fillet area adjacent beekeeping trail that curved to the same radius and center at the endpoint specified rounded plot, with Valka lining wood carry out the top in a direction opposite to the direction of skidding of trees, at an angle to the house rummaging, and fell trees, fallen Feller-buncher when working on curved sections bee dies, syshestvyut with the laying of the vertices on the fiber, and the butt part of the lining of the tree.
The development plan area is presented in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the technology felling of trees on the apiaries.
Cutting area 1 is divided into plots, and those in turn into the apiary, in the middle of which are laid bee 2 portages. On both sides of each bee dies laid the rounded sections 3, originating on the bee dies. The radius of the rounded sections set equal to the width of the tape, processed VPM 4. The width of the tape equal to twice the departure of the manipulator VPM (R). The center of each fillet area beekeeping trail is at the end point of the fillet area adjacent bee dies, curved with the same radius centered at the endpoint in question rounded plot.
VPM moves harvest area Shuttle method, sequentially moving from one house to the trail on the other. When the movement of the bee rummaging VPM fells the trees and puts them in packs of 5 for the top in the direction opposite to the direction of skidding. And laying felled trees when moving off from a USA hauling produce for the car, and when driving to logging CCS, in front of the machine, parallel to the previously laid packs. To improve the safety of the undergrowth on the felling felling of trees on the tape adjacent to the rounded parts of bee in the locks, is the lining the tree 6, fallen off at the entrance to a rounded plot bee dies. Roll lining of wood is made in such a way that its distal part is placed in the direction opposite to the direction of skidding of timber at an angle to bee rummaging. Trees 7, fallen off when working in the round plot bee dies, stacked on top of fiber, and the butt part of the lining of the tree. After shaky all trees that are within range of her arm, Feller-Bunchers machine returns to bee fiber. After VPM at a safe distance from her works skidder 8 with a rope-choker equipment, trellise trees for the butt for cargo item 9.
The method of harvest, including a breakdown of documents on apiary with portages, fell trees on apiaries using Feller-Bunchers front of the machine type and placement of trees in a pile on the lining of wood, characterized in that on both sides of each bee dies pave the rounded sections, originating on the bee trail with a radius equal to the width of the tape, processed, Feller-buncher, and the center of each fillet area beekeeping trail is located at the end point of the fillet participants of the bee and the adjacent track, which is curved with the same radius and center at the end point of the specified rounded plot, with Valka lining wood carry out the top in a direction opposite to the direction of skidding of trees, at an angle to the house rummaging, and fell trees, fallen Feller-buncher when working on curved sections bee dies, is done by laying on top of fiber, and the butt part of the lining of the tree.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining, on the basis of description of crop, belonging of plot of specific crop to bilberry, mountain cranberry, long-moss or bog moss group of forest types and its age; determining basic wood increment of forest crop by sampling wood and bark using coring instrument and measuring diameters of 15-20 randomly selected trees; measuring thickness of their bark and thickness of wood samples consisting of 3-10 rings; calculating average thickness of annular rings for each tree; determining Q which is criterion for necessity of carrying out forestry practice from formula: Q =4ZA/(D-2B), where Z is annular radial growth (basic growth), mm; A is age of forest crop; D is diameter of trunk, mm; B is thickness of bark, mm. In case Q<1 and relative density is >07, cleaning cutting is provided, and in case there is no necessity in cleaning cutting of forest crop, soil is fertilized when forest crop belongs to bilberry or mountain cranberry group of forest types. In case forest belongs to long-moss or bog moss group of forest type, soil is drained and fertilized.
EFFECT: increased precision in determining the necessity of ameliorative practice and cleaning cuttings for crop forest, and reduced costs.
6 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, performing of cutting area works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cutting into plots, each of said plots being divided into swaths-triangles whose apex is defined by spar; laying swath logway in the mid portion of swath; dividing swaths into strips extending in parallel with swath logway; felling trees on strips; attaching trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to logway to working cable of rope unit; moving trees or tree lengths to spar and uncoupling from working cable; felling trees from strips remote from logway onto butt parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway so that their axes coincide to maximum extent with one another; securing butt parts of trees or three lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway with apex parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips remote from logway and using as guiding and supporting members during movement onto logway of number of trees or tree lengths secured with one another, with first of said trees or tree lengths felled onto strip adjoining logway being coupled to working cable of rope unit.
EFFECT: increased width of swath, reduced area for logways, reduced hazard to environmental nature during logging of wood, reduced number of movements performed by cable during forest operation, and increased efficiency of logging technique.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: forest industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing plots into swaths; providing logways; felling trees intended for cutting with their apexes oriented in logging direction, followed by logging thereof; performing thinning of semi-swaths by cutting corridors at an angle of 30-35 deg with respect to logway, with desired thinning extent being reached by providing corridors cut from adjacent logways. Corridors cut from adjacent semi-swaths intersect with one another to form plantation of mosaic structure where cells are defined by cut corridors. With employment of tree harvesting machines having load-bearing handler, 2-3 corridors are cut from one operating position, with 2 corridors from said 2-3 corridors being cut at an angle of 30-32 deg, and third additional corridor being cut perpendicular to logway. Working out of swath by intersecting corridors provides tree stand thinning without injuring of trees left for additional growing.
EFFECT: provision for creating of effective forest growing conditions and desired thinning extent without tree injuring.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: forestry industry, in particular, cutting area works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out preparatory works; laying out main skid and swath roads for timber skidding; felling trees on swaths; bunching and skidding timber to loading points; laying out swath roads perpendicular to compartment line - haulage road, said swath roads adjoining to loading points located along part of compartment line - haulage road; laying out main roads perpendicular to compartment line and haulage road at distances equal to length of strip for collecting of wood bundle, said main roads adjoining loading points positioned along part of compartment line - haulage road parallel to swath roads.
EFFECT: reduced average timber skidding distance and increased efficiency of skidding machines.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: retention of unique dendrolara.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining type of habitat and extent of development and suppression of unique plant; measuring height of unique plant and share of sector of free development of crown; optimizing phytocenosis medium within circular area in the center of which unique plant grows, with radius of circle being 1.05-1.2 of the average height of stock of trees; cutting off or banding only aboveground vitally active parts of tree competing with unique specimen, said parts being arranged in zone above maximally admissible height and values of which parts being determined for each competing tree from the formula: h=H.ex, where h is distance in vertical plane from horizontal plane extending through unique tree trunk base center to points through which cutting or banding plane of aboveground parts of competing tree is extending, or maximally admissible height of arrangement of vitally active parts of competing tree, m, said cutting-off or banding procedures being performed when h value is less than height of competing tree; H is height of tree, m; e is base of natural logarithm, e=2,718281828459...; x is variable factor for various unique kinds and types of habitat, determined from formula: where V is factor of availability of space for free crown development of unique tree in horizontal plane within concrete habitat, share of crown free development sector, said factor being determined by total value of sectors occupied with projections on horizontal plane of trees surrounding woody plant and sectors non-occupied with said crown projections; J is angle between vertical line and straight line extending from unique tree top onto point of projection of competing tree trunk base center on horizontal plane extending through unique tree trunk base center; a, b, c are coefficients whose values are selected from Table 1 where unique tree kinds and types and habitats are indicated or where a, b, c are coefficients whose values are selected from Table 2 where unique woody plant kinds and types and habitats are indicated.
EFFECT: provision for creating of phytocenosis optimum for unique woody plants, minimum damage and technological effects upon woody plant.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: forestry industry, in particular, carrying-out of care cuttings in natural and artificial plantations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating biogroups with seed tree within territory; dividing territory into plots; forming processing corridors and cutting trees at both sides of said corridors; measuring distance between trees and their estimate coefficients within biogroups; calculating areas of remained biogroups; providing contour line of arrangement of biogroups; determining areas of seeding zones; marking plot of natural complex intended for renewal by uniform cutting of blocks to the right and to the left of processing corridors, with one-sided blocks worked out during one year being arranged at pitch equal to three, and similar blocks being arranged at opposite side with respect to processing corridor and being offset in staggered manner by one pitch.
EFFECT: intensified process for natural seeding renewal with valuable kinds of trees and reduced time for cutting of mature and overmature timber.
FIELD: forestry and agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: top clipper connected to hitched mechanism with power vehicle comprises bar with clipping tools rotated by drive, frame with guides, and movable columns mounted on carrier wheels and positioned in guides. Columns are retained by means of stops. Sections with clipping tools are mounted on transverse bar for displacement thereon and are retained by stops. Clipping tools are disposed in protective housings and made in the form of disk with toothed cutting edge. Disk cutting edge is defined by trapezium-shaped teeth with sides beveled toward side opposite to direction of rotation of front side and rear side normal to tangent of disk circle. Peripheral parts of teeth have sharpened portions on top side of disk, with teeth angles being formed rounded, and their peripheral part being formed circular with radius constituting 0.5-0.8 deg of disk radius. Said circle is drawn so that it tangentially and internally contacts disk circle from rear side of said tooth. Disk is positioned at an angle of 3-10 deg in relation to cutting plane, with apex of said angle being oriented toward vehicle advancement direction.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in clipping of seedling tops and improved quality of clipping seedling tops.
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, determination of effective dry forest range phytomass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves additionally determining available attrition stock and standardized conventional amount of rotten wood in each stock, with age being taken into account. Stock is determined without considering of bark and is corrected according to respective standardized conventional amount of rotten wood and average growth. Phytomass volumetric coefficient is defined and corrected for basic forest density.
EFFECT: increased precision in determining of ground phytomass of forest range.
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, methods for accomplishment of cutting area works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves, before processing of trees bulked on strips remote from logway by separating sequential short-wood from tree length on bucking thereof, dragging remaining non-bucked tree lengths up to logway by means of forwarder handler and skidding previous short-wood to loading point. Bucking of tree lengths remote from logway is started after tree lengths are dragged up to logway.
EFFECT: reduced physical force used for bunching of short-woods and provision for retaining quality of skidded wood.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, specialized clearing cuttings, renewal cuttings and reforming of plantations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves first period during which final thinning of forest stand in clear needle and dark needle coniferous formation on technological corridors (log ways), loading grounds, and thinning of single dead trees and wormy trees in swaths are performed at total intensity of up to 20% of stock; second period during which forest stand in clear needle coniferous formation is uniformly thinned (single trees) over the entire area of cutting to relative degrees of left part of stock, optimal for natural reforestation, in differentiated manner by forest growing zones and subzones: in forest-tundra up to 0.4-0.5, in Northern and middle subzones of taiga up to 0.6-0.7, in forest-steep and steep zones up to 0.7-0.8; third and subsequent periods during which final thinning of forest stock is provided in swaths by thinning groups or grove of overmature and mature trees, provided that vital underbrush and young growth of target kinds are available under forest canopy, in amounts sufficient for reforestation at intensity of up to 30% of cutting area. Cutting procedures are periodically repeated in each 0.4-1.2 of longevity of age class. In dark needle formation, forest stock is thinned beginning from second period in aforesaid mode, but thinning is provided in each strip-swath of width equal to 1.5-2 average height of felled trees. During heavy crop years, soil is mineralized after each cutting period in swath sites free of underbrush, and during years when seed yield of target kinds is below two balloons of Kappler' scale, soil is mineralized and coniferous tree seeds are sown on mineralized strips. After reforestation cuttings provided by any of methods on technological corridors (log ways) and loading grounds, forest crops are planted at sites free of target kind underbrush.
EFFECT: provision for prevailing in forest stock of target coniferous trees by creating optimal environmental conditions for natural or artificial reforestation following cuttings.
7 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: forestry, in particular, keeping of plants with closed root system during cold periods of year, for example, plants grown in containers or seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing containers 5 with plants 4 at place 1 above heating main 2; providing covering 4 above containers 5; filling space between covering wall 3 and containers 5 with bulk material 6 with increased moisture capacity (for example, peat or compost); moistening material 6 and mellowing top layer 7 of said material. During heating season, part of heat is transferred from heating main 2 to ground surface. Moistened peat layer 6 has increased moisture capacity to provide for effective heating of containers 5. Mellowed layer 7 eliminates moisture and heat transfer from layer 6. Moisture stock in layer 6 provides optimal soil moisture in containers to be maintained. When necessary, layer 6 is periodically moistened and layer 7 is mellowed. Covering 3 and layers 6 and 7 of peat reduce heat losses from heating main 2 during the entire heating season. Upon completion of cold period, containers 5 with plants 4 are moved to territory to be landscaped.
EFFECT: reliable storage of plants, reduced costs for earth excavation works and heating of storage, provision for keeping soil moisture capacity in containers within optimal range, and reduced heat losses at heating mains.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, logging equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has winch with at least two drums for pulling and return cables, respectively, said cables defining closed contour extending through main guiding pulley system. Logging single-axle wheeled cart and choking equipment are positioned between pulling and return cables. Wheeled cart has load-bearing shield pivotally mounted on cart and system of auxiliary guiding pulleys for pulling cable. Boom-type frame is mounted on wheel axle of cart. Levers are mounted on frame first boom oriented to main guiding pulleys of pulling cable for restricted pivoting in longitudinal-vertical plane. Load-bearing shield fixed on lever free ends is oriented toward frame second boom, in particular, to choking equipment zone. Stop is positioned on outer surface of shield in shield and lever junction zone. One of auxiliary guiding pulleys of pulling cable is mounted on stop through vertical poles, while other auxiliary guiding pulleys are mounted on frame boom oriented to main guiding pulleys for pulling cable. Main guiding pulley system is provided with auxiliary cable centering pulleys for centering of cable relative to axis of related drum. Centering pulleys are positioned on winch base, forward of system of main guiding pulleys defining closed cable contour for moving carts.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, ecological monitoring of territories with young plants and underbrush, in particular, evaluation of ecological consequences of environment pollution.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing penetration into wood of young tree and vegetative parts thereof or young branches and tree roots by means of spring-loaded rod with flat end surface by repeatedly applying permanent force thereto; upon each action in the form of strike, measuring increase in depth of penetration of rod; judging properties of woody plant by number of strikes sufficient for penetration of rod to predetermined depth. Tests are performed during growing period and properties of woody plant are evaluated on the basis of set of measurements taken in the course of season growing and development of woody plant. Method may be used for process monitoring in the course of growth and development of forest plantations.
EFFECT: simplified testing of wood of woody plant during growing period under field conditions.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring variations of pulse loading of the conical head during its penetration into the wood in radial direction. The wood quality can be judged by relative force pulse duration.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, tree felling and logging equipment.
SUBSTANCE: harvesting machine has self-propelled chassis carrying sawing mechanism, mechanism for pushing tree from stump, gripping-and-feeding device and bunking device. Gripping-and-feeding device is positioned over the entire width of frame front part of harvesting machine of inclined longitudinal chain conveyor equipped with spring-loaded sickle-shaped grips movable along guides curved in vertical plane. Centering rollers provided with projections and helical thread are mounted on poles of bunking device, said poles being controlled by means of hydraulic cylinders. Bunking device is mounted on pole trailer. Upper ends of paired grips are interconnected by means of cables to provide for embracing of tree with looped cable and of clamp with grips during falling of tree onto conveyor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of harvesting machine.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, methods for preparing forest areas for cleaning felling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating permanent technological network based on process corridors and loading stations system, where swath pockets adjoin main pockets along arc or circle equal to radius of turning of logging unit loaded with wood, with the exception of blunt angles exceeding 120 deg.
EFFECT: reduced technogenic effect upon forest environment and increased efficiency of logging and subsequent operations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting light stocking and bunching bundles; skidding said bundles onto floating base by means of cable, with bush cutter continuously moving and upper pulley being mounted on bush cutter and winch being positioned on floating base. Cutting and bunching procedures are provided while floating base continuously moves.
EFFECT: improved quality of cleaning of basin beds, increased efficiency and reduced expenses for performing such works.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, processing of individual trees, may be used for cleaning cutting in average aged and ripening stand.
SUBSTANCE: method involves processing tree by initially cutting branches from the bottom to the top of tree over trunk up to crown part; upon removal of crown part, leaving trunk for several months to provide for natural drying of tree trunk. Method allows versatility of felling-bunching machine with gripping-and-cutting boom to be increased and operational capabilities of machine to be widened owing to adaptation to different kinds of tree and stand care processes. It means that single machine may be used for tree clear or selection felling processes, as well as for caring of crown of individual trees. Method may be effectively used for caring of trees in parks, gardens and preservation plots by means of existing felling-bundling machines furnished with small-sized gripping-cutting booms having maximal predetermined weight and load capacity.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and wider operational capabilities.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, clearing of green felled area for forest crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing felled area into strips to be cleared and spaces between strips not to be subjected to clearing; gathering felling residue by means of brush rake movable on cleared strips and shifting felling residue onto spaces between strips by alternatively turning to the right and to the left to thereby form felling residue piles; after clearing strips on the entire felling area, burning felling residue; grubbing out stumps from cleared strips by means of grubber-collector, which moves grubbed stumps to felling residue burnt piles; leaving the latter for decaying.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of felling residue piles and increased area of spaces between strips for natural regeneration stands.
FIELD: timber industry and may be used at through sequence certification of wood from growing trees to half-finished products in conditions of timber industry, logging, woodworking and also in engineering ecology and ecological wood-control at ecological valuation of territories.
SUBSTANCE: for testing they make with the help of a bore samples of cylindrical form of larger diameter then the largest transverse size of standard samples of rectangle form which are prepared from cylindrical samples and with the length of o less then the length of standard samples.
EFFECT: simplifies process of strengthening testing of wood with using cylindrical samples.
6 cl, 8 dwg