Amphibian vehicle wash plate
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to development of hydrodynamic device of amphibian vehicle to improved weather worthiness. Proposed wash plate of amphibian vehicle is designed to reduced hydrodynamic resistance and wettability of hull bow. To improve handling during motion afloat and increase efficiency, wash plate is made for turning relative to in coming flow to form additional side force providing movement at smaller radii of turning circle to increase total turning moment and with distance to hull changing under action of hydraulic cylinders to find optimum position under different operating conditions.
EFFECT: improved performance of amphibian vehicle by improving its handling.
The invention relates to the field of transport engineering, in particular to a floating machines, and the development of a special hydrodynamic devices to improve the parameters of men's properties.
Known manageritalia shields (for example, patent USSR No. 1736758, CL 60F 3/00, 1992) are designed only to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance to movement and salivatory fore part of the hull due to the favorable interference wave systems formed by the shield and the floating machine, and improve the nature of the flow. This position manageritalia shield and its parameters are optimal only under certain conditions, which are considered the most characteristic of the floating machine.
The aim of the invention is to improve the manageability of the floating machine by expanding the capabilities of the equipment used for water or during its optimization.
This goal is realized by executing manageritalia shield sliding through the cylinders to the distance defined by the operating conditions, and rotatable about the incident flow, resulting in an additional lateral force, providing the movement with smaller radii circulation by increasing the total turning moment.
N the figure 1 shows a General view manageritalia shield in position in its simplest implementation of the invention (using cylindrical hinge), figure 2 schematically shows the operating principle of when making a turn in the movement.
Managerially shield 2 (figure 1) is a symmetric flat plate. In the transport position, the shield 2 is pressed against the windshield to the sheet body 1. The extension of the shield into position and forced the change of the distance h from the shield to the chassis depending on the operating conditions (speed floating machine νlength counter waves λ, the position of the waterline and others) in order to find its optimal position is carried out between the cylinders 3 and 4. The hydraulic cylinders 3 are used for fixing the axis of rotation of the shield, the cylinders 4 for rotation.
The operation of improving the controllability is as follows.
During rectilinear movement of the cylinders 4 are at the same distance, and managerially shield is parallel to the frontal sheet body at the optimal distance (figure 1). When applying pressure in different cavities of the hydraulic cylinder 4 is rotated volgatranstelecom shield around an axis fixed with the help of hydraulic cylinders 3. The interaction of the flow with managerialism shield leads to the formation of additional lateral forces Pb(figure 2), the value of which is determined moves the m resistance R xsquare shield, the angle of inclination of the axis of rotation of the shield relative to the vertical (angle inferior frontal sheet) and an angle of rotation of the shield α. The appearance of additional lateral forces Pbprovides movement with smaller radii circulation than when using only men of propulsion, by increasing the total turning moment Mrot.
Managerially shield floating machine designed to reduce hydrodynamic resistance and salivatory the fore part of the body, characterized in that, with the aim of improving controllability during movement afloat and efficiency, is made rotatable about the incident flow for the formation of additional lateral forces, providing the movement with smaller radii circulation by increasing the total turning torque and variable by means of hydraulic cylinders by the distance to the Cabinet to find the optimum position under different operating conditions.
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; manufacture of amphibian-automobiles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian-automobile has engine mounted transversely in center or in rear part of automobile. Engine is so constructed that rear wheels and propulsion unit for motion in water may be placed in operation by means of axial transmission in parallel with longitudinal axis of automobile. Engine is so mounted on propulsion unit that its bottom is below axis of transmission shaft. Bottom of automobile ensures gliding during motion in water. Wheels may be retracted to raised position for motion in water. Rear wheels may be placed in operation by engine through differential gear; divider may be mounted between differential gear and at least one rear wheel. Height of center of gravity relative to center of buoyancy is reduced, thus enhancing stability of automobile according to road clearance; metacentric height preferably ranges from 370 to 180 mm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
19 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: automobile suspension systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed suspension system for automobile-amphibian includes the control lever mounted rotatably on automobile body passing to wheel bracket. Control lever and wheel bracket are mounted for rotary motion relative to each other. Wheel bracket includes automobile wheel supports. Suspension system is provided additionally with drive unit mounted rotatably on automobile body at spatial connection relative to control lever and for rotation of control lever around its swivel joint with body for shift of wheel bracket and consequently for shift between two limiting positions of automobile wheel. In first limiting position, wheel is mainly located vertically for grip with road and in second limiting position, it is retracted for motion of automobile in water. Drive unit is mounted rotatably on body in center position relative to its length so that it should turn during motion of wheel bracket between the first and second limiting positions.
EFFECT: increased motion of automobile forward and inside at retraction.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering; reactive hydrodynamic facilities for improving in-water running characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tracked amphibious vehicle has drive wheel arranged in front portion; vehicle is equipped with hydrodynamic unit which is made in form of centripetal paddle wheel and guide cone mounted integral on drive wheel before stream crossing. During rotation of drive wheel, water sucked by paddle wheel in radial direction gets in contact with cone forming flow which is thrown in axial direction through central hole, thus forming lateral reactive force. At rectilinear motion, lateral reactive forces get balanced, thus steering the vehicle on steady course due to reduced effect of difference in track thrust forces. At braking of one of tracks and consequently stop of drive wheel, thrust force of leading track is summed-up with lateral reactive force, thus increasing the turning moment towards lagging side.
EFFECT: enhanced maneuverability and stability of course; simplified construction.
FIELD: transport engineering; wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cross-country wheeled vehicle has body with flat bottom, driving and steerable wheels, inflatable member secured on flat bottom and connected with pneumatic system of wheeled vehicle. Wheeled vehicle has additional flat bottom secured below inflatable member and connected with vehicle body by means of pneumatic cylinder, springs and levers interconnected by tire-rod. Additional flat bottom is provided with edges curved upwards to radius.
EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity of vehicle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cross-country vehicles for operation in regions from tundra to desert which can run along ground, hard-surface roads, swamps, snow and water. It can be as consumer goods for fishers, sports purposes, forest conservation, ESM, frontier guards, customs personnel, etc. Proposed vehicle has carrying frame with axle for front wheels spaced at both sides and axle for rear wheels interconnected and installed behind driver's seat, engine interacting with rear wheels, and steering gear. Interaxle distance of carrying frame is 1.7-2.0 relative to diameter of rear wheel. Rear wheels are intercoupled, and they can be provided with ring recess in between or with ring recess accommodating blades made in form of its cross section or made integral with solid support surface. width of front part of carrying frame is less than width of rear part. Rear and front wheels can be made with low-pressure tires. Diameter of rear wheel exceeds diameter of front wheels. Front wheels can be replaced by skis, when necessary.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of vehicle, simplified design, reduced mass and cost.
15 cl 3 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission 3 for amphibian vehicle contains engine 12, gearbox 14 and differential 16. Axis of crankshaft of engine 12 can coincide with longitudinal axis 32 of vehicle or it can be parallel to longitudinal axis. Gearbox 14 is installed crosswise relative to engine perpendicular to engine. Gearbox can be manual, with successive change of gear ratio, automated, manual automatic or stepless. Drive shaft 42 of transmission set into motion by engine crankshaft drives propulsion unit 48 of vehicle, and gearbox 14. Engine can be displaced from central line of vehicle.
EFFECT: provision of transmission for amphibian vehicle in which conventional cross automobile transmission is used adaptable for amphibian vehicle.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: war materiel; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of exhaust gases of power plant to cavities of casings mounted on the outside of vehicle by means of controllable intake and exhaust valves. In case of rectilinear motion of vehicle, delivery of exhaust gases to cavities of port and starboard casings is performed smoothly and in case of turn delivery of exhaust gases is regulated in such way that pressure in cavities on side of turn and on opposite side decreases or increases in proportion to square of speed of vehicle and inversely relative to radius of its turn.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: building of transport amphibian hovercraft with elastic guard.
SUBSTANCE: propose amphibian hovercraft has platform with built-in receiver provided with compartments, hull with compartments, engine, fan, transmission, propeller in aerodynamic ring, aerial rudder, flexible guard in area of increased pressure, controllable wheeled pneumatic undercarriage, buoyancy units articulated with platform body and elastic guard and safety strake located over perimeter of amphibian hovercraft; it is provided with two deceleration flaps and control system, guide knives and deceleration tenons. Knives are rigidly secured to lower elastic plates of deceleration flap driven by pneumatic cylinders; deceleration tenons are elastically secured to upper plates of deceleration flap and are driven by pneumatic cylinders and corrugated air chambers. Amphibian hovercraft is provided with controllable reactive grate -compensator with horizontal blades for counter-acting to capsizing moment of propeller; it is kinematically linked with contact pitch sensor located in fore portion of hull. Deceleration flap may be divided in plan into two parts located symmetrically relative to longitudinal axis of amphibian hovercraft at distance of 0.3-0.5 of height of air cushion from each other and interconnected by means of flexible spring.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of amphibian hovercraft.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power gear train includes engine, transmission located in line with it and intermediate power takeoff unit located between engine and transmission; output of power takeoff unit may transmit power to unit of drive working during motion on water; it is mounted in rear part of transport facility by means of shaft. Transmission output is designed for transmission of power to differential mounted in rear part of transport facility. Power takeoff unit is located behind transmission and shaft passes below or through engine oil sump.
EFFECT: enhanced arrangement of power gear train.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle suspensions.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed invention, amphibian vehicle contains buffer travel stop with member including part of stop coming in contact with part of vehicle suspension for limiting travel of suspension system relative to vehicle body and in which said member is installed for selective displacement between working position in which part of stop is installed for coming in contact with part of vehicle suspension system, and idling position, in which part of stop is out of contact with part of vehicle suspension system. Proposed buffer travel stop has device for moving part of stop between working and idling positions. Proposed buffer travel stop precludes excessive upward travel of wheel when vehicle is moving along ground and does not interfere with movement of suspension upwards for retraction when preparing vehicle for operation on water.
EFFECT: improved operation reliability.
12 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: armored equipment, in particular, armored caterpillar vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the vehicle is provided with folding water displacement tanks, whose spaces communicate with the inner space of the hull, sections of hinged flaps-pontoons, hinge-joined along the hull on the sides and that can in the non-operating position be packed up on the left-hand and right-hand flaps of the hull from the top, built in the rear sections of the flaps-pontoons on the sides of water - motion propellers of the "packed propeller" type with a drive from the power plant, that can in the inoperating position be packed up in the recesses in the upper rear part of the hull and be hinged together with the rest sections of the flaps-pontoons, hydrofoil in the nose section of the hull. A 12.7-mm machine gun with a circular rotation is installed on the hull roof with a forward shift. The vehicle has a mass up to 5.5 tons.
EFFECT: enhanced speed and stability of motion afloat.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creating amphibian with open seat and common drive for simultaneous or in-turn operation of ground and water propulsion drives. Proposed amphibian vehicle with open seat is furnished with drive engine to operate, either in turn of simultaneously, ground propulsion or water propulsion drive made in form of jet drive by means of two independent clutches. Ground propulsion drive is made as all-wheel-drive. Drive engine is installed between ground propulsion axles under seat. Front and/or rear wheels are made for turning opposite to direction of vehicle movement when moving over water. According to proposed method, ground propulsion drive is engaged at water movement, and front and/or rear wheels are set into rotation opposite to direction of movement. At movement over water control is effected by means of rotary reactive nozzle and by control of front wheels.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians on pneumatic wheels.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has hull with smooth bottom and pneumatic wheels with drive and treads. Tires of pneumatic wheels are furnished with water-gripping treads. Skis are installed at adjustable angle of incidence under smooth bottom behind wheels at a distance from wheels. Skis are made adjustable in height through ski clearance and they have width not less than thickness of wheels. Ends of skis are truncated upwards, and redans are made before wheel drive axles.
EFFECT: possibility of moving over water at higher speed without considerable increase in engine power rating.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steering gear of amphibious vehicle has levers arranged in control cabin at working place of driver, and control tie-rods coupled with ground and water-propelled units. Proposed gear is furnished with turning mode selector arranged between said levers and control tie-rods. Turning mode selector is made for changing to control side gearbox distributors when moving over ground and to control rudders of water-propelled units and transmission of increased control force when moving over water. Change-over is provided through summing lever installed on axle under floor of control cabin, traction-and-lever mechanism furnished with hydraulic booster and made for converting translation of tie-rods into rotation of telescopic propeller shaft, and through mechanism to convert rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod. Steering tie-rod is coupled with inner blades of rudders of left-hand and right-hand water-propelled units. Turning mode selector can be made in form of roller clutches with rods coupled by link and installed for axial displacement by means of two-position link with fixing in operating positions by ball stop. Making of telescopic propeller shaft hydraulic system of rudder booster of water-propelled unit and mechanism for converting rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod is shown.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and operating characteristics of steering gear with possibility of control by levers both when moving over ground and over water.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian has hull including deck and bottom; located under hull are pneumatic bottles and elastic protective shock-absorbing bottom in form of skin made from strips of material possessing high abrading resistance which are laid transversely overlapping each other. Amphibian is provided with motor plant and control member. Bottom skin extends as far as upper portion of hull; it is secured at clearance between sides and skin due to projection of extreme pneumatic bottles beyond surface of bottom. Skin strips are secured by means of rope lacing on the outside of amphibian perimeter. In case of availability of fender guards on sides, rope lacing may be made by means of lacing eyes. It is good practice to build bottom of two parts: upper and lower with clearance between them which is filled with elastic deformation material. Pneumatic bottles located between bottom and skin may be assembled from components of different diameters. Extreme bottles may have similar diameters of greater magnitude. Diameter of remaining intermediate pneumatic bottles may be lesser as compared with diameter of extreme bottles.
EFFECT: simplified construction of amphibian; enhanced protection; reduced mass; enhanced strength; increased running speed; enhanced maneuverability and economical efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: amphibian aircraft control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes water touchdown sensor, unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors and computer for forming elevator automatic deflection signal. Control system includes optimal pitch angle setter and unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors includes sensor of speed made good through the water and present pitch angle sensor. Computer includes preset pitch angle stabilization unit and smooth connection unit.
EFFECT: improved safety characteristics; enhanced seaworthiness.
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibian vehicles, particularly, to post of hydraulic systems suspension. According to invention, vehicle has at least one wheel shifted out from vehicle body to support vehicle when it is used on the ground and retracted for use on water. Vehicle is furnished additionally with hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic fluid, piston installed for movement inside cylinder and dividing the cylinder into first and second chambers, device to connected piston with suspension lever mechanism connected with wheel, first two-position valve designed to control fluid flow between first and second chambers at least on section of working stroke of piston, and second two-position valve connected only with one of first and second chambers. When first valve is open, and second valve is closed, post provides functions of suspension and/or damping of wheel vibrations. When first valve is closed and second valve is open, post serves as drive to move wheel between extended and retracted positions.
EFFECT: provision of retraction and extension of wheel through distance exceeding that required for normal riding.
13 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.
EFFECT: improved layout of power train.
19 cl, 8 dwg