Method of production of the monocrystals of the highly rigid materials

FIELD: chemical industry; cutting tool industry; mechanical engineering; methods of the production of the artificial highly rigid materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the artificial highly rigid materials, in particular, diamonds, and may be used in chemical industry; cutting tool industry; mechanical engineering, boring engineering. The method provides for compaction of the powdery carbon-containing materials in the field of the quasi-equilibrium state of the graphite-diamond system and the slow refrigeration in the zone of the thermodynamic stability of the diamond or other synthesized material. The heated capsule made out of tungsten with the pure carbon raw fill in with the liquid silicon at the temperature of 1750°K, hermetically plug up, then reduce the temperature to 1700°K during 30-40 minutes and cool to the room temperature within 5-6 hours in the process of the synthesis of the high-strength materials. The monocrystals of the boron carbide of the 400-450 microns fraction and the diamonds of the 40 microns fraction have been produced. The technical result of the invention consists in improvement of the quality, the increased sizes of the monocrystals, and also in the decreased labor input of the production process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and the increased sizes of the produced monocrystals, the decreased labor input of the production process.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

A method of producing single crystals of highly rigid materials

The invention relates to the production of artificial highly rigid material, in particular of single-crystal diamond, the method disposable pressure in the confined space of powder materials without catalysts at quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic state of the system due to the volume change of the working bodies of silicon in liquid-phase silicon solid-phase cubic modification and retention system state to the full diffusion allotropical transformation of graphite into diamond (Properties of the elements, so 1. The physical properties. Handbook edited Gavsatarova. M: metallurgy 1976, S. 1086).

The invention relates to the production of artificial highly rigid materials from powders: carbides of tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, boron, boron nitride, carbon-containing material is the domain of graphite, carbon black, mineral graphite, as well as synthesized carbon-containing substances - fullerene (with large body-centered cubic lattice).

A known method of producing single crystal diamond by exposure to high pressure and temperature in the region of thermodynamic stability of diamond on the reaction volume (A.S. USSR №1605491, 1988).

The disadvantage of this method is pre-heating vacuum can produce the RA layer and the location of the catalyst and graphite, that eliminates the formation of large and pure jewelry diamond single crystals, the low yield of the product, very sophisticated equipment.

A method of obtaining diamonds, including the impact on the CARBONYLS of tungsten and molybdenum pressure (30-60 bar) and temperature (See. A.S. No. 1264521, 1983).

The disadvantage of this method is complicated machinery, large energy consumption, the lack of regulation of the process of equilibrium thermodynamic transition of graphite-diamond, small fractions of the diamond, the low yield of the product.

The closest set of features of the claimed method is a method for diamond processing carbon-containing material (heat-treated channel soot) under a pressure of 100-200 Kbar and a temperature of 1200-2000° (A.S. USSR №853956, 1970).

The disadvantage of this method is complicated and expensive equipment for pressure and temperature, the inability to control the process of thermodynamic transition of graphite to diamond, the low yield of the product.

The technical problem solved by the claimed invention is to obtain a stable, controlled conditions of temperature and pressure required for non-catalytic synthesis of diamond and other highly rigid materials.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality, Uwe is ikenie size single crystals, reducing the complexity of the synthesis of highly rigid materials. It is achieved by a method including loading a clean carbon-containing raw material in a capsule of tungsten and heated, with heated capsule filled with liquid silicon and sealed, then reduce the temperature from 1750 to C for 30-40 min and cooled to room temperature for 5-6 hours.

Example 1. Raw powder material boron carbide fractions 1-5 microns is placed in the Central part of the metal capsule, which is heated in the furnace and at a temperature of 1750 To fill the working fluid is a liquid silicon, and then tightly close the lid with wedge bolt. Cooling from 1750 to 1700 To exercise for 30-40 minutes At C is the solidification of silicon and its density varies from 2.52 to 2.3 g/cm3(Physical quantities. Handbook Ed. by I.S. Grigoriev M: Energoizdat, 1991, 1233 (C).

Elastic material tightly closed capsule inhibits the increase of silicon and develops pressure in the capsule to 12.5-20.0×109MPa. When cooled from 1700 K To room temperature within 6 hours is spontaneous diffusion process for the synthesis of crystals of boron carbide. After cooling and removal of pressure to produce a clean finished product from silicon and sorting on fractions.

Synthesized highly rigid material of ug is aromaterapi raw materials the boron carbide fraction 400-450 µm hardness 22000 MPa. The yield of product in relation to the original material was 57%.

Example 2. Raw graphite powder in an amount of 10 mol (120 g) is compactly placed in the Central part of the capsule and heated to a temperature of 1750+50 K. the Heated capsule is filled with liquid silicon and sealed lid that locks the internal volume of the cavity of the capsule, and placed in a shaft furnace, heated to a temperature of 1800 K. the Cooling capsules in the furnace from 1750 to 1700 To exercise for 40 minutes, further cooling to room temperature for 6 hours.

In the process of solidification of silicon is an increase in molar volume, as well as the capsule is made of tungsten, its elastic deformation develops a pressure considerably above the line of thermodynamic graphite - diamond equilibrium. There is a spontaneous diffusion process of synthesis of diamonds.

After cooling and removing the capsules produce a clean finished product. The output of diamonds was 24% compared to the volume of graphite, the average fraction equal to 40 microns.

1. A method of producing single crystals of highly rigid materials, including the loading of pure carbon-containing raw material in a capsule of tungsten and its heating, characterized in that the heated capsule filled with liquid silicon and hermetically close the offer, then reduce the temperature from 1750 to 1700 To within 30-40 min and cooled to room temperature for 5-6 hours

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the highly rigid material is diamond.



 

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46 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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30 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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36 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

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3 cl, 2 tbl

Carbon polymer // 2282583

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3 cl, 2 tbl

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3 cl, 3 ex

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46 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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