Method of production of gas containing hydrogen and carbon oxide

FIELD: production of gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon oxide from hydrocarbon raw material.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following stages: (a) partial oxidation of part of raw material for obtaining the first gaseous mixture from hydrogen and carbon oxide; (b) catalytic vapor reforming of part of gaseous raw material in convective vapor reforming furnace provided with tubular reactor with one or more tubes containing reforming catalyst. Outer surface of tubular reactor tubes is used for cooling the hot gas obtained at stage (a). Surface of these tubes is made from metal alloy containing 0-20 mass-% of iron, 1-5 mass-% of silicon, 0-5 mass-% of aluminum, 20-50 mass-% of chromium and at least 35 mass-% of nickel.

EFFECT: reduction of coke formation and erosion of outer surfaces of reactor tubes.

11 cl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method for producing a gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, gaseous hydrocarbons, resulting in partial oxidation of part of the gaseous raw materials to produce the first mixed product and endothermic reactions other part of the gaseous feedstock with steam and/or carbon dioxide, which is carried out in a tubular reactor with a fixed bed of the catalyst in order to obtain a second mixed product, and the temperature of the first mixed product is reduced by contact of the specified gas from the outer surface of the tubular reactor.

Prior art

This method is described in the application EP-A-168892 filed by the authors of the present invention in 1986 In accordance with the specified publication endothermic reaction is preferably carried out in a fixed bed, placed, at least one tube, the temperature of which is supported in the interval between 800 and 950°directing at least part of the hot gaseous product from the stage of partial oxidation on the tube (the tubes). According to the publication, the co partial oxidation and endothermic synthesis gas provides better yield synthesis gas, high zootoxin the e H 2/, Decreases the flow of oxygen per 1 m3the obtained product synthesis gas and decrease the capital cost of the installation to obtain mixtures containing CO and H2. An example of the way as it is described in EP-A-168892 described in EP-A-326662.

In EP-A-171786 describes a method similar to the method of EP-A-168892. The difference between them lies in the fact that a gaseous product having a high temperature, do not get partial oxidation of natural gas, and conventional reformer furnace, combustion chamber which provide supply the required heat. After this first gazoobraznye product is cooled in the so-called Enhanced Heat Transfer Reformer (EHTR) (reforming furnace with improved heat transfer), directing the gas along the outer surface of the tubular channels EHTR. On EHTR reactor and similar devices generally referred to as Convective Steam Reformer [convective steam reformer-furnace] (CRS). These tubes contain a fixed bed of catalyst for the endothermic reaction of the reforming process using the second part of natural gas. In accordance with this invention, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced in the tubes, can be considered as a second gaseous product. The gaseous product obtained in the traditional reformer-furnace contains about 33% of steam.

In US-B-6224789 revealing who is the way, similar to that described above, except that a gaseous product with a high temperature is produced from natural gas in the so-called Autotermal Reformer [autothermal reforming furnace] (ATR) in the presence of Ni-containing catalyst and steam. Then the hot gaseous product is brought into contact with the outer surface of the tubes of the reactor type EHTR.

Tube convective steam reformer furnace (Convective Steam Reformer) are usually manufactured from metal alloys containing significant amounts of iron. Ferrous alloys are the preferred material because of its mechanical strength at relatively low cost. In addition, the use of such alloys allows to produce complex tubular structures for such devices. The disadvantage of the considered devices is that during the operation on the external surfaces of the tubes is formed coke from the conversion of part of the carbon monoxide to carbon and carbon dioxide. In addition, a portion of the surface subjected to erosion, ultimately leading to unacceptably low mechanical integrity of the tubing. These effects are particularly noticeable when the amount of steam in the hot gas is less than 50 vol.%. Such hot gas containing CO and H2formed, for example, when the partial oxidation of natural gas, gas to the refinery, methane, etc. in the absence of added steam, as described in WO-A-9639354. Thus, if you intend to carry out a simultaneous partial oxidation and reforming, as suggested, for example, in EP-A-168892 or in EP-A-326662, it is necessary to develop an improved way of implementing such a process.

The purpose of the present invention is to develop a method that has advantages over the methods of EP-A-168892 or EP-A-326662, consisting in a smaller coxworthy or its deletion, and/or less erosion of the outer surface of the reactor tubes.

This goal can be achieved using the following method. This method is intended to obtain a gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from a gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock, includes the following stages:

(a) partial oxidation of part of the raw materials to produce a first gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and

(b) catalytic steam reforming part of the gaseous raw material in a convective steam reformer furnace (Convective Steam Reformer), comprising a tubular reactor, equipped with one or more tubes containing a reforming catalyst, characterized in that the external surface of the tubes of the tubular reactor is used for cooling hot gas obtained in stage (a), as well as the fact that the external surface is rnost such tubes are made of metal alloy containing 0-20 wt.% iron and 1-5 wt.% of silicon.

The inventors have found that when using the surface of a metal alloy with a low iron content, there is less erosion and low coke formation on the outer surface of the reactor tubes CSR. There is a possibility of combination of partial oxidation of natural gas, carried out in the absence of (significant number) pair as the regulator of the gas, i.e. the formation of hot gas with a water vapor content of less than 50 vol.% and, more preferably, less than 15% vol. with the CSR process. An additional advantage of the combination of partial oxidation with CSR process is the fact that the hot gas produced in the partial oxidation, has a higher temperature than the hot gas produced by conventional reforming apparatus. This streamlined process allows you to process with the help of CSR relatively greater amount of natural gas and/or conduct the process with a higher conversion of the specified gas due to the higher temperature at the exit section of the catalytic steam reforming of the CSR apparatus. The preferred mass ratio between the number of natural gas processed in stage (a) and stage (b)is 0.5-3. Another advantage is that can be on stigmata lower ratio between hydrogen and carbon monoxide, than in the method described in US-A-4919844, which is especially beneficial when using this gas as a raw material for a process of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, or synthesis of DME. The preferred molar ratio of H2/CO in the synthesis gas obtained in using the above combined process is 1.9 to 2.3.

The partial oxidation stage (a) can be carried out in accordance with well known principles, for example, described for the gasification process Shell Gasification Process in the Oil and Gas Journal, September 6, 1971, pp. 85-90. Examples of methods of partial oxidation are given in the publications EP-A-291111, WO-A-9722547, WO-A-9639354 and WO-A-9603345. In these processes the raw material is brought into contact with such oxygen-containing gas, as air, pure oxygen or a mixture thereof, under conditions of partial oxidation. The contacting is preferably carried out in the combustion chamber, located in the reactor vessel. The partial oxidation is preferably carried out in the absence of significant quantities of added steam, and preferably in the absence of added steam as the gas, slowing down the reaction. Gaseous raw material can represent, for example, natural gas, natural gas refinery, associated natural gas or coal formation) methane, etc.

The preferred temperature gazoobraznogo the product from stage (a) is 1100-1500° C, and the molar ratio of N2/Has a value in the range of 1.5 to 2.6, preferably 1,6-2,2.

Stage (b) can be performed using well known methods of steam reforming, in which the steam and gaseous hydrocarbons are brought into contact with a suitable reforming catalyst in the CSR the rector. Examples of relevant methods described in the above-cited US-B1-6224789 and EP-A-171786. The preferred molar ratio between the amount of steam and carbon (as well as hydrocarbons and CO) is 0-2,5, more preferably 0.5 to 1. It is also preferred that the feedstock contained this amount of CO2that provides a molar ratio of CO2and carbon (as well as hydrocarbons and CO) in the range of 0.5-2. The preferred temperature of the gaseous product from step (b) is 600-1000°With a molar ratio of N2/CO in the range of 0.5 to 2.5.

Gaseous raw materials for stages (a) and (b) may also contain recycled fraction comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, which may be formed in the above-cited subsequent processes, for example, in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, in which the raw material is used WITH/N2containing gas.

The present invention also relates to CSR reactor containing tube with the outer surface of the metal alloy and podloga is of a metal alloy as the internal parts.

Preferably, the temperature of the gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is reduced at the stage (b) 1000-1500 to 300-750°C. Preferably, the temperature of the surface alloy phase (b) was below 1100°C.

The mixture containing the carbon monoxide obtained in stage (b)can directly be combined with the gaseous product obtained in stage (a). As shown in US-A-4919844, this operation can be carried out in the CSR reactor. The gaseous product obtained in stage (b), can also be supplied to the step (a) so that the combined mixture can be used for cooling tubes CSR reactor in stage (b).

Thus, the present invention relates to a method for reducing the temperature of the gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide obtained in the process of partial oxidation, as a result of contacting such gas with the surface of the metal alloy, the temperature of which is lower than the temperature of the gas, and the surface of the metal alloy contains iron in an amount of 0-20 wt.%, preferably 0-7% of the mass. In addition, the surface of the alloy contains 0-5 wt.% aluminum, preferably 0-5 wt.% silicon, preferably 20-50 wt.% chromium and preferably at least 35 wt.% Nickel. The preferred Nickel content is the balance to 100% balance. The surface of the metal is anyone alloy, preferably located on a substrate of metal alloy with better mechanical properties than the surface layer.

As has been established, it is useful to keep the surface of the metal alloy contains at least some amount of aluminum and/or silicon in the case when the concentration of steam in the hot gas below 50 vol.%, preferably below 30 vol.%, and, more preferably, less than 15 vol.%. Preferably, with such a low water vapor content specified layer from the alloy contains 1-5 wt.% aluminum and 1-5 wt.% of silicon. The resulting layers of aluminum oxide and silicon oxide to provide enhanced protection against coking and erosion in the case of strengthening restorative properties of a medium with such a low concentration of steam. After aluminum and silicon, a metal alloy, it is desirable to add small amounts of titanium and/or REM (reactive elements). Examples REM can serve Y2About3La2About3CeO2, ZrO2and HfO2. The total number of such additional compounds is 0-2 wt.%.

The layer of the device of the alloy metal may be any metal alloy with the desired mechanical strength for the particular application. Typically, such metal alloys contain more iron than over Ostry layer, for example, more than 7 wt.% and even up to 98 wt.%. Other suitable metals that may be present in such a metal alloy, chromium, Nickel and molybdenum. Examples of suitable layers of media from a metal alloy can serve as stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, such as materials AISI series 300 (e.g., 304, 310, 316), usually containing Cr in the number of 18-25% and Ni the number of 8-22%, casting materials, such as HK-40, HP-40 HP-modified alloys based on Nickel, for example, Inconel 600, Inconel 601, Inconel Inconel 690 and 800, as well as ferritic stainless steels, which are alloys based on Fe with low Nickel content, for example now , less than 2 wt.% and Cr content of about 12 wt.%.

These two layers of metal alloy can be obtained by methods known to the person skilled in the art. The preferred composite of a metal alloy produced using the method of Assembly welding, resulting in the formation of bonded multilayer welds metal surface. This method is preferable, because it allows to produce complex tubular structures used in the CSR reactor with the surface of the metal alloy in accordance with the present invention. This method is characterized by the fact that the desired metal alloy is, designed for use as a surface layer, is first subjected to a grinding method, a gas atomization to obtain powder of the specified alloy. Preferably the powder is substantially free of iron. Next, a layer of such a metal alloy is applied to the alloy carrier, using the method of the national welding for welding the specified powder by the method of plasma powder welding. After machining of the weld metal get the smooth surface of the metal alloy. The thickness of the surface layer of the metal alloy may be 1-5 mm, preferably 1-3 mm, it Was found that the layer of metal alloy may contain iron, even in the case when the original powder does not contain iron. This occurs at the stage of welding due to the migration of iron from the layer of the medium on the surface layer. You should take appropriate measures in order to limit the migration of iron in the surface layer so that its content in the surface layer was lower than 20 wt.%, preferably below 7 wt.%. The effect of migration of iron may be limited in the use of layer-carrier with low iron content, increasing the thickness of the layer and/or applying a layer in several stages. The preferred method of making such an Assembly welding is described in the R-a-1043084 and to this publication referred to in the present description. In the cited publication discloses a method of obtaining resistant to coking of the tubes of the furnace-reactor, designed for steam cracking process, the purpose of which is to obtain lower olefins, such as ethylene and propylene.

1. A method of obtaining a gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from a gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock, comprising the following stages:

(a) partial oxidation of part of the raw materials to produce a first gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and

(b) catalytic steam reforming part of the gaseous raw material in a convective steam reformer furnace, comprising a tubular reactor, equipped with one or more tubes containing a reforming catalyst, characterized in that the external surface of the tubes of the tubular reactor is used for cooling hot gas obtained in stage (a), and the outer surface of these tubes is made of a metal alloy containing 0-20 wt.% iron, 1-5 wt.% silica, 0-5 wt.% aluminum, 20-50 wt.% chromium and at least 35 wt.% Nickel.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the metal alloy is supported by a layer of media from a metal alloy having better mechanical properties than the surface of the metal alloy.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the content is their chromium is more than 30 wt.%.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the surface of the metal alloy contains 1-5 wt.% aluminum.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the surface of the metal alloy contains 0-2 wt.% titanium and/or reactive elements.

6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the layer of the device of the metal alloy contains 7-98 wt.% iron.

7. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the surface layer of the alloy is applied on the support layer of metal alloy and method of assembling and welding.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the temperature of the hydrogen-containing gas from step (a) reduced from 1000-1500 to 300-750°at the stage (b).

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the molar ratio of hydrogen to CO in the hot gas phase (a) has a value in the range of 1.5 to 2.5.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the hot gas used in stage (b), contains less than 15% vol. pair.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gaseous raw material stage (b) contains hydrogen gas, steam and carbon dioxide, and the molar ratio between the amount of steam and carbon is 0.5 to 1, and the molar ratio between CO2and carbon is 0.5-2.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: technology of processing hydrocarbon materials, production of synthesis-gas in particular.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out in plant including multi-cylinder four-stroke or two-piston air-injection internal combustion engine working in mode of chemical compression reactor. Proposed method consists in preparation of mixture containing hydrocarbon material, water vapor and oxygen-enriched air -fuel charge at excess-air-oxidizer coefficient of 0.3-0.58 for methane followed by preheating of fuel charge and delivery of it to engine cylinders; then additional heating is performed in compression stroke followed by ignition in top dead center due to self-ignition of additives introduced into fuel charge in form of liquid or gaseous agents whose ignition temperature is below that of fuel charge; as a result, engine is started as chemical compression reactor and partial oxidation of fuel in volume of internal combustion cylinders is performed; then, products formed during reverse stroke of piston are expanded and cooled and products of this process containing synthesis-gas are discharged to bottom dead center, after which they are cooled and cleaned from soot and are subjected to final cooling and conversion into methanol or dimethyl ether. Process of partial oxidation at attaining the working mode of operation by chemical reactor is maintained due to availability of residual gases in cylinders whose amount is controlled by re-adjusting of the valve gear, additional heating due to warming-up of engine and external control of fuel charge heating temperature. Proposed plant includes multi-cylinder four-stroke or two-piston two-stroke air-injection internal combustion engine working as chemical compression reactor; engine is provided with intake and exhaust valves and system for delivery of air, hydrocarbon material and additives, as well as heating and preheating systems including air heaters, heat exchangers and mixer; engine is also provided with synthesis-gas cooling system which also consists of heat exchanger and cooler; engine is provided with reversible motor-generator set generating the electric power for multi-stage synthesis-gas compressor and high-temperature filter rigidly connected with engine and used for cleaning the synthesis-gas from soot; engine is provided with cooler and drip pan. Working of engine in mode of chemical compression reactor and composition of synthesis-gas are controlled through control of oxidizer-excess coefficient and preheating temperature in heat exchanger at steady state conditions or temperature at starting air heater outlet. Invention makes it possible to increase specified productivity by 2.5-3 times at volume ratio of H2/CO of 1.4:2.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of production of methanol and synthetic motor fuels.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical processes.

SUBSTANCE: process of producing benzene, ethylene, and synthesis gas from methane comprises following stages: (i) supplying into reactor initial gas containing methane and carbon dioxide; (ii) oxidation of methane in reactor under specific reaction conditions using first catalytic material and/or additional oxidant; and (iii) removal from reactor of gas stream formed containing benzene, ethylene, and synthesis gas, inside wall of reactor having been treated with first catalytic material.

EFFECT: increased conversion of methane and selectivity regarding benzene at reduced accumulation of coke fragments.

20 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: petrochemical processes.

SUBSTANCE: process of producing benzene, ethylene, and synthesis gas from methane comprises following stages: (i) supplying into reactor initial gas containing methane and carbon dioxide; (ii) oxidation of methane in reactor under specific reaction conditions using first catalytic material and/or additional oxidant; and (iii) removal from reactor of gas stream formed containing benzene, ethylene, and synthesis gas, inside wall of reactor having been treated with first catalytic material.

EFFECT: increased conversion of methane and selectivity regarding benzene at reduced accumulation of coke fragments.

20 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical reactor and the method for production of hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the power equipment may be used for production of hydrogen both in the stationary plants and on the vehicles. The hydrogen is produced by the hydrolysis (decomposing of water) at its interaction with the granules of the solid reactant (aluminum, silicon, etc.) definitely located inside the chemical reactor. The chemical reactor for production of the hydrogen consists of the cylindrical body with the liquid reactant medium, in which there is the temperature sensor connected with the control unit, and in the upper part of the body there is the union for withdrawal of the gaseous product of the reaction. At that inside of the body the tubular heat exchanger is installed. The tubes of the heat exchanger are arranged at least along two concentric circumferences, spaced from each other and communicate through the collector equipped with the valves for feeding of the heating carrier. Between the tubes of the heat exchanger in the liquid reactant medium there is the annular fire grate, on which the solid reactant granules are placed. The chemical reactor has the vertical spacers inserted between the tubes located on the concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the adjacent tubes. Besides there are the vertical inserts placed between the opposite tubes of the adjacent concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the tubes. At that the indicated spacers and inserts form the zones free from the solid reactant granules, and the valves of the heat carrier feeding are connected through the control unit to the temperature sensors. The method of operation of the chemical reactor for production of hydrogen provides for the liquid reactant feeding in the chemical reactor, withdrawal of the heat and the reaction products from the reaction zone with the help of the heat carrier. Before the liquid reactant feeding into the chemical reactor this reactant is heated up to the temperature ensuring the preset duration of the operational cycle of the reaction, and the heat withdrawal from the chemical reactor with the help of the heat carrier begin at reaching the temperature equal to the temperature of the liquid reactant boiling point with the increase of the heating carrier consumption till the boiling temperature of the liquid reactant will drop to 0.9÷0.8 of the liquid reactant boiling temperature, after that the consumption of the cooling heat-carrier maintain constant till completion of the chemical reaction in the chemical reactor. The inventions allow to increase efficiency of the chemical reactor, to reduce its dimensions and the mass, to improve the fire-explosion safety, to simplify the chemical reactor operation, to reduce its operational costs.

EFFECT: the inventions ensure the increased efficiency of the chemical reactor, the reduced its dimensions and the mass, the improved the fire-explosion safety, the simplified operation of the chemical reactor, the decreased its operational costs.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: separation and cleaning of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed section consists of device for partial condensation of synthesis-gas including the following components: heat exchanger A for cooling the synthesis-gas fed to section, separator B connected with heat exchanger A and intended for separation of synthesis-gas into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and methane, evaporator C for further separation of gas fraction fed from separator B into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide, evaporator D where hydrogen absorbed in liquid and remaining liquid containing mainly carbon monoxide are evaporated; this liquid may be directed to distilling tower; section is also provided with one more evaporator E where hydrogen absorbed in liquid fraction of separator B is removed through evaporation; this liquid contains mainly carbon monoxide and methane; liquid may be directed to distilling tower F for separation of gaseous carbon monoxide and obtaining methane from lower part of column. Section is also provided with unit for washing with nitrogen which includes washing column G for separation of admixtures by action of nitrogen from gas fraction of evaporator C and recovery of admixtures as fuel gas. Nitrogen washing unit adjoins the partial condensation device.

EFFECT: enhanced heat exchange; low cost of process.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: separation and cleaning of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed section consists of device for partial condensation of synthesis-gas including the following components: heat exchanger A for cooling the synthesis-gas fed to section, separator B connected with heat exchanger A and intended for separation of synthesis-gas into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and methane, evaporator C for further separation of gas fraction fed from separator B into gas fraction consisting mainly of hydrogen and liquid fraction consisting mainly of carbon monoxide, evaporator D where hydrogen absorbed in liquid and remaining liquid containing mainly carbon monoxide are evaporated; this liquid may be directed to distilling tower; section is also provided with one more evaporator E where hydrogen absorbed in liquid fraction of separator B is removed through evaporation; this liquid contains mainly carbon monoxide and methane; liquid may be directed to distilling tower F for separation of gaseous carbon monoxide and obtaining methane from lower part of column. Section is also provided with unit for washing with nitrogen which includes washing column G for separation of admixtures by action of nitrogen from gas fraction of evaporator C and recovery of admixtures as fuel gas. Nitrogen washing unit adjoins the partial condensation device.

EFFECT: enhanced heat exchange; low cost of process.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

Catalytic reactor // 2296003

FIELD: chemical industry; production of the catalytic reactors.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the chemical industry, in particular, the catalytic reactor, which contains a set of the sheets forming the channels of the streams between them. In each channel of a stream there is the wavy material foils, which surfaces are coated with the catalytic material, except for the places where they contact to the sheets. On each end of the reactor there are the gas-collecting mains for the gaseous mixtures feeding in the channels of the streams. At that the gas-collecting mains are communicating with the adjacent channels separately. The reactor realizes feeding of the various gaseous mixtures in the adjacent channels , which may be under the different pressures, and the corresponding chemical reactions in them are also different. When one of the reactions is endothermic reaction, then the other reaction is exothermal; the heat is transmitted through the sheets separating the adjacent channels from the exothermic reaction to the endothermal reaction. The reactor may be used in the compact-type installation for realization of conversion of the methane with the steam, for production of the necessary heat at the methane catalytic combustion, and also Fisher-Tropsh synthesis, so this general method includes conversion of the methane in the long-chain hydrocarbons. The technical result of the invention is realization of the gaseous phases reactions at the increased pressures and especially for realization of the highly exothermal and endothermal reactions.

EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of the gaseous phases reactions at the heightened pressures and especially for realization of the highly exothermal and endothermal reactions.

9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: disproportionation process catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of hydrogen through steam conversion of carbon monoxide and development of catalyst for indicated process. Invention provides carbon monoxide conversion catalyst showing high catalytic activity and heat-conductivity and a process of steam conversion of carbon monoxide using indicated catalyst. Catalyst is characterized by heat-conductivity at least 1 W(mK)-1, which enables performing process with low temperature gradient in direction transversal to gas stream direction.

EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and heat-conductivity.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises contacting hydrocarbon blend with solid porous phase, namely with methanol decomposition catalyst or methanol-to-hydrocarbons and water conversion catalyst. Contact is conducted such that at least part of hydrocarbon blend comes into contact with catalyst under suitable conditions for conversion of at least part of methanol at volumetric feed flow rate 3-15 h-1.

EFFECT: enabled removal of methanol without disturbing composition of hydrocarbon blend.

4 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: alternate fuels.

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EFFECT: increased conversion of hydrocarbons, selectivity regarding synthetic gas, and heat resistance of catalyst at lack of carbonization thereof.

4 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.

9 cl

FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.

EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.

EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.

12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.

10 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.

EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

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