Irrigation method and machine for effectuating the same

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process and technique for crop irrigation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing water outlet selected on the basis of its flow rate and equipped with heads, said water outlet being spaced apart from center by distance multiple the serial number of unit of given water outlet on water feeding pipeline of irrigation machine; establishing similar water outlet with the same heads on parts of water feeding pipeline proximate to center at distance multiple the serial number of unit k; controlling time-pulse or width-pulse mode of operation; setting ratio of irrigation time tik of established water outlets with heads to irrigation time tik and no irrigation time tnk, said ratio being equal to ratio of their serial numbers k to serial number of selected water outlet with heads i according to dependence: tik(tik+tnk)=K/i. Valve or hydromechanical pulsator is mounted on each of equally spaced water outlets disposed close to central support on water feeding pipeline. Valve is controlled by generator. Hydromechanical pulsator has adjustable water feeding switch-on time or water feeding switch-off time during periodic operation thereof, said time being individually adjustable for each pulsator. Depending on serial number of pulsator corresponding to arrangement on water feeding pipeline and serial number of selected water outlet, pulsator cylinder piston stem is made hollow and is equipped at the side adjoining piston with piston stroke restricting device having radial openings therein. Inlet branch pipe positioned on cover is provided with outer thread and is connected to water outlet. Throttle regulator is made spherical and is equipped with scale and device indicating no water feeding time. Channel which connects cavity under piston and stem cavity is provided within cylinder. Valve with hollow stem is positioned on cylinder base within outlet branch pipe in axially aligned relation with respect to piston for axial displacement within branch pipe. Radial outlet apertures are provided on end of hollow stem. Restricting washer is rigidly fixed on cylinder base. Outlet branch pipe has scale. Retainer for fixing outlet branch pipe in predetermined position is formed as sleeve. Irrigation heads are positioned at outlets of each pulsator.

EFFECT: improved quality of irrigation process and simplified construction of machine.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for irrigation of agricultural crops.

Known methods of watering crops wide by sprinkling circular steps when installing a sprinkler machine on site, ask the irrigation norm, regulate the uniformity of watering selection section sprinkler nozzles, culverts, flow along the water conveyance pipeline, increasing their type, cross-section and flow rate as the distance from the Central support. In this step placement of water discharged from the nozzles may vary, the uniformity of irrigation, especially near the Central support and the nearby sections radially split between bearings (farms) rapidly deteriorating (over-watering occurs) due to limitations of the decrease of the minimum cross-sectional, limiting the need to reduce consumption of water discharge from the nozzles. Otherwise, they will become clogged with particles of sand. Reliability of irrigation and machine work will fall [1]. And on the outlet there may be one or more sprinkler heads, devices. As nozzles can serve and lower hoses with sprinklers without them.

The closest in technical essence is a method of irrigation, multisupport sprinkling machine circular steps and a valve with a generator or a hydraulic motor, when the section set the pour sprinkling machine, circular steps, ask norm irrigation unit speed machines, watering uniformity govern the selection, design and placement of water discharged from the sprinkler nozzles, flow along the water supply line to the machine. Sprinkling machine circular steps includes a Central support, an intermediate support truck, water conveyance pipe with evenly spaced culverts and similar sprinkler nozzles [2].

The hydraulic motor (pulsator)used to create the pulse pressure, comprising a cylinder, inside which is located the piston rod, the stroke of which is limited on one side by the base with outlet pipe with the other cover with the sleeve, through which the movement of the piston rod, side cover on the cylinder is an inlet fitting rod and podpornega cavity of the cylinder through the piston reported channel [3].

The disadvantage of this method, the machine and the pulsator is that regulate the quality (uniformity) of irrigation water flow along the water conveyance pipeline machines uneven arrangement of nozzles, chastoty their arrangement, a large number, and, as a consequence, there is neodnorodnosti radially split between bearings sections, culverts water supply line to the machine. In addition, near the Central support and under the closest to it IU the reference sections are always over-watering occurs due to restrictions necessary to reduce the cross-section of water discharged from the nozzles. Because of the small cross-sectional diameter of the nozzles become clogged with sand, various impurities in irrigation water. The use of pulsating hydraulic (pulsator) to create a pulse pressure only changes the speed of the device, and do not pour them on the irrigated plot the volume of rainwater. Because of the location of the hydraulic motor communicating channel inside the piston of the*it is unavailable, you cannot adjust the pause time of the water in the sprinkler nozzle unit. The absence of scales and pointers is not possible to accurately set the time of the water in the nozzle and the time of the interruption of irrigation, i.e. you cannot control the water supply to irrigated area based on the location of the discharge and the places where he saamstaan. The location of the input socket on the side of the hydraulic cylinder does not allow sprinkler nozzle be installed vertically, as they are usually mounted. Need more coal adapter. Complicated machine design. The radial fastening of the inlet pipe to the cylinder is more complicated than the flat end fixed to the cover. In the above reduced the quality and reliability of irrigation, the unification of the machine.

The purpose of the invention is to improve the quality and reliability of irrigation, the operation of the machine, its unification.

This objective is achieved in that choose the selected item is the flow discharge from the nozzles, located away from the center at a distance, multiple ordinal install this outlet i on water conveyance pipeline machine, install this outlet with the same nozzles at the nearest to the center parts of the water conveyance pipeline at a distance, fold serial number, install, and manage time-pulse or pulse-width regime of their work, and asking regarding the timing of irrigation installed culverts with nozzles tIRat the time of their irrigation tIRand his lack of tPCequal to the ratio of their sequence numbers "K" to the ordinal number of the selected discharge from nozzles "i" according to:

This objective is achieved in that on the next to the Central support, each evenly spaced on water conveyance pipe outlet has a valve-driven generator, or a mechanical-hydraulic pulsator with adjustable turn-on time or off time of the water with occasional work and individually configurable for each pulsator depending on its ordinal position on water conveyance pipeline and the ordinal location of the outlet, the piston rod of the cylinder of the pulsator is made hollow, with a side of the piston is limited to Italy its progress with the radial holes in it, the inlet also serves as a bushing for the piston rod, is installed on the cover, provided with an external thread and is connected to an outlet, a throttle regulator is made with the ball, which is provided with a graduated scale and pointer time of the absence of water flow, and a channel connecting podporchennuyu and the rod end made inside the cylinder, on the basis of a cylinder coaxial with the piston and inside of the outlet pipe with the possibility of axial displacement is a valve with a hollow shaft, on the end of which is radially posted by outlet openings rigidly restrictive washer and with the possibility of axial displacement of the sleeve with the base and lock its position, the outlet is equipped with a scale, and position lock sleeve of the outlet pipe is made in the form of glasses and additionally serves as an indicator of time of the water in the nozzle at the exit of each pulsator installed nozzles for irrigation.

Figure 1 schematically shows a circular machine actions; figure 2 - plan of irrigated area with washer circular steps; figure 3 pulsator.

The machine consists of a Central support 1, around which the anchor trolleys 2 rotates water conveyance pipeline 3, where the outlets 4, closest to the Central support culverts installed hydromechanical pulsators or valves driven generators 5 reg is controlled by the periodic enable or disable (the time of the pulse or pulse-width control), at the output of the pulsators installed sprinkler nozzles 6 for sprinkling. The irrigation norm regulating unit 7 by varying the speed of the machine (speed 8 at anchor trolley).

Pulsator (figure 3) includes a cylinder 9 with the base 10 and the outlet pipe 11 within which is located the piston 12 and rod 13. On the other hand, the piston stroke is limited by a cover 14 having an inlet fitting 15, which is the bushing for the rod 13. Rod 16 and podpornega 17 of the hollow cylinder are connected by a channel 18 with ball throttle controller 19, provided with a scale 20 and the pointer 21. On the basis of a cylinder coaxial with the piston and inside of the outlet pipe is a valve 22 with a hollow stem 23. At the end of the valve stem radially arranged outlet openings 24 and restrictive washer 25, rigidly secured by the screw or nut. The outlet 11 provided with a sleeve 26 with the base 27 and the possibility of axial displacement, locking her position 28, in the form of glass, the edge of which is a pointer 29. The outlet is equipped with a scale 30. The rod side of the piston has a rate limiter 31. In the limiter radially located apertures 32.

Irrigation method is the following. On the part of the field to place the machine in a circular action with Central support 1 around which to anchor trolleys 2 rotations is tsya water conveyance pipeline 3. With the help of unit 7 sets the speed of the machine, and consequently, the rate of irrigation. On water conveyance pipeline 3 cars evenly install the outlets 4, matched by the flow cross-section nozzles nozzles.... On the next to the Central support 1 culverts 4 set pulsators 5 or valves controlled by its own generators, the output of which are sprinkler heads (units) 6 for the formation of rain clouds. On electrical machines, it is advisable to put the valves driven generators, because of the simplicity of their implementation, hydraulic - hydraulic pulsators. The pulsator 5 is made adjustable and customizable time, enable tIRto supply water to the nozzle or disable tPC, stop the flow of water in the nozzle (due to the time-pulse or pulse-width control). Choose selected flow discharge from nozzles located on the distance from the center, which has a sufficiently large diameter nozzle at a distance "i"times the number of installation of this culvert for water conveyance pipeline machine, install this outlet with the same heads on the nearest to the Central support parts of the water conveyance pipeline at a distance "K", multiple ordinal install, hope and nastroiv the t pulsator of discharge "to" to periodically supply water to the nozzle at the time of its inclusion of t IRand disable tPCaccording to the above formula. This to<i. In the configuration and operation of the pulsator on the site "to" will create a layer of sediment is the same as on the site "i" when the nozzle diameter of its attachments.

Setting the time of filing, the water flow stops, the pulsator and his work are the following. Water under pressure from the outlet 4 through the inlet 15 (Fig 3), the hollow cylinder rod 13, the holes 32 in the limiter 31 stroke enters the rod cavity 16 formed by the cylinder 9, the cover 14 and the piston 12 and rod 13. At this point, the piston 12 from any position is moved to the rightmost position, so that the pressure in podpornoy cavity 17, passing through the channel 18, the ball throttle controller 19, is growing slowly. The growth pressure is determined by the absence of water flow in the nozzle with pulse-width control. For the exact time the lack of water supply to the nozzles of the controller is equipped with a scale 20 and the pointer 22. The piston 12 pushes the valve 22 to the base 10 of the cylinder 9. Upon increase of pressure in podpornoy cavity 17 due to the conditions that the diameter (area) of the rod 13 is larger than the diameter (area) of the valve 22, the piston begins to move to the left. The valve 22 remains pressed against the piston due to the difference of the external and internal diameters (squares) of the valve. It is apan with piston moves to the left, until you have closed the weekend radial holes 24 of the valve base 27 of the sleeve 26. Upon contact restrictive washer 25 with the base 27 of the valve 21 is detached from the piston 12. Water from podpornoy cavity 17 under pressure enters into the cavity of the stem 23 of the valve 22. Due to the differential areas of the front and rear part of the valve is suddenly moved to its rightmost position and rests on the base 10 of the cylinder 9. This podpornega cavity 17 through the cavity of the valve stem 22, its radial hole 24 communicates with the output cavity of the pulsator, where installed sprinkler nozzles. The piston 12 due to the pressure drop in the rod and podpornoy cavities is moved to the rightmost position, squeezing the water out of the cavity 17 to the output of the pulsator, then sprinkling nozzle 6 and is pressed to the valve 22. In a further cycle of operation of the pulsator is repeated periodically water through the sprinkler nozzle is discharged into the atmosphere as rain.

Thus, the off time of each pulsator tPC, pause, stop water supply to the sprinkler nozzle is adjustable and can be set individually throttle controller 19 by changing the growth pressure in the cavity 17 with constant during the h valve 22 through the sleeve 26 with the latch 28. To ensure linear dependence of change of growth pressure throttle regulate the chosen ball, and the reliability of the channel 18 is made in the case of the cylinder 9.

When the time pulse control time, the water supply to the sprinkler nozzle is adjustable and can be set individually by changing the position h of the sleeve 26, moving it along the axis of the outlet pipe 11, by changing the stroke of the piston 12, the volume podpornoy cavity 17. For the exact time of the water in the nozzle outlet is equipped with a scale, and a glass of 29 position lock 28 is a pointer that time. When this throttle controller is strictly fixed, and therefore, in this case the absence of the water constantly.

Using the throttle controller 19 individually for each set of discharge "to" configure the pulsator at the time of termination of the water supply tPCin sprinkler nozzles (tPCar). This sleeve 26 at all pulsators fixed in the same position, i.e. tPC=const. In this case, the pulse width control supply of water

For example: at the time of the periodic supply of water from the water outlets 1...in sprinkler nozzles equal to t1=tS2=tIR=2 min, choose to install the nozzle outlet No. 5 (i=5, K=1...4), the pause time, the lack of water supply to the nozzles is for 1st outlet 8 minutes, 2nd - 3 min, 3rd of 1.33 min, 4th of 0.5 minutes At this layer of sediment area with discharge "to" equal layer of sediment discharge, "i":

where qto, qi- flow culverts with sequence numbers K and i; Ro- the distance between the outlets (figure 2); tIRthe time of the water in the nozzle during the submission period Ttoon a plot of discharge "to"; Taboutthe time of rotation of the machine.

When the time pulse control, when the periodic time of the water in the nozzle varies (tIR=υar), and is configured for each discharge "to" the position of the sleeve 26, while the throttle remains constant (tIR=const), the layer of sediment at all sites "to" will also be the same and equal layer of precipitation at the site of discharge i.

Thus, this method and the machine can achieve a uniform irrigation, improved reliability, quality of irrigation, the unification of the machine. Due to the large cross section of the outlets, nearby to the Central support, the nozzle is not clogged, the reliability increases, increases reliability of the machine, the process of irrigation.

Sources of information:

1. Mechanization of irrigation: a Handbook/Shtepa astray freight and others - M.: Agropromizdat, 1990. - 336 S.

2. RF patent №1771407, B. I. No. 39, 1992.

3. RF patent for useful model №36166, BI, No. 7, 2004.

4. Application for invention No. 2005111317 from 19.04.2005 they inspected.

1. The irrigation system in which irrigated area install the machine in a circular action, define the norm of watering the reference speed of the machine, adjust the watering uniformity selection, design and placement of water discharged from the nozzles, the flow along the water supply line to the machine, characterized in that choose selected flow discharge from nozzles located away from the center at a distance, multiple ordinal install this outlet i on water conveyance pipeline machine, install this outlet with the same nozzles at the nearest to the center parts of the water conveyance pipeline at a distance, fold serial number, install, and manage time-pulse or pulse-width regime of their work, and asking regarding the timing of irrigation installed culverts with nozzles tIRby the time irrigation tIRand his lack of tPCequal to the ratio of their sequence number "K" to the ordinal number of the selected discharge from the nozzles i according to

2. Sprinkling machine circular steps that the Central support, the intermediate support truck, water conveyance pipeline, installed culverts with nozzles, characterized in that nl is closer to the Central support, each evenly spaced on water conveyance pipe culvert installed valve, driven generator, or a mechanical-hydraulic pulsator with adjustable turn-on time or off time of the water with occasional work and individually configurable for each pulsator depending on its ordinal position on water conveyance pipeline and the ordinal location of the outlet, the piston rod of the cylinder of the pulsator is made hollow, with a side of the piston stopper in rate with radial holes therein, inlet pipe at the same time serves as a bushing for the piston rod, is installed on the cover, provided with an external thread and is connected to an outlet, a throttle regulator is made with the ball, which is provided with a graduated scale and pointer time of the absence of water flow, and a channel connecting podporchennuyu and the rod end made inside the cylinder, on the basis of a cylinder coaxial with the piston and inside of the outlet pipe with the possibility of axial displacement is a valve with a hollow shaft, on the end of which is radially posted by outlet openings rigidly restrictive washer and with the possibility of axial displacement of the sleeve with the base and lock its position, the outlet is equipped with a scale and a position lock sleeve of the outlet pipe is made in the form of glasses and additionally serves as an indicator of time of the water in the nozzle, the output ka is the Treaty of pulsator installed nozzles for irrigation.



 

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FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, irrigation of farm crops by means of multitower front sprinkler machines.

SUBSTANCE: wheeled pipeline is made sectioned and is furnished with sprinkler heads, wheeled supports, drive arranged in mid portion of central section, and section coupling means. Pipeline sections have variable section reducing in direction of supplying of irrigation water. Each pipeline section coupling is made in the form of two concentric branch pipes positioned for rotation one with respect to another and for axial displacement. Outer branch pipe is connected with flanges of adjacent carrier members. Inner branch pipe is joined with ends of adjacent pipes of different sizes, said pipes being made from high-pressure polyethylene. Pipes are positioned in cavity of carrier member. Carrier member of each section is made in the form of pair of opposite bent C-shaped sections. Ends of C-shaped sections are joined to flanges. Mounting rings are positioned in mid portion of pairs and adapted for mounting of wheel support hub. Outer branch pipe of pipeline section coupling is made in the form of detachable pair of semi-circles, each being formed by packet of spacer bushings arranged in equally spaced relation between pair of arced belts. Inner branch pipe for connecting ends of pipes made from high-pressure polyethylene is made in the form of outer and inner threaded bushings, each provided with diametrically oriented slots for special wrench for joining with ends of pipes to be connected. Inner bushing has threaded part for screwing into end of pipe of smaller diameter. Ring is disposed on outer end perimeter of pipe of smaller diameter. Inner bushing has cylindrical part joined with inner cylindrical surface of pipe of larger diameter. Its conical part is joined with sawn-through parts at end of pipe of larger diameter. Inner surface of inner bushing is defined by two intersecting conical surfaces with single base of minimal diameter.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of precipitation in the form of rain drops over area under irrigation process owing to constant flow speed of irrigation water into pipeline cavities.

10 cl, 11 dwg

Sprinkler unit // 2248118

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, sprinkling irrigation of farm crops.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has supporting members made in the form of cables attached in cantilevered manner to frame top, and irrigation pipeline connected to vehicle through pumping unit. Irrigation pipeline is coupled to frame by means of carrier carcass. Irrigation pipeline and carrier carcass are made sectioned. Each carrier carcass section is defined by pair of C-shaped bent profiles with flat rings at their ends. Profiles are arranged at an angle to one another with their wide strips to define trough. Sections of flexible pipelines made from low-pressure polyethylene are laid on trough. Ends of pipelines are embraced with bands made in the form of steel bushings. Ends of pipelines are joined by means of adapter member. Input parts of connecting member are made conical. Each adapter member is formed as hollow screw with left-handed and right-handed conical threads on their outer surface. Mid portion of screw has disk for fixing irrigation pipeline sections in operating position in rings of carrier carcass by means of paired spacer bushings and attachment means. Disk of adapter member is equipped with group of openings used for assembling-dismantling works. Openings for connection to threaded ends of cables are made in peripheral portions of carrier carcass flanges.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of precipitation in the form of rain drops through width of mobile unit, reduced material usage, simplified construction, and enhanced reliability in operation.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, mechanized irrigation equipment used on wheeled rollable pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: sectioned sprinkler is provided with sprinkling nozzles, wheeled supports, drive disposed in mid portion of central section, and section connecting couplings. Each section has water supply pipeline made from low-pressure polyethylene pipes. Pipes are successively joined to one another by means of couplings. Water supply pipeline is arranged in cavity of carrier part defined by C-shaped bent profiles. Ends of profiles are mutually connected by means of flanges. Length of carrier part is 11,720 mm. Hub of each wheeled support embraces carrier part. Sprinkling nozzles are connected with pipeline through nipples arranged between strips of adjacent C-shaped bent profiles of carrier part.

EFFECT: prolonged service life, simplified construction and reduced production costs of sprinkler.

3 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, mechanized sprinkling irrigation with the use of rollable wheeled pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkler is made sectioned and is furnished with sprinkler heads, wheel-type supports, drive located in mid portion of central section, and section couplings. Each section has water supply pipeline manufactured from low-pressure polyethylene pipes sequentially connected through couplings. Water supply pipeline is placed in bearing part cavity defined by C-shaped bent bars. Bar ends are mutually connected through flanges. Bearing part is 11,720 mm long. Hub of each wheel-type support embraces bearing part. Sprinkler heads are connected with water supply pipeline through nipples interposed between strips of adjacent C-shaped bent bars of bearing part. Each wing connected with central section has overtime clutch.

EFFECT: prolonged service life and simplified construction of irrigation pipeline.

4 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machines for mechanization of drop sparkling of farm crop. Proposed truss includes central panel in form of regular pyramid with square base made of pipes with flanges for connecting bottom chords and four suspensions. Suspensions are orientated along ribs of pyramid and one post. Post is arranged in central panel on one of side faces along apothem. Left-hand and right-hand cantilevers are mated with central panel. Each cantilever consists of one end panel and thirteen intermediate panels. Each intermediate panel is made in form of two posts, one distance piece, front and rear water passing pipes of bottom chords, one upper chord, two inclined braces, two horizontal tension members and two short-range sprinkler heads. End panel is made in form of guy truss. End panel is mated with truss panel by means of distance piece and inclined braces whose mated ends are orientated downwards in cross vertical plane of truss and are located lower than distance piece. Ends of front and rear water passing pipes are connected with guy truss pipeline by V-shaped water passing member. Panels of guy truss are formed by posts and distance pieces, inclined braces and tension members vertically orientated in longitudinal vertical plane. Water passing pipeline of guy part of truss is furnished with drain cock. V-shaped water passing member consists of steel pipes of equal section equal to sections of front rear water passing pipes and pipe line of guy truss. One of pipes of V-shaped water passing member is sectional and provided with threaded sleeve. Sleeve is fitted on threaded bushings. Bushings are installed with displacement outwards from ends of pipes. Bushings are connected by closed girth welds with end sections of parts of pipes to be connected. Insert made of plastic, for instance, fluoroplastic, is mounted between end faces of sectional parts of pipes and in plane of threaded bushings. Inner section of insert is equal to sections of pipes of V-shaped water passing member. Proposed two-cantilever self-aligning truss for sprinkling machines provides uninterrupted delivery of sprinkling water to short range heads of intermediate panels and long-range heads on guy part of truss.

EFFECT: reduced materials usage, improved sprinkling.

9 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machines for mechanization of drop irrigation of crops. Proposed truss has upper and lower chords, central panel in form of regular pyramid with square base and left-hand and right-hand cantilevers mated with pyramid. Central panel has square base made of tubes with flanges for connecting lower chords and four suspensions orientated along ribs. Panel is provided with one post located on one of side faces along apothem of pyramid. Each cantilever consists of thirteen intermediate panel and one end panel. Each end panel is made up of two posts, one brace, two front and rear water tubes of lower chords, one upper chord, two tilted struts and two horizontal tension members. Two heads are fitted on each intermediate panel and end panel. End is made in form of guy-rope truss. It is mated with truss panel by brace and tilted posts. Ends of tilted posts are relative mated from top and bottom by horizontally orientated brace. Mated ends of tilted posts are orientated downwards and arranged lower than brace. Ends of front and rear water tubes in guy-rope part are relative mated by V-shaped water supply member with tube of truss guy-rope part. Panels of guy-rope part of truss are formed by posts and braces, tilted struts and tension members orientated in longitudinally vertical plane. water supply pipeline of guy0rope part is furnished with drain valve. Proposed truss provides 15-20% reduction of materials usage.

EFFECT: improved quality of sprinkling, facilitated servicing.

7 cl, 1 tbl, 53 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, irrigation equipment, more particular, continuous motion sprinkler machines for farms.

SUBSTANCE: girder has central panel with two cantilevers pivotally fixed thereon. Each of two cantilevers is made in the form of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal girders having belts, columns, angle braces and sprinkler heads on water supply girder. Pipelines on central panel and water supply girder are made in the form of curved circuit line in transverse-vertical plane of sprinkler unit. Circuit line equation is y=a/2(ex/a+e-x/a), where a is distance from surface of field to be irrigated to pipeline arranged in mid portion of central panel; e is Napierian base (Napierian number); x and y are abscissae and ordinates of unknown points of pipeline in Cartesian coordinates XOY, the beginning part of which is aligned with field surface and with vertical axis of symmetry of girdle.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency.

4 dwg

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