Balancing system of boom machine working equipment (versions)

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

 

Group of inventions relates to loaded earthmoving, mining, construction and loading of lifting-transport machines circular action.

A well-known system of balancing work equipment : machine [RF Patent №2190062, 23.05.2001]containing operating equipment, two hydraulic cylinders boom, one of the balancing cylinder, a piston chamber which is connected to the hydraulic cavity of the hydropneumatic accumulator, distributors working fluid, a hydraulic pump, control valves, safety valve.

The disadvantages of this device are complicated system design and high cost of the hydropneumatic accumulator containing gas and hydraulic cavity separated by a piston.

Closest to the technical nature of the known technical solutions of the present invention is a system of balancing the forces of gravity working equipment : machine [RF Patent №2236515, 27.03.2003]containing operating equipment, two hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder containing hydraulic rod cavity and piston gas passage connected to the gas cylinder; valves of the working fluid, a hydraulic pump, a relief valve.

The drawbacks are the low speed lifting work equipment, not the most performance in addition, the location of the gas cavity of the balancing cylinder under hydraulic cavity leads to deterioration in the terms of sealing, as fluid as more hard working body in comparison with gas is committed under the influence of gravity to penetrate into the gas passage through the sealing gaps of the balancing piston in the cylinder.

The aim of the present group of inventions is the creation of a system of balancing work equipment, which allows to increase the speed of lifting and lowering work equipment without changing the parameters of the hydraulic pump and motor system and to increase productivity, and improve system reliability due to the location of the gas cavity of the balancing cylinder above the hydraulic cavity.

The task in the first embodiment perform solved due to the fact that in the known system, including working equipment : machines, hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder containing hydraulic rod cavity and piston gas chamber connected to a gas cylinder; a working fluid dispenser, according to the invention the rod hydraulic cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected by hydroline with the sink in the tank; a valve working fluid is selected from the ability with the unity in one position of the valve working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump; the ratio of the sizes of the cylinders of the boom is such in which the ratio of the squares of the diameters of the piston and rod is D2:d2≥2; a gas chamber of the balancing cylinder mounted above the hydraulic cavity.

The task on the second version execution solved due to the fact that the balance system containing hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder including a hydraulic rod cavity and the gas piston cavity, connected to a gas cylinder, the valves of the working fluid through a relief valve according to the invention the working fluid dispenser is mounted for connection to the working spaces of the cylinders of the boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.

The task of the third variant of execution is decided due to the fact that in the system, including operating equipment, hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder including a hydraulic rod cavity and the gas piston cavity, connected to a gas cylinder; valves of the working fluid through a relief valve according to the invention the rod hydraulic cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the distributor installed with the possibility of connection in one position of the valve rod end of uravnoveshivaetsia with the sink in the tank, and the other with a hydraulic pump; in hydroline hydraulic cylinders boom installed the distributor with the possibility of connection in one position of the valve cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.

The group of inventions is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of the working equipment of wheeled excavator with a balancing device consisting of two hydraulic cylinders boom and one of the balancing cylinder; figure 2 - General view of the working equipment crawler excavator balanced device containing two hydraulic cylinders boom and one of the balancing cylinder; figure 3 - General view of the working equipment wheel loader with two hydraulic cylinders boom and one balanced cylinder; figure 4 shows a hydraulic diagram of the system of balancing work equipment : the machine in the first embodiment; figure 5 shows a hydraulic diagram of the system balancing working equipment according to the second variant of execution; 6 is a hydraulic schematic of the counterbalance system according to the third variant of execution.

In the first scenario run (figure 4) system trim includes working equipment 1, which are connected to the cylinders of the boom 2 and a balancing cylinder 3 (Fig 1, 2, 3)comprising a hydraulic coupling the second cavity 4 and the gas piston cavity 5, connected to a gas cylinder 6, charged with an inert gas under pressure ratings. Rod hydraulic cavity 4 of the balancing cylinder 3 are connected by hydroline 7 tank 8.

Working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom 2 is connected by a hose 9 to the dispenser 10 for lifting, lowering the boom. The dispenser 10 is connected with the hydraulic pump 11, a safety valve 12.

In the first embodiment, the counterbalance system of the dispenser 10 is mounted for connection in one position of the valve working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom 2 between the hydraulic pump 11.

On the second version of the system run trim installed the distributor 13 of the working fluid is connected by a hose 14 to the working spaces of the cylinders of the boom 2.

By the third variant of execution (6) in the balance system is installed the distributor 15, connected hydroline 16 to the rod of the hydraulic cavity 4 of the balancing cylinder 3.

The nature of the work system balancing three versions of execution is that the application of the system of balancing the forces of gravity working equipment by means of the balancing cylinder piston chamber which is connected to the gas tank, can significantly reduce the load of the hydraulic working on is orogovenia and power consumption of the motor and therefore makes it possible to increase the lifting speed of the boom with a load in the bucket by connecting the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.

In the traditional scheme of lifting two cylinders with the usual speed of the hydraulic pump 11 is combined with the piston cavities of the cylinders of the boom 2, the speed of movement of the piston in this case equal to

where Q is the flow rate of the pump; D - diameter of the cylinder of the boom.

In the proposed group of inventions to speed up the rise of a working equipment working fluid from the hydraulic pump at the same time served in the piston and the rod end of the hydraulic cylinders boom. The speed of movement of the pistons of the hydraulic cylinders boom in this case equal to

If we take the ratio of the sizes of hydraulic cylinders boom D2:d2=2, then from (2) the speed of the piston is equal to

Thus, comparing formulas (1), (3), we see that the speed of movement of the pistons hydrocylinders arrows in the proposed group of inventions has doubled and this increase is not the limit.

The balance system, in the first embodiment of the run (figure 4), works as follows. For lifting work equipment valve dispenser 10 include down, working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom 2 are connected with the hydraulic pump 11. However, in accordance with formula (3) lift speed of the working equipment is increased to 2, RA is compared with the conventional hydraulic drive.

When the lifting of the rod of the hydraulic cavity 4 of the balancing cylinder 3, the working fluid in the hydroline 7 is discharged into the tank 8. To stop the rise of a working equipment install the dispenser 10 in the neutral position shown in figure 4.

For lowering work equipment include up the slide valve of the distributor 10. Thus the working fluid from the hydraulic pump 11 is supplied to the rod end of the cylinders of the boom 2, and the piston cavities of freely drained through the valve 10 in the tank 8.

When lowering the boom at the same time the balancing piston of the cylinder 3 is returned to its original position under the action of gravity working equipment, and the gas from the piston cavity 5 of the balancing cylinder 3 is pressed into the gas cylinder 6.

The location of the gas cavity 5 of the balancing cylinder 3 above the hydraulic cavity 4 improves sealing system.

On the second version of the run (figure 5) the balance system works as follows.

For lifting working equipment 1 with the usual speed of the spool valve 10 of the working fluid include down, the working fluid from the hydraulic pump 11 is served in the piston cavity of the cylinders of the boom 2. At the same time balancing the cylinder 3, the piston chamber 5 which is connected shatovym cylinder 6, performs the rise of the working equipment 1 together with the cylinders of the boom 2. When lifting the working fluid from the rod end 4 of the balancing cylinder 3 hydroline 7 freely discharged into the tank 8.

For lowering work equipment valve dispenser 10 include up, while fluid from the hydraulic pump 11 is supplied to the rod end of the cylinders of the boom 2, and from the piston cavity is discharged into the tank 8.

The above mode of the rise of the working equipment is different from the normal mode to be performed without the counter-balancing force of gravity working equipment the fact that it is energy efficient, with the rise of the working equipment, the engine power is not consumed, since the rise of the forces of gravity working equipment is due to the energy balancing cylinder, connected to a gas cylinder.

Together with this application counterbalance system leads to a significant reduction of the load on the hydraulic cylinders boom for lifting the boom, resulting in improved reliability and durability of the main elements of the hydraulic system: engine and hydraulic pump.

According to the second embodiment of the proposed system balancing has also another advantage: allows you to increase the lifting speed of the working equipment without changing the parameters of the Hydra the pump and motor. The problem of obtaining high-speed lift working equipment in the second embodiment, is solved by means of the distributor 13. When powering down the slide valve of the distributor 13 the working fluid from the hydraulic pump 11 is supplied simultaneously in the piston and the rod end of the cylinders of the boom 2. However, in accordance with formula (3) lift speed of the working equipment is doubled compared with the conventional hydraulic drive.

By the third variant of execution (6) the balance system works as follows. For lifting the spool dispenser 10 include down, working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom 2 are connected with the hydraulic pump 11. However, in accordance with formula (3) lift speed of the working equipment is doubled compared to a conventional hydraulic actuator. In contrast to the first embodiment of the third variant has a new quality: allows you to receive the pumping mode, the enhanced speed of lowering work equipment.

For the rapid lowering of the operating equipment at the same time turn up spools of the valves 10 and 15. Working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom 2 in this case, connect the dispenser 10 between themselves and with the tank 8. At the same time the working fluid from the hydraulic pump 11 through the valve 15 is supplied via gidrol the Institute of rod 16 in the cavity 4 of the balancing cylinder 3. Due to the fact that the working fluid is supplied from a hydraulic pump in one rod cavity, lowering speed increases.

Considered the third embodiment of the counterbalance system allows you to increase the speed of lifting and lowering work equipment and to increase the productivity of the machine.

1. The balance system work equipment : machine containing operating equipment, hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder including a hydraulic rod cavity and the gas piston cavity, connected to a gas cylinder, the distributor of the working fluid, a relief valve, characterized in that the rod hydraulic balancing cavity of the cylinder are connected by hydroline with the sink in the tank, the working fluid dispenser is mounted for connection in one position of the valve working cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.

2. The balance system according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the sizes of hydraulic cylinders boom accept this, in which the ratio of the squares of the diameters of the piston and rod is D2:d2≥2.

3. The balance system according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas cavity of the balancing cylinder is located above the hydraulic rod cavity.

4. The ur system is naveshivanija working equipment : machines, containing operating equipment, hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder including a hydraulic rod cavity and the gas piston cavity, connected to a gas cylinder, the valves of the working fluid, a relief valve, characterized in that the working fluid dispenser is mounted for connection to the working spaces of the cylinders of the boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.

5. The balance system work equipment : machine containing operating equipment, hydraulic cylinders boom and a balancing cylinder including a hydraulic rod cavity and the gas piston cavity, connected to a gas cylinder, the valves of the working fluid, a relief valve, characterized in that the rod of the hydraulic cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected with the distributor installed with the possibility of connection in one position of the valve rod end of the balancing cylinder with a drain in the tank, and the other with a hydraulic pump in the hydroline hydraulic cylinders boom installed the distributor with the possibility of connection in one position of the valve cavities of the hydraulic cylinders boom between themselves and with the hydraulic pump.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

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9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

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