Cross country vehicle
FIELD: transport engineering: cross-country vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has engine, body with bottom and wheel suspension at least two of wheels are made for fitting of detachable devices, each provided with propulsor for reduced density medium and interconnected by closed flexible member. Each propulsor of detachable device is made in form of blade at one side of which flat rib is secured provided with cutout for fixing flexible member, and at other side, foot is hinge-mounted for fastening in disk of wheel whose suspension permits tilting of wheel under body. Bottom of body is made water tight for sliding in medium of reduced density.
EFFECT: increases speed of movement in reduced density medium (snow, water), increased reparability of detachable device.
10 cl, 14 dwg
The invention relates to the field of road transport and can be used to provide year-round transport links between settlements in areas that do not have well-developed road network.
Known vehicle-terrain containing a running motor body with a bottom and wheel suspension, at least two of which are made with the possibility of installing a removable-naduvnyh devices with each propulsion for the environment with reduced density. In the mentioned patent removable-nadejnoe device to increase the patency of the car contains a set instead of wheels removable device that represents the cart track rollers and mounted on a wheel of stars, which are covered by the flexible tape. To prevent turning of tracked devices front and rear bogies are attached to the body springs with shock absorbers (DE No. 3146511, 1981).
The disadvantages of this vehicle are operational complexity due to the necessity of removing the wheels to install the trolley Assembly, limited functionality, providing the movement along the hard roads and snow, but does not allow the movement of water, low velocity through the medium low density (snow), low maintainability removable-nading the device, associated with the difficulty of mounting and replacement of the elastic element in the field.
It is also known a vehicle-terrain containing a running motor body with a bottom and wheel suspension, at least two of which are made with the possibility of installing a removable-naduvnyh devices are each connected closed by the elastic element propulsion for the environment with reduced density. Removable-nadejnoe the device is pivotally mounted on the axles of the car truck with track rollers and elastic tape covering the track rollers and the leading wheel of the vehicle or installed instead of the drum or sprocket, and non-driving support device includes a ski with support for non-driving wheels and fixation with regard to him (RU # 2159193, 2000).
The disadvantages of this vehicle are the limited functionality, providing the movement along the hard roads and snow, but does not allow the movement of water, low velocity through the medium low density (snow), low maintainability removable-nadinoo device in the form of trucks associated with the difficulty of accurate installation and replacement of the elastic element (tape) in the field.
An object of the invention is the creation of JFK and the objective of the vehicle-terrain and expanding Arsenal of such funds.
Technical result, which provides a solution to the problem, is that extended the functionality to move along the hard roads, on snow, on water, increase speed to medium low density (snow, water), improving maintainability removable-nadinoo device.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the vehicle-terrain contains a running motor body with a bottom and wheel suspension, at least two of which are made with the possibility of installing a removable-naduvnyh devices are each connected closed by the elastic element propulsion for the environment with reduced density, and each mover removable-nadinoo device made in the form of blades, one side of which is fixed a flat edge with a cutout for fixing the elastic element, and on the other side of the hinge is installed paw for mounting the drive wheel, the suspension made with the possibility of installing the wheel in an inclined the position under the body, with the bottom of the last executed waterproof slidable in an environment with reduced density.
Preferably, the flat edge is installed perpendicular to the blade and is made with a hole and an extra hole for fastening the auxiliary spiral vane, and Lapa is equipped with cu is pegnymi elements for fixing the drive wheel, removable-nadejnoe the device is made with flat blades, the area of each of which exceeds the size of the footprint of the tire wheel, the elastic element is designed as an elastic ring, the blades are made with rubberized pads from the mounting feet, facing to the side tread of the wheel, the suspension is equipped with hydraulically or pneumatically adjustable swivel cylinders-damper pivotally mounted to rotate under the body and lock the wheel in an inclined position at an angle of 30-50° to the horizontal, each wheel is connected with the driving motor via grusovoi transmission, the blade is made of durable plastic with a metal frame and paw - light and durable metal, the vehicle is made with the possibility of unilateral freezes or lock the rotation axes of the wheels.
In the drawing figure 1 shows a diagram of the position of the wheels before and after rotation, figure 2 - connection of the legs with the wheel and with the blade in figure 3 - wheel installed on the blades and a flexible removable ring-nadinoo device, figure 4 - arrangement of the blades when driving on snow or swampy areas, figure 5 - arrangement of the blades moving through the water, figure 6 - three-dimensional image of the blade with the flat side edges, figure 7 - diagram of the swivel connection is through the blades with a paw, on Fig - end view on the blade, figure 9 is a side view of the paw, figure 10 is a bottom view of the paw, on 11 - three-dimensional image paws on Fig auxiliary blade, Fig diagram, installation of auxiliary blades, Fig is a bottom view of the wheel with mounted blades.
Vehicle-terrain, for example the car contains a driving motor (not illustrated), a body 1 with a bottom 2 and the suspension of the wheels 3, at least two of which are made with the possibility of installing a removable-naduvnyh devices are each connected closed elastic element in the form of an elastic ring 4 thrusters for the environment with reduced density. Propulsion device for converting the energy of natural source or mechanical engine into useful work, providing for the movement of vehicles. Depending on the nature and condition of the road or environment on which or in which takes place the movement and speed of movement used different drivers, in particular, for movement on land use wheels, caterpillar mover, etc. for movement on the water - paddle wheels, propellers, jet propulsion, etc.
Each thruster removable-nadinoo device of the inventive vehicle made in the form of blades 5, one side of which is fixed a flat edge 6 having a cut-out 7 d is I'm fixing the elastic element 4, and on the other side of the hinge is installed paw 8 for mounting the disk (not labeled) of the wheel 3. Wheel suspension 3 is made with possibility of installation of the wheel 3 in an inclined position under the body 1. The bottom 2 is made waterproof slidable in an environment with reduced density.
Flat rib 6 is installed perpendicular to the blade 5 and is made with a hole 9 and an additional cut of 10 for fastening the auxiliary spiral vane 11. Paw 8 provided with fastening elements 12 for fixing the wheel disc 3. The blade 5 and the paw 8 are supplied fully assembled, i.e. connected in the factory. Paw 8 may have a variety of design swivel and fasteners 12.
Removable-nadejnoe device is preferably flat blades 5, the area of each of which exceeds the size of the footprint of the tire 13 of the wheel 3.
The elastic element in the form of an elastic ring 4 is performed with the normalized elasticity, in this case with maximum elasticity, to prevent prepaymania blades 5 and contact with the bottom 2 of the vehicle.
The blades 5 are preferably made with rubberized pads 14 by mounting legs 8, facing to the side tread of the wheel 3. Platform 14 have a relief mating is a side elevation of the tread 13.
The suspension is equipped with hydraulically or pneumatically adjustable swivel cylinders-absorbers 15, 16, pivotally mounted to rotate under the body 1 and the fixing of the wheel 3 in an inclined position at an angle of 30-50° to the horizontal.
Each wheel 3 is connected with the driving motor via grusovoi transmission 17. Paw 8 may have legs 18 for fixing the wheel disc 3.
The blades 5, 11 is made of durable plastic with a metal frame and paw 8 - of light and durable metal. Paw 8 this will further increase the stiffness and strength of the wheel of the wheel disc 3, it may have a different shape or a variety of fastening elements 12 of the attachment to disk, but the main purpose is still the same: this mount blade 5 on the wheel 3.
The vehicle is made with the possibility of unilateral freezes or lock the rotation axes of the wheels 3.
It is advisable to note that almost every production car may be appropriately modified in part suspension of the wheels and upgraded described above removable-naduvnie devices. This modification can improve the permeability of the majority of mass-produced cars.
Externally, the vehicle looks like a normal car, with minor adjustments (as it can float because of the forms of the body and a special bottom and:
- no need to use huge wheels or caterpillars;
- the ability to travel on highways;
within 20-30 minutes the owner (if any skills or assistants even faster) machine will be transformed into a vehicle;
- no need to use a different engine to move through the water, as is the case in most of the known vehicles.
The proposed solution is probably to use on cars 4×4 and under certain modifications of the body and refitting the bottom, on the front - or rear-wheel drive cars.
The vehicle is operated as follows.
On the hard road riding is done in the usual way on wheels.
For travel on snow or swamp first, changing the angle of the wheels 3 by means of a hydraulic (or pneumatic shock absorbers 15, 16 due to the pressure changes in their cylinders so that the wheels 3 bending under the body 1 and be at an angle 50-30 degrees relative to the support (horizontal road surface). The rotation of the wheels 3 will be implemented through the mechanism of grusovoi transfer 17 (which in the drawing is designated as a crossed circle). Then on the drive wheels 3 fasteners 12 feet 8 are fastened themselves removable-naduvnie device (one after another crepe is carried out four or five blades 5) on each wheel 3, first on the upper right and the left crossbar of the wheel, then on the opposite blades 5 one wheel 3 in the slots 7 of the lever is attached to the elastic ring 4, thus creating the tension of the latter. Then the vehicle must be moved forward or backward so as to pressurize the wheel 3 on the right or left of the blade 5, and then to fasten the crossbar on a free wheel the remaining blade 5 (if there will be 4 pieces) or blades (if they will be 5 pieces), and then there is the tension of the last elastic ring 4 between the remaining blades 5. Possible options for the operation of the device will be another sequence of commencement of operation (for example, to install the 4 blades 5): first put on wheels 3 blades 5 and one elastic ring 4 on the opposite blade 5. Then change the angle of the wheels 3, the vehicle moves forward a little, leans wheel 3 on the first blade 5, then stops and secure the last blade 5 and the elastic ring 4. To adjust the blade pitch angle 5 with respect to the road surface it may be necessary to reduce the air pressure in the wheel tire 13 (podspustil them to the plane of the blade 5 is parallel or close to parallel to the road surface, to decrease the Oia burden on them and increase the area of support). When the wheel 5 rotates, the blades 5 will be gradually fold over under the body 1 of the vehicle. Advancing the blade 5 by a car load will be increased and the angle of inclination relative to the road will be reduced and may even be almost parallel. Due to the fact that the horizontal surface of the blade 5 will be a large area, the machine will not be deeply fall in the snow or in the swamp. Due to the repulsion generated by the edge 6 of the blade 5, the machine will move forward, sliding the bottom 2 on the surface or above the surface of the swamp, snow or water. To increase the area of support it is better to use 5 blades on one wheel 3, a greater number will require more time for installation, fewer can create a smaller footprint (although the required bearing area of the blade and the number of blades 5 should be determined depending on the design features of the machine (dimensions, weight, etc)). Adjusting the blade pitch angle 5 relative to the support surface with the elastic ring 4 and the tire pressure 13 will allow the additional depreciation of contact of the blade 5 with the surface that will provide the relative smoothness without shock due to the elastic properties of the ring 4 and the tire 13 of the wheel 3. Also the elastic ring 4 is necessary that the angle of inclination l of the jaws 5 with respect to the plane of the wheel 3 decreased and became parallel with decreasing load on it, in order not to hurt the body 1 of the vehicle. The presence of rubberized pads 14 of the blades 5 relief under side of the tread 13 will prevent slipping and deformation of the surfaces of the tire 13 and the blade 5 during rotation of the latter.
When turning the vehicle when moving through water, snow, swamp is unilateral deceleration (braking) or lock the rotation axes of the wheels 3. To this end may be engaged locking system and slowing the rotation axes of the wheels 3, existing in known vehicles to improve vehicle stability.
If the vehicle when moving through difficult terrain stalled, by changing the position of even a single pair of wheels 3 and secured on their drives at least two blades 5, you can leave the area without assistance.
If necessary movement through the water, the car pulls to the water and hung out on the jacks to rotate the wheels and install removable-naduvnyh devices or slightly enters into the water, where the above modifies the position of the wheels and are removable-naduvnie device with blades 5. Then by rotation of the wheels 3 in wearing removable-naduvnie devices the car moves on to the water (or water) and the same way goes from water to land. If the relief of the terrain does not allow the vehicle to independently enter (or leave) in water, it can move in the water and out of water, for example, by using a crane. While driving on the water rotating auxiliary spiral vane 11 create a circulation of water acts like a screw floating vessel and will contribute to pushing the car over the water. When the upper part of the blades 5 will rotate above the water, the vehicle begins to move forward due to the fact that the resistance to rotation of the blades 5 in the water will be much greater than in air. Further, increasing the speed of the car popping out of the water will be more and friction, respectively, less. Therefore, the car will be easier to gain more speed. It is possible that the auxiliary spiral vane 11 can not be mounted for movement on the water, provided that the buoyancy of the body 1 and the location of the wheels 3 with blades 5 will be such that the upper part of the blades 5 will be, at least partially, above the water when the stationary condition of the vehicle.
After moving in the water vehicle travels on land, removed removable-naduvnie device with blades 5 and the wheels 3 are mounted in the normal position.
Model tests of the inventive vehicle confirmed the possibility of its use on the road with hard surface, and when driving on CH is se in the bog and on the water.
In the inventions created an effective vehicle terrain and expanded Arsenal of such funds.
This expanded functionality to move along the hard roads, on snow, on water, increased movement speed in the medium low density (snow, water), improved maintainability removable-nadinoo device.
1. Vehicle-terrain containing a running motor body with a bottom and wheel suspension, at least two of which are made with the possibility of installing a removable-naduvnyh devices are each connected closed by the elastic element propulsion for the environment with reduced density, wherein each propulsion removable-nadinoo device made in the form of blades, one side of which is fixed a flat edge with a cutout for fixing the elastic element, and on the other side - hinged set paw for mounting the drive wheel, the suspension made with the possibility of installing the wheel in an inclined position under body, while the bottom of the last executed waterproof slidable in an environment with reduced density.
2. The vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the flat edge is installed perpendicular to the blade and is made with the CTE is the participation and an additional hole for fastening the auxiliary spiral vane, and Lapa is equipped with fastening elements for fixing to the wheel.
3. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the removable-nadejnoe the device is made with flat blades, the area of each of which exceeds the size of the footprint of the tire wheel.
4. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the elastic element is designed as an elastic ring.
5. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the blades are made with rubberized pads from the mounting feet, facing to the side tread of the wheel.
6. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the suspension is equipped with hydraulically - or pneumatically adjustable swivel cylinders-damper pivotally mounted to rotate under the body and lock the wheel in an inclined position at an angle of 30-50° to the horizontal.
7. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that each wheel is connected with the driving motor via grusovoi transfer.
8. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the blade is made of durable plastic with a metal frame and paw - out of light and durable metal.
9. Vehicle according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the vehicle issue is Leno with the possibility of unilateral freezes or lock the rotation axes of the wheels.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to development of hydrodynamic device of amphibian vehicle to improved weather worthiness. Proposed wash plate of amphibian vehicle is designed to reduced hydrodynamic resistance and wettability of hull bow. To improve handling during motion afloat and increase efficiency, wash plate is made for turning relative to in coming flow to form additional side force providing movement at smaller radii of turning circle to increase total turning moment and with distance to hull changing under action of hydraulic cylinders to find optimum position under different operating conditions.
EFFECT: improved performance of amphibian vehicle by improving its handling.
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; manufacture of amphibian-automobiles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian-automobile has engine mounted transversely in center or in rear part of automobile. Engine is so constructed that rear wheels and propulsion unit for motion in water may be placed in operation by means of axial transmission in parallel with longitudinal axis of automobile. Engine is so mounted on propulsion unit that its bottom is below axis of transmission shaft. Bottom of automobile ensures gliding during motion in water. Wheels may be retracted to raised position for motion in water. Rear wheels may be placed in operation by engine through differential gear; divider may be mounted between differential gear and at least one rear wheel. Height of center of gravity relative to center of buoyancy is reduced, thus enhancing stability of automobile according to road clearance; metacentric height preferably ranges from 370 to 180 mm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
19 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: automobile suspension systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed suspension system for automobile-amphibian includes the control lever mounted rotatably on automobile body passing to wheel bracket. Control lever and wheel bracket are mounted for rotary motion relative to each other. Wheel bracket includes automobile wheel supports. Suspension system is provided additionally with drive unit mounted rotatably on automobile body at spatial connection relative to control lever and for rotation of control lever around its swivel joint with body for shift of wheel bracket and consequently for shift between two limiting positions of automobile wheel. In first limiting position, wheel is mainly located vertically for grip with road and in second limiting position, it is retracted for motion of automobile in water. Drive unit is mounted rotatably on body in center position relative to its length so that it should turn during motion of wheel bracket between the first and second limiting positions.
EFFECT: increased motion of automobile forward and inside at retraction.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; reactive hydrodynamic facilities for improving in-water running characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tracked amphibious vehicle has drive wheel arranged in front portion; vehicle is equipped with hydrodynamic unit which is made in form of centripetal paddle wheel and guide cone mounted integral on drive wheel before stream crossing. During rotation of drive wheel, water sucked by paddle wheel in radial direction gets in contact with cone forming flow which is thrown in axial direction through central hole, thus forming lateral reactive force. At rectilinear motion, lateral reactive forces get balanced, thus steering the vehicle on steady course due to reduced effect of difference in track thrust forces. At braking of one of tracks and consequently stop of drive wheel, thrust force of leading track is summed-up with lateral reactive force, thus increasing the turning moment towards lagging side.
EFFECT: enhanced maneuverability and stability of course; simplified construction.
FIELD: transport engineering; wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cross-country wheeled vehicle has body with flat bottom, driving and steerable wheels, inflatable member secured on flat bottom and connected with pneumatic system of wheeled vehicle. Wheeled vehicle has additional flat bottom secured below inflatable member and connected with vehicle body by means of pneumatic cylinder, springs and levers interconnected by tire-rod. Additional flat bottom is provided with edges curved upwards to radius.
EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity of vehicle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cross-country vehicles for operation in regions from tundra to desert which can run along ground, hard-surface roads, swamps, snow and water. It can be as consumer goods for fishers, sports purposes, forest conservation, ESM, frontier guards, customs personnel, etc. Proposed vehicle has carrying frame with axle for front wheels spaced at both sides and axle for rear wheels interconnected and installed behind driver's seat, engine interacting with rear wheels, and steering gear. Interaxle distance of carrying frame is 1.7-2.0 relative to diameter of rear wheel. Rear wheels are intercoupled, and they can be provided with ring recess in between or with ring recess accommodating blades made in form of its cross section or made integral with solid support surface. width of front part of carrying frame is less than width of rear part. Rear and front wheels can be made with low-pressure tires. Diameter of rear wheel exceeds diameter of front wheels. Front wheels can be replaced by skis, when necessary.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of vehicle, simplified design, reduced mass and cost.
15 cl 3 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission 3 for amphibian vehicle contains engine 12, gearbox 14 and differential 16. Axis of crankshaft of engine 12 can coincide with longitudinal axis 32 of vehicle or it can be parallel to longitudinal axis. Gearbox 14 is installed crosswise relative to engine perpendicular to engine. Gearbox can be manual, with successive change of gear ratio, automated, manual automatic or stepless. Drive shaft 42 of transmission set into motion by engine crankshaft drives propulsion unit 48 of vehicle, and gearbox 14. Engine can be displaced from central line of vehicle.
EFFECT: provision of transmission for amphibian vehicle in which conventional cross automobile transmission is used adaptable for amphibian vehicle.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: war materiel; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of exhaust gases of power plant to cavities of casings mounted on the outside of vehicle by means of controllable intake and exhaust valves. In case of rectilinear motion of vehicle, delivery of exhaust gases to cavities of port and starboard casings is performed smoothly and in case of turn delivery of exhaust gases is regulated in such way that pressure in cavities on side of turn and on opposite side decreases or increases in proportion to square of speed of vehicle and inversely relative to radius of its turn.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: building of transport amphibian hovercraft with elastic guard.
SUBSTANCE: propose amphibian hovercraft has platform with built-in receiver provided with compartments, hull with compartments, engine, fan, transmission, propeller in aerodynamic ring, aerial rudder, flexible guard in area of increased pressure, controllable wheeled pneumatic undercarriage, buoyancy units articulated with platform body and elastic guard and safety strake located over perimeter of amphibian hovercraft; it is provided with two deceleration flaps and control system, guide knives and deceleration tenons. Knives are rigidly secured to lower elastic plates of deceleration flap driven by pneumatic cylinders; deceleration tenons are elastically secured to upper plates of deceleration flap and are driven by pneumatic cylinders and corrugated air chambers. Amphibian hovercraft is provided with controllable reactive grate -compensator with horizontal blades for counter-acting to capsizing moment of propeller; it is kinematically linked with contact pitch sensor located in fore portion of hull. Deceleration flap may be divided in plan into two parts located symmetrically relative to longitudinal axis of amphibian hovercraft at distance of 0.3-0.5 of height of air cushion from each other and interconnected by means of flexible spring.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of amphibian hovercraft.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power gear train includes engine, transmission located in line with it and intermediate power takeoff unit located between engine and transmission; output of power takeoff unit may transmit power to unit of drive working during motion on water; it is mounted in rear part of transport facility by means of shaft. Transmission output is designed for transmission of power to differential mounted in rear part of transport facility. Power takeoff unit is located behind transmission and shaft passes below or through engine oil sump.
EFFECT: enhanced arrangement of power gear train.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: armored equipment, in particular, armored caterpillar vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the vehicle is provided with folding water displacement tanks, whose spaces communicate with the inner space of the hull, sections of hinged flaps-pontoons, hinge-joined along the hull on the sides and that can in the non-operating position be packed up on the left-hand and right-hand flaps of the hull from the top, built in the rear sections of the flaps-pontoons on the sides of water - motion propellers of the "packed propeller" type with a drive from the power plant, that can in the inoperating position be packed up in the recesses in the upper rear part of the hull and be hinged together with the rest sections of the flaps-pontoons, hydrofoil in the nose section of the hull. A 12.7-mm machine gun with a circular rotation is installed on the hull roof with a forward shift. The vehicle has a mass up to 5.5 tons.
EFFECT: enhanced speed and stability of motion afloat.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creating amphibian with open seat and common drive for simultaneous or in-turn operation of ground and water propulsion drives. Proposed amphibian vehicle with open seat is furnished with drive engine to operate, either in turn of simultaneously, ground propulsion or water propulsion drive made in form of jet drive by means of two independent clutches. Ground propulsion drive is made as all-wheel-drive. Drive engine is installed between ground propulsion axles under seat. Front and/or rear wheels are made for turning opposite to direction of vehicle movement when moving over water. According to proposed method, ground propulsion drive is engaged at water movement, and front and/or rear wheels are set into rotation opposite to direction of movement. At movement over water control is effected by means of rotary reactive nozzle and by control of front wheels.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians on pneumatic wheels.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has hull with smooth bottom and pneumatic wheels with drive and treads. Tires of pneumatic wheels are furnished with water-gripping treads. Skis are installed at adjustable angle of incidence under smooth bottom behind wheels at a distance from wheels. Skis are made adjustable in height through ski clearance and they have width not less than thickness of wheels. Ends of skis are truncated upwards, and redans are made before wheel drive axles.
EFFECT: possibility of moving over water at higher speed without considerable increase in engine power rating.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steering gear of amphibious vehicle has levers arranged in control cabin at working place of driver, and control tie-rods coupled with ground and water-propelled units. Proposed gear is furnished with turning mode selector arranged between said levers and control tie-rods. Turning mode selector is made for changing to control side gearbox distributors when moving over ground and to control rudders of water-propelled units and transmission of increased control force when moving over water. Change-over is provided through summing lever installed on axle under floor of control cabin, traction-and-lever mechanism furnished with hydraulic booster and made for converting translation of tie-rods into rotation of telescopic propeller shaft, and through mechanism to convert rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod. Steering tie-rod is coupled with inner blades of rudders of left-hand and right-hand water-propelled units. Turning mode selector can be made in form of roller clutches with rods coupled by link and installed for axial displacement by means of two-position link with fixing in operating positions by ball stop. Making of telescopic propeller shaft hydraulic system of rudder booster of water-propelled unit and mechanism for converting rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod is shown.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and operating characteristics of steering gear with possibility of control by levers both when moving over ground and over water.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian has hull including deck and bottom; located under hull are pneumatic bottles and elastic protective shock-absorbing bottom in form of skin made from strips of material possessing high abrading resistance which are laid transversely overlapping each other. Amphibian is provided with motor plant and control member. Bottom skin extends as far as upper portion of hull; it is secured at clearance between sides and skin due to projection of extreme pneumatic bottles beyond surface of bottom. Skin strips are secured by means of rope lacing on the outside of amphibian perimeter. In case of availability of fender guards on sides, rope lacing may be made by means of lacing eyes. It is good practice to build bottom of two parts: upper and lower with clearance between them which is filled with elastic deformation material. Pneumatic bottles located between bottom and skin may be assembled from components of different diameters. Extreme bottles may have similar diameters of greater magnitude. Diameter of remaining intermediate pneumatic bottles may be lesser as compared with diameter of extreme bottles.
EFFECT: simplified construction of amphibian; enhanced protection; reduced mass; enhanced strength; increased running speed; enhanced maneuverability and economical efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: amphibian aircraft control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes water touchdown sensor, unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors and computer for forming elevator automatic deflection signal. Control system includes optimal pitch angle setter and unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors includes sensor of speed made good through the water and present pitch angle sensor. Computer includes preset pitch angle stabilization unit and smooth connection unit.
EFFECT: improved safety characteristics; enhanced seaworthiness.
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibian vehicles, particularly, to post of hydraulic systems suspension. According to invention, vehicle has at least one wheel shifted out from vehicle body to support vehicle when it is used on the ground and retracted for use on water. Vehicle is furnished additionally with hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic fluid, piston installed for movement inside cylinder and dividing the cylinder into first and second chambers, device to connected piston with suspension lever mechanism connected with wheel, first two-position valve designed to control fluid flow between first and second chambers at least on section of working stroke of piston, and second two-position valve connected only with one of first and second chambers. When first valve is open, and second valve is closed, post provides functions of suspension and/or damping of wheel vibrations. When first valve is closed and second valve is open, post serves as drive to move wheel between extended and retracted positions.
EFFECT: provision of retraction and extension of wheel through distance exceeding that required for normal riding.
13 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.
EFFECT: improved layout of power train.
19 cl, 8 dwg