Arc-control vacuum chamber

FIELD: high-voltage electrovacuum engineering; arc-control vacuum chambers, including direct-current ones, for various switches used in power engineering, industry, and transport.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum current switch incorporating proposed vacuum chamber with magnetic field that serves as OFF-operation factor applied to high-voltage gap formed by axisymmetrical electrodes disposed in insulating shell, at least one of electrodes being made movable due to connection to shell through bellows affording high-voltage circuit closing and opening during its reciprocation, has electrode system built of two basic parts: (a) contact part proper with electrodes held in one of two states (open or closed) and (b) permanently open electrode part (arc-control chamber) separated from contact members and made in the form of two electrodes (such as coaxial ones) installed so that as they move away from part (a), discharge current path increases and currents in adjacent electrodes flow in opposite directions, and direction of magnetic field set up due to them affords arc movement from part (a) to arc-control chamber. Such design of arc-control chamber provides for disconnecting currents ranging between 300 and 10 000 A at voltages up to 10 kV.

EFFECT: facilitated manufacture, reduced size and mass of chamber.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of high voltage vacuum devices, in particular to the vacuum interrupter chambers, including chambers of direct and alternating current, used in a powerful uskoregulirujushchej devices in different branches of industry, transport and can be used in the manufacture of these devices.

Known vacuum interrupter chamber (VDK)containing high-voltage electrodes, at least one of which is movable, glass or ceramic membrane system screens ([1] M.R.Reece, The Vacuum Switch and Its Application to Power Switching, J.IEEE, 1959, p.257; [2] L. T. Falkingham, A Brief History Showing Trends in Vacuum Interrupters Technology. Proc. XVIIIth Intern. Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1998, Vol.1, pp.407-414, and [3] Belkin, G.S., V.D. Bochkov, Rott A.T., Vacuum arc chamber. Certificate of utility model No. 28283 (Application No. 2002101026), IPC 7 H01J 33/66 from 22.01.2002).

Feature of known construction is the combination of the transmittance function of the current in the closed condition and extinguish the arc discharge at the opening of the electrodes by one element, namely the gap (from size 0 up to a maximum for the given design) between the flat contact surfaces of the electrodes. The electrodes are usually made of composite material containing the material to prevent welding of the contacts, nab the emer chrome, as well as high-conductivity copper with a relatively low melting temperature and evaporation. This allows you to have a small energy loss at the site of contact is in the closed state, however, leads to a significant erosion of the electrodes in the arc discharge at the time of disconnection and the difficulty of the arc extinction at maximum dilution of contacts. Known design is used for disconnection of AC circuits up to 30-40 kA at voltages up to 30-50 kV, however, does not allow rasmijoti DC, as an indispensable condition of disconnection is the current passes through zero. Off DC in this design only at a small value and a significant increase in the distances between the electrodes in the open state, which significantly increases the dimensions of the device, complicates the design of bellows system and a mechanical drive makes-low-tech device.

Known vacuum switches ([4] Emtage P.R., Kimblin C.W., J.G. Gorman et al., // IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., 1980, vol.8, No.4, p.314-319.), in which the interelectrode gap is placed in a magnetic field created by either self-talk switch, or independent magnetic system in the form of a solenoid, which is located along the axis of the camera-side fixed contact.

The disadvantages of these devices, because they fundamentally differ little from the design [1-3] and functions ol the transmission and extinguish the arc discharge is performed only by a gap, are relatively small currents off in a narrow range turn off the current.

Closest to the proposed device is a technical solution ([5] Alferov J.F. , Gostiyev V.G., Ivanov V.P., Iljin VN, Simonov A.S., V.A. Sidorov, Asnov, Y.M., Vacuum circuit breaker current, RF Patent application No. 2000132969/09 (035034) from 28.12.2000.), where to provide off DC bit period is placed in a transverse radial magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets located outside of the camera along the axis of the contacts.

However, this design is effective (because of the same reasons that characteristic [1-4]) only when the operating currents not exceeding 80-100 And does not allow to solve the problem of providing off large values of currents at voltages above 1 kV.

The technical problem on which this invention is directed is the provision of off currents 300÷10000 And at voltages up to 10 kV, at a sufficiently low complexity of the manufacturing process, small dimensions and weight VDK.

The physical basis, providing the opportunity of this decision, is the interaction of the magnetic fields in the electrode system with the magnetic field of the arc discharge, when appearing the Lorentz force acts on the channel of the arc discharge so that the discharge channel, originating at the time of opening to the stroke part of the electrode system and accelerating, thrown with a speed of 100 km/s at the end of the coaxial part where the increased distance between the electrodes. All this, as well as the implementation of the end portion of the electrode system of refractory materials has helped to drastically reduce electrode erosion and rapid interruption of the current.

The technical problem is solved due to the fact that in the vacuum circuit breaker current, containing the arc chute, with the magnetic field, which is the switching factor, applied to the high voltage gap formed axially symmetric electrodes, placed in a dielectric sheath, at least one of which is made movable by connecting with the shell by means of the bellows, while the reciprocating movement of the possibility of shorting and breaking high-voltage circuit, the electrode system is made of 2 main parts:

A) the contact part of the electrode located in 2 States - closed or open, and

B) remote from the contact elements constantly open electrode of the camera blowout, made in the form of 2 electrodes (e.g., coaxial), installed in such a way that as the distance from the contact portion And the path of the discharge current is increased, and the currents in adjacent electrodes are flowing in the opposite direction is aniah, moreover, their magnetic field is directed in such a way that ensures the movement of parts And in the damping of the arc.

This coaxial electrodes can be made in the form of cups, one of which is included in another, and at the end of the coaxial electrode part B - camera blowout, remote from the contact part And the distance between the bottoms of the electrodes is increased in comparison with the distance between the open contacts are part A.

Another difference is that as the material of the coaxial part B of the electrode system, at least in the damping used refractory material, such as tungsten, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide or graphite, and the damping, at least in the moment of switching off the current placed in a magnetic field.

Camera (see drawing) contains the electrodes 1 and 5, at least one of which is made movable by connecting with ceramic shell 14 through the bellows 15, the outputs 12 and 16. The movable electrode 1 has a flat contacting portion 3 and perpendicular to it a cylindrical part 6. The stationary electrode 5 consists of the contacting portion 4 and the Cup-shaped part consisting of elements 7, 8, 9, which is coaxial cylindrical part 6 of the electrode 1. In the initial state, the electrodes 1 and 5 normally closed (this position on the drawing showing the but by the dotted line) and through them flows operating current I p. For disconnecting the load (at the end of work, accidents, repairs, etc.) electrode 1 in command for the actuator switch is moved so that the contact parts 3 and 4 diverge at a certain distance. At the time of disconnection between the contacts arc discharge occurs. Depending on the magnitude of the current may experience one or many of cathode spots and respectively 1 or more discharge channels distributed over the electrode surface. Discharge current (the current path shown by the dotted line)passing through the flange 12, the gap between the contacts 3 and 4, the conductor 2, the output 16, forms near this period of the loop with the opposite direction of flow in the electrodes 1 and 5. The magnetic field of the electrodes and channel arc discharge in such a system interact in such a way that the resulting Lorentz force pushes the discharge in the direction of the lower density of the magnetic field, i.e. in the coaxial part of the electrode system. Accelerating, the arc is discharged into the damping 11 containing the electrodes 9 and 13 of refractory material. Near the centerline of the device, the discharge stops burning, breaking the circuit. At relatively high currents, the arc interruption contribute to instability of the plasma (for example, Pinciana).

The implementation of the invention.

In this arrangement, in contrast to the known function of providing tokophobia places of localization of the cathode fall arc) in different periods of operation, i.e. in the closed state, at the time of and after the rupture of the arc discharge are the various elements of the electrode system, which allows you to choose the best materials and devices. Contacts 3 and 4 are made of composite material (for example, copper-chromium, containing highly conductive copper, and provide a small power loss in the closed state. Damping of the same arc occurs between the electrodes 9 and 13, and this process is facilitated by 2 factors - increased the distance between them and the material of these electrodes having a high melting temperature and evaporation. Such material can be made also of the cylindrical part 6, 7, 8 of the electrode system B. the interruption of current also contributes to the magnetic field, in which is placed the damping. The magnetic field prevents contragravity discharge (provides diffuse distribution of discharge in volume) and can be either generated by the permanent magnet 10 located on the damping 11, either by the operating current Ipflowing through the solenoid is included in the circuit VDK between the damping chamber 11 and a stationary electrode 5.

The use of such a design enables the creation VDK providing off DC currents up to 10 kA or more, with relatively small dimensions and weight.

The proposed solution can be used for the Vano to solve practical problems related to control (enable or disable) the DC and AC circuits, including DC motor rail locomotives, trolleys, etc.

1. Vacuum circuit breaker current, containing the arc chute with the magnetic field, which is the switching factor, applied to the high voltage gap formed axially symmetric electrodes, placed in a dielectric sheath, at least one of which is made movable by connecting with the shell by means of the bellows, while the reciprocating movement of the possibility of shorting and breaking high-voltage circuit, characterized in that the electrode system is made of 2 main parts:

A) the contact part of the electrode located in 2 States - closed or open, and

B) remote from the contact elements constantly open electrode of the camera blowout, made in the form of 2 electrodes (e.g., coaxial), installed in such a way that as the distance from the contact portion And the path of the discharge current is increased, and the currents in adjacent electrodes are flowing in opposite directions, their magnetic field is directed in such a way that ensures the movement of parts And in the damping of the arc.

2. Vacuumn the th switch current according to claim 1, characterized in that the coaxial electrodes in the form of cups, one of which is included in another, and at the end of the coaxial electrode part B - camera blowout, remote from the contact part And the distance between the bottoms of the electrodes is increased in comparison with the distance between the open contacts are part A.

3. Vacuum switch current according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the material of the coaxial part B of the electrode system, at least in the damping used refractory material, for example, tungsten, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide or graphite, and the damping, at least in the moment of switching off the current placed in a magnetic field.



 

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