Method for manufacturing refracting x-ray lenses

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

 

The present invention relates to the field of rechentechnik and can be used in the manufacture of lenses with shape memory in biomedical applications for x-ray microscopes, equipment diagnostics and radiation therapy for NDT equipment and local studies materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, structural analysis, microscopy and microtomography, in radio television and communication systems as a core element of the far communication lines, as well as in space research in the fabrication of optical elements on Earth, delivering them on Board the space station with minimum size and weight and further automatic playback of a given shape on a signal from Earth.

A known method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lenses made of polymers, which have axial symmetry axis and provide focusing of the incident radiation in a point focus by precision machining with the use of stamping processes, which use a stamp spherical shape (Y.Ohishi, A.Q.R.Baron, M.Ishii, T.Ishikawa, O.Shimomura "Refractive X-ray lens for high pressure experiments at Springs", Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics research, vol.A467-468 (2001), pp.962-963).

However, this method has the following disadvantages: extremely high demands on the accuracy of manufacturing of the stamp and is iState surface treatment, the use of a narrow set of materials that have the ability to stamping, significant absorption of radiation in the intervals between the lenses. In addition, the spherical profile of the lens has some aberrations in the formation of images.

In many ways, these disadvantages can be eliminated when using lenses of polymers having shape memory, is able to recover when removing the mechanical load original form, which was set in their manufacture.

A known method of manufacturing a lens of this type, including the following sequence of operations. First in a small area photopolymerizable composition (FPC) of the monomer capable of radical photopolymerization mechanism (i.e. the ability of a variety of monomers and oligomers to form a polymer molecule under the action of light - "encyclopedia of polymers", Vol.3, str-766, publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia", Moscow, 1977), corresponding oligomer (i.e. polimernoi molecules consisting of several or many monomers - quick chemical encyclopedia, Vol.3, str, publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia", Moscow, 1964), and photoinitiator reaction, encased in an envelope, form the embryo of a polymeric material, and then produces an increase in its volume due to the flow surface of the polymerization reactions at the boundary section is La solid polymer with a liquid FIC. After that, moving the light in a preferred direction of movement of the front of polymerization, produce sequential polymerization FPC in the shell. While strictly complying with the terms of frontal polymerization: the linear movement of the front of polymerization corresponds to the flow rate of polymerization at the interface. During the course of the polymerization reaction in the shell add a certain amount of liquid fat to compensate for the shrinkage of the solid polymer. The process continues up until the polymer fills the intended volume of the shell. The described technology ensures the production of defect-free polymer with three-dimensional spatial-linked structure. This polymer structure guarantees the product shape memory specified in its manufacture. The term shape memory understand the ability to recover the original shape after deformation. ("IRTC eye microsurgery", "Elastic intraocular lens of a new generation". Ophthalmic surgery, No. 4, 1999, p.12-13).

However, this method allows to obtain only lenses designed for use in the visible light range, which do not provide focusing of x-rays. It should be stated that modern monitoring methods and technologies needed for its implementation in various ranges of lectromagnetic waves of more variety of used optical devices. For example, the use of x-ray lenses with shape memory, will allow studies of outer space on Board automatic space stations to use a self-extracting optical design, which is made of optical elements on Earth, delivered to the space in the collapsed state and in an operational state after removal of the load at a given point on a signal from the Earth.

The use of x-ray lenses with shape memory, will provide in a variety of applications, including biomedical research nondestructive local analysis of materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, structural analysis, microscopy use lenses for x-ray microscopes, equipment diagnostics and radiation therapy with an adjustable focal length, automatically reproducing the original shape and arrangement of the elements with optical precision in the introduction to a working state without additional configuration and alignment. Thus, the use of lenses with shape memory allow to exclude a number of time-consuming and costly stages pre debugging for almost all units of x-ray equipment that include optical elements with shape memory.

The closest technical R the solution, adopted for the prototype, is a method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation (EN 2003130023 A), including the manufacture of lenses made of a material capable of photopolymerization, the formation of one or several lenses with the required focal length F determined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rc/2δwhere Rcthe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ - decrement of the refractive index of the lens material by depositing the required amount of the lens materialwhere ρ - the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the conditionlocation of the mandrel in a centrifuge and spin it with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then the translation of the lens material in the solid state bulk photopolymerization during rotation when exposed to the radiation flux from the light source on the total volume of liquid, the termination of the rotation and holding the lens Assembly in the holder. As the e source material take negative photoresist SU-8, widely used in the technology of microelectronics and micro circuitry, in which the process of photopolymerization occurs surround mechanism.

The resulting lenses are the most advanced currently used by the x-ray parameters, including the effective aperture, the enhancement factor for the intensity in the focal spot, however, do not satisfy the growing needs of modern control methods and technologies, requiring for its implementation more variety of used optical devices, compactness and minimum measurement and diagnostic equipment, software can be a smaller amount of work on alignment and adjustment.

The proposed invention solves the problem of expanding the range of x-ray lenses with profile rotation, the technical result which is the manufacture of lenses or compound sets of lens that has shape memory and is able to play with the optical precision of the original form given in their manufacture, thus providing operations with accurate and smooth adjustment of the focal length by changing the length lenses or their radius of curvature when using the shape memory effect. In addition, the proposed method allows you to create sets of parabolic lenses with changing radio the ohms of curvature, produces a lens with minimized absorption with shape memory, which can be Packed for minimum volume and then converted to the required form (given in its manufacture) without further mechanical processing.

This object is achieved by a method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation, including the manufacture of lenses made of a material capable of photopolymerization, the formation of one or several lenses with the required focal length F determined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rwith/2δwhere Rwiththe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ - decrement of the refractive index of the lens material by depositing the required amount of the lens materialwhere ρ - the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens, in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the conditionlocation of the mandrel in a centrifuge and spin it with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - ciaranello, then transfer the lens material in the solid state during the rotation when exposed to the radiation flux from the light source, the termination of the rotation and holding the lens Assembly in the holder. New in the present method is that as the lens material, we take the composition of the oligomer capable of frontal photopolymerization by radical mechanism, corresponding monomer and photoinitiator reaction, and the polymerization temperature must be above the glass transition temperature of the polymer is not less than 30-40°and the translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation performed by the method of the frontal photopolymerization moving front of polymerization along the axis of the lens upwards or along the radius of the lens.

The exercise of these operations allows to obtain products keeping with optical precision parabolic shape defined in their manufacture. However, they do not contain defects and impurities, have a perfect three-dimensional spatial-linked structure, their shape is determined by the rotation frequency at the minimum level of asperities (roughness) of the surface.

The best results are obtained:

when used as an oligomer capable of frontal photopolymerization by radical mechanism, oligo-CT is Anat-methacrylate, oligo-urethane-methacrylate or oligo-ester-methacrylate and the corresponding monomers,

and as photoinitiator - ethers of benzoin, in particular isobutyl ether, and benzoin, benzophenone, derivatives of anthraquinone, phenanthridine. Thus the weight ratio of the aforementioned components FPC is 1:3:0.04.

As the mandrel material manufactured lenses, which provides for a wide range of liquids wetting angle defined set us conditionwere chosen such materials mandrel as fused silica, glass, glass carbon and polystyrene.

Achieving uniformity at a given angular frequency of rotation of the mandrel was monitored using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

To ensure the solidity of the lens with a ratio of length of the lens to its radius ≥3 carry out layer-by-layer build-up obtain the desired parabolic profile by repeated cycles of adding a portion of the composition in the amount ofwhere R is the ratio of dividing into portions, and the number of cycles corresponds to the frequency dividing into portions.

To obtain a set of lenses, characterized by gradually decreasing radii of curvature according to the law Rn=R0qnwith a scale factor of q<1, where R0- RA is odr curvature of the first lens set, n=1, 2...N is the number of unit lenses in the set, the rotation of the mandrel with the lens material may be carried out at increasing speeds according to the established us in the process of experimenting valuewhere g=9.81 m/s2- acceleration of free fall.

To obtain a lens with minimized absorption it is necessary to use a mandrel of stepped form, containing at least two plane-parallel grooves for forming the ribs in the output lenses, and the height of the steps is equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shift

These examples suggest, but not limited to obtaining lenses of the proposed method.

Example 1. For manufacture of single parabolic lenses (N=1) with a focal length of F0=0,596 see as the lens material used FIC based on oligo-carbonate methacrylate, the corresponding monomer carbonate methacrylate and photoinitiator isobutyl benzoin ether (weight ratio 1:3:0.04.). For this FIC decrement of the refractive index is δ=4.18·10-06for wavelength λ=0.155 nm. The desired radius of curvature Rc=49.8 μm according to the formula F0=Rc/2δ. For lenses with aperture A=2R=2 mm material weight, calculated as ratio is M=18.7 mg With regard to shrinkage during solidification k=0.9 required initial mass of material M0=20,78 mg Source material introduced into the mandrel from quartz, a material which satisfies the conditionand bring its temperature at 30°C above the glass transition temperature of the polymer, which is a known characteristic of the polymer. Then spend the rotation at a rotational speed of 6000 rpm (according to the formulaangular frequency of rotation ω=628 s-1)not exceeding the boundaryfor the range of laminar flow (1450 s-1). The rotation process is performed under the action of radiation generated by standard UV (mercury) lamp and focus using the optical system in a given volume of the lens. Conditions frontal photopolymerization is carried out by movement of the illuminated area from the base of the mandrel up forming the initial layer of polymeric material and then increasing its volume due to reaction of the photopolymerization mechanism of radical polymerization at the interface of solid polymer with a liquid FIC. When this control by optical methods, the speed of movement of the front of polymerization under the condition that LINEST is e moving front of polymerization corresponded to a flow rate of polymerization at the interface. This process allows obtaining three-dimensional spatial-linked polymer structure, for which the presence of the shape memory effect. Received the lens is placed in the holder. This lens has a larger aperture (2 mm), has a perfect refractive profile in the form of a paraboloid of rotation in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface.

Example 2. Same as in example 1, but as the lens material used FPC from a mixture of oligo-urethane-methacrylate with an appropriate monomer urethane-methacrylate and photoinitiator benzophenone (the weight ratio of component 1:3,3:0,03), for which the decrement of the refractive index is δ=4.25·10-06for a wavelength of x-rays λ=0.155 nm. When the rotational speed of 6000 rpm (angular speed ω=628 s-1) is the curvature radius Rc=49.8 μm. Focal length of a single parabolic lenses on the above wavelength is F0=553 see For lenses with aperture A=2 mm, the mass of material is M=23.7 mg Weight source material is divided into 10 portions, rotation of the mandrel with the material produced at a temperature of 40°C above the glass transition temperature of the polymer under the influence of ultraviolet radiation from the mercury lamp by moving the illuminated area of the grounds on which rivki up. In this form the initial layer of polymeric material, then increase its volume due to reaction of the photopolymerization, consistently spend 10 cycles of rotation. The mandrel material is quartz. This lens has a larger aperture (2 mm), has a perfect refractive profile in the form of a paraboloid of rotation in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface.

Example 3. Same as in example 2, but as the lens material used FPC from a mixture of oligo-ether-methacrylate and the corresponding monomer, and photoinitiator - benzoin (weight ratio 1:3:0,04). The mandrel material is quartz. The translation process in the solid phase is carried out with the use of incandescent lamp at a power of 1000 watts, filters, infrared radiation and visible light, quartz focusing optics, concentrating UV radiation on the front of polymerization in the form of a layer of cylindrical shape with converging (or diverging from the center) radius.

Example 4. Same as in example 2, but as photoinitiator use derivatives of anthraquinone. The speed control is performed for obtaining a set of 10 lenses with a scale factor of change of the radius of curvature of 0.93. In this case the initial speed is ω0=628 s-1consistently increase by a factor of 1.036 on the achievement of the ultimate value ω with=894 s-1. The translation process in the solid phase is carried out by focusing the UV radiation on the front of polymerization in the form of a layer of cylindrical shape with radiating from the center of the radius.

Example 5. Same as in example 2, but as photoinitiator use phenanthridine. Form a set of 12 lenses, providing focal length 49.6 see the length of a single lens is 5,18 mm Using a mandrel of stepped form with step heights 148 μm, constituting 8 lengths of the phase shift when the number of steps 85, the mandrel has 4 parallel-sided recess width of 0.3 mm, the Process is carried out by dividing the source material at R=10 portions and holding respectively 10 cycles of rotation and evaporation of the solvent.

Thus, the proposed method allows, as evidenced by the above examples, simple and high-tech way to get a wide range of x-ray lenses with profile rotation, having a perfect refractive profile in the form of a paraboloid of revolution with an increased aperture to several millimeters in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface of the polymer having shape memory.

1. A method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation, including the manufacture of lenses made of a material capable of photopolymerization, the formation of the Noi or several lenses with the required focal length F, determined by the ratio

where N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rwith/2δwhere Rcthe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ - decrement of the refractive index of the lens material,

by adding the required amount of the lens material

where ρ - the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens,

in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition

location of the mandrel in a centrifuge and spin it with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity in the angular speed

where η the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number,

then transfer the lens material in the solid state during the rotation when exposed to the radiation flux from the light source, the termination of the rotation and holding the lens Assembly in the holder, characterized in that as the lens material, we take the composition of the oligomer capable of frontal photopolymerization by radical mechanism, corresponding monomer and photoinitiator reaction, and in the process p is liberizatsii operating temperature should be above the glass transition temperature of the polymer is not less than 30-40° And the translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation performed by the method of the frontal photopolymerization moving front of polymerization along the axis of the lens upwards or along the radius of the lens.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the oligomer capable of frontal photopolymerization by radical mechanism, use oligocarbonate, algorithmically or olygoesteracrylate.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as photoinitiator use benzoin ethers, in particular isobutyl ether, and benzoin, benzophenone, derivatives of anthraquinone, phenanthridine.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the weight ratio of oligomer, monomer and photoinitiator reactions in fotopolimerow composition is 1:3:0.04.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to ensure the solidity of the lenses with respect to the length of the lens to its radius ≥3 carry out layer-by-layer build-up obtain the desired parabolic profile by repeated cycles of adding a portion of the composition, and the number of cycles corresponds to the frequency dividing into portions.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for obtaining a refractive lens having a shape memory, with a high amplification factor intensity in the focal spot by improving the quality of cleanliness of the surface the surface before making the lens material in a liquid state into a pot in her place made previously blank lenses and making the lens material in liquid state in the mandrel carried out on previously manufactured billet lenses.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to obtain a set of lenses with increased optical power, which is characterized by a gradually decreasing radii of curvature according to the law Rn=R0qnwith a scale factor of q<l, where R0the radius of curvature of the first lens in the set, n=1, 2...N is the number of unit lenses in the set, the rotation of the mandrel with the material of the lens is carried out at increasing speeds according to the value

where g=9.81 m/s2- acceleration of free fall.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to obtain a lens with minimized absorption using the mandrel of stepped form, containing at least two plane-parallel grooves for forming the ribs in the output lenses, and the height of the steps is equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shiftwhere λ - wavelength radiation.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

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FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

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FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

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X-ray microscope // 2239822
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FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

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FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

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FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

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FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

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FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

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FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

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FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.

EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

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