Method and installation for treatment of the exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods and the installations for treatment of the exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of treatment of the exhaust gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, to the treatment of the exhaust gases produced by the industrial installations for the chemical deposition or infiltration of the vapors for the purpose of formation on the substrates of the deposit of the pyrolytic carbon or compaction of the porous substrates by means of the mould made out of the pyrolytic carbon. The exhaust gases containing the hydrocarbons, before passing into the pumping out device (60) are exposed to cleansing by the method of sputtering of the oil of the aromatic type in the cleansing device (30) with the recirculation of the oil. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the exhaust gases are trapped due to the absorption in the oil. The invention allows to ensure the good level of absorption of the resins of the exhaust gases, to eliminate the clogging of the channels, pollution of the environment by these resins and to limit the losses of the head.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the good level of absorption of the resins of the exhaust gases, elimination of the clogging of the channels, pollution of the environment by these resins and limitation of the losses of the head.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
The technical FIELD
The present invention relates to the field of treatment of exhaust gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
More specifically, the invention relates to the treatment of exhaust gases produced by industrial installations for chemical vapor deposition or infiltration of vapor to form on the substrate sediment pyrolytic carbon or seals porous substrates using a matrix of pyrolytic carbon.
Such units are well known. Covered or sealed pyrolytic carbon substrate placed in an oven into which a reactive gas containing one or more substances-carbon sources. As a gas of carbon source used hydrocarbon: usually methane, propane or their mixtures. The pressure and the temperature in the furnace is installed in such a way as to achieve the formation of the coating or matrix of pyrolytic carbon as a result of decomposition (cracking) of gas-carbon source when in contact with the substrate. The exhaust gases containing the reaction by-products are removed from the furnace by a method of continuous pumping.
The reaction by-products contain organic compounds with high enough, high temperature curing, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is, for example naphthalene, pyrene, anthracene, acenaphthylene and others. The condensation of these side reaction products form a resin deposited in the output channels of the furnace during the cooling of the exhaust gases. These resins are also deposited in the pumping devices, for example in oil vacuum pumps or condensate steam jet ejectors.
Similar problems can occur in industrial plants, other than furnaces for deposition or chemical infiltration gaseous phase using hydrocarbons as the active gas, for example in furnaces for carburizing.
The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to create a method for the treatment of exhaust gases containing resin, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which would rule out the clogged channels and pollution of these resins.
To solve the problem in accordance with the present invention offers a method by which exhaust gases are subjected to a washing spray oil aromatic type before entering the pumping device.
Compared with other methods of flushing gases, rinsing spray allows you to limit the pressure loss and to minimize the deposition of the resin on the walls, possible when using the wash to the long plates.
In the washing process used oil should remain in a liquid state to avoid the formation of vapor, which can be carried away in the flue gases. In the particular case of exhaust gases discharged from the furnace deposition, or chemical infiltration gaseous phase pressure of the exhaust gases as they exit from the furnace is relatively small. Therefore, the flushing oil should have a small vapor pressure, preferably less than 100 PA at a temperature of 0°C.
The composition of the oil must additionally provide a good level of absorption of the entrained resin. Therefore, it is preferable to use mineral oil aromatic type with low content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons capable of absorption and dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
According to one feature of the invention, the washing of the exhaust gases is carried out by injection of oil into the stream of exhaust gases passing through the spray column, for example, containing the Venturi.
In the best case scenario, the oil is continuously circulated between the tank recirculation, which gets the oil containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and at least one nozzle, spray the oil in the exhaust gases flow. The oil preferably is cooled by passing through Teploobmen is nick, located on the route of the oil between the tank and the spray nozzle or nozzles.
According to another features of the invention, the pumping out of the exhaust gases is carried out by the method of passing the washed gases through at least one of the ejector condenser. In the best case scenario, at least part of the gas emerging from the ejector condenser is used as fuel gas for steam production device received in the ejector condenser.
Also ideally, the condensate coming out of the ejector condenser is processed by passing it through a layer of activated charcoal to collect contained in the condensate of light hydrocarbons and possible residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
The invention also aims at creating installations for the treatment of exhaust gases, making use of the method specified above.
To solve the problem in accordance with the present invention is proposed installation comprising a device for pumping gas and washing device butter, located between the insertion opening for the treated flue gas and the pumping device, and the device is flush with oil spray contains the column that is connected to the insertion opening for obrabecim is controlled exhaust gases to ensure their circulation inside the column, and means of injection oil in a spray column.
Spray column can contain the Venturi.
According to one feature of the invention, the washing device includes a storage tank for recycling oils containing an inlet opening connected to the spray column, the holes for the output of oil, coupled with by means of injection oil in the column to ensure a continuous circulation of oil between the reservoir is recirculated by means of injection oil and spray column, and the hole for the output of the washed gases, connected to the pumping device.
Ideally, the washing device comprises a heat exchanger located in the path of the exhaust gases after the spray column, and means to supply heat exchanger coolant.
Also ideally, the washing device comprises a heat exchanger located between the insertion point of the oil, and means for spraying oil to cool the oil before injection into the column.
According to another features of the invention, the pumping device includes at least one ejector condenser.
Ideally, the steam produced by the heater, equipped with the fuel gas supply connected to the opening of the gas outlet of the ejector condenser.>
Ejector condenser can have external cooling. In a preferred embodiment, provides the means to handle the condensate coming out of the ejector condenser to collect the contained hydrocarbons, such as adsorption by activated carbon.
According to another variant of the invention, the ejector condenser may contain a refrigerator direct action. Processing of the condensate leaving the condenser may in this case be carried out by the method of passing it through a Stripping column.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION of GRAPHIC MATERIALS
Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, given with reference to the accompanying drawings that do not impose any restrictions. In the drawings:
Figure 1 depicts the industrial plant chemical infiltration gaseous phase, equipped with an installation for the treatment of exhaust gases in one of the embodiments of the invention;
Figure 2 depicts part of an installation for treatment of exhaust gases according to another variant embodiment of the invention.
INFORMATION CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY of carrying out the INVENTION
1 very schematically shows an installation for chemical infiltration gaseous phase, intended in particular for uplo the drop-porous substrates using a matrix of pyrolytic carbon.
In furnace 10, which is surrounded by a casing 12, is placed the sealed porous substrate 14, for example fibrous parts made of composite materials based on carbon matrix.
The furnace 10 is limited by the wall 16, forming a current collector made of, for example, of graphite, a bottom 18 and a lid 20. The current collector 16 is connected to the winding 22 of the inductance, and the heating furnace is caused mainly by the emission of a current collector, the heating due to inductive coupling with the winding inductance.
Reactive gas is introduced through the channel 24, passing, for example, through the bottom 18 of the furnace. Reactive gas contains one or more substances-carbon sources, in particular methane and/or propane. Exhaust gases withdrawn from the furnace through the cover 20 through the channel 26, which is connected to the pumping device, which ensures the circulation of gases in the furnace and supports inside the specified level of reduced pressure.
Such a device is well known in itself and does not require more detailed description.
A matrix of pyrolytic carbon is formed in the porous structure of the substrate as a result of decomposition of one or more gaseous substances-carbon sources. This also formed the reaction by-products contained in the exhaust gas together with a part of the reactive gas, unreacted with gotoblas the first hydrogen (H 2resulting from the decomposition of gas-carbon source.
The reaction by-products contain, in particular, the following organic compounds:
- the remains of the reactive gas and hydrogen gas;
unsaturated hydrocarbons, primarily ethylene and acetylene, which do not pose particular problems, as they can be burned when their withdrawal from the furnace;
- benzene hydrocarbons, for example benzene, toluene, xylene;
- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene, pyrene, anthracene, acenaphthylene and others.
Substances latter category (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) cause the most trouble, because the high temperature of solidification facilitates the condensation and precipitation of the resin in the output channels of the furnace as reducing the temperature of the exhaust gases.
In addition, in accordance with the invention provides a device for treatment of exhaust gases containing device 30 washing the flue gases of oil located between the output of the exhaust gases from the furnace 10 and the device 60 pumping.
The device 30 flushing oil spray contains the column 32, the upper part of which is connected to the channel 26. Column 32 contains a tube 34 of the Venturi formed by reducing the cross-section of the opening through which gases pass. The lower part of the column 32 is connected to the CTE the hole 42 to enter gases, located in the upper wall of the tank 40 recycling oil near its edges. Also in the top wall of the tank 40, near the other of its edges, there is a hole 44 for outputting gas, United channel 62 of the device 60 pumping.
Hole o oil is in the lower part of the tank 40 and is connected to the pump 50, which extracts the oil from the reservoir 40 and forces it through the heat exchanger 52 in the nozzle 36, 38 located essentially on the axis of the column 32. In the tank 40 can be located more nozzles 46and, 46b, in which the oil after the heat exchanger 52 in parallel with the nozzles 36, 38.
For cooling of the oil coming from the reservoir 40, through the heat exchanger 52 is leaking coolant, such as cold water. The cooling water also passes through the heat exchanger 54, having, for example, the shape of the plates, connected in series with the heat exchanger 52 and located within the tank 40.
The heat exchanger 54, as well as the nozzle 46and, 46blocated inside the tank between the hole 42 of the gas inlet and the bore 44 of the output of the gas above the oil level.
In the hole 44 of the output gas from the reservoir 40 may be installed keplerlaan 48.
The device 30 flushing oil works as follows.
The oil fed to the nozzles 36, 38, is sprayed into the exhaust gases flow, etc is walking through the column 32, moreover, the increase of the rate of flow of gases through the Venturi 34 contributes to this spray. One of the nozzles 36 may be installed in the upper part of the column 32, above the Venturi, and the other nozzle 38 is near the throat of the Venturi. You can also use one of the nozzles 36 or 38.
Spattered oil absorbs a significant portion of the resin, portable flue gases, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are transferred to an oil bath, located in the tank 40.
The vapor pressure of the used oil must be low enough not to cause evaporation at the pressure existing at the outlet of the furnace 10, and the pollution of exhaust gases vapors of oil. For example, the pressure in the furnace 10 at different stages of the process of infiltration may be less than about 0.2 kPa. The oil must have a viscosity sufficient to ensure its circulation and formation of oil mist from nozzles.
Therefore, in the preferred embodiment, used mineral oil aromatic type having a vapor pressure less than 100 PA at a temperature of 0°and is able to absorb and dissolve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
The experience proved the efficiency of using oil-based xylenes, for example this is a mini-oil, manufactured by the French company Elf Atochem under the trademark "Jaritherm AX 320" and consisting of 85% by weight of monosilicide and 15% by weight of disilicide. This oil has a viscosity equal to 60 centipoises at a temperature of 0°and a vapor pressure lower than 100 PA at a temperature of 0°C.
Oil-based paraffin were relatively ineffective, because it is unable to dissolve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
In the heat exchangers 52 and 54, cold water enters at a temperature of approximately 0°for cooling the maximum amount of oil sprayed by the nozzles 36, 38 and nozzles 46and, 46bbetween putting gas in the tank 40 and the output from it.
The heat exchanger 54 promotes condensation resins remaining in the exhaust gases after they exit the column 32.
Keplerlaan 48 comprising, for example, from partitions, helps to "break in" oil mist, available at the outlet from the tank 40, with the aim of separating drops of oil, mergers and return in an oil bath.
At least partial drainage of the oil from the reservoir can be carried out at the outlet of the pump 50 by closing valve 51 mounted on the channel connecting the pump 50 with the heat exchanger 52, the opening of the valve 53 mounted on the channel that connects the output of pump 50 with the channel 56 o used oil. The assembled line is used, the oil may be destroyed by the method of combustion, and in the reservoir 40 add clean oil.
Capture using the device 30 flushing oil allows you to remove the maximum amount of resins, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the washed flue gases can only stay lighter aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and monocyclic hydrocarbons), but they do not create the danger of clogging of the channels due to the higher vapor pressure.
The device 60 contains pumping ejector condenser 64 or more similar ejector condensers arranged in series (the drawing shows only one ejector condenser).
Ejector condenser 64 contains the ejector 66, in which the heater 80 is supplied water vapor, and a condenser 68 which is located behind the ejector. The capacitor 68 is a refrigerator with external cooling, in which the gases emerging from the ejector, come into contact with the channels through which flows a coolant, such as cold water.
After passing through the condenser 68 water flows into the cooling column 70, after which it can be collected in the reservoir 72, in which the channel 73 is added to the water to ensure a continuous circulation through the pump 74 is installed in the channel connecting the reservoir 72 to capacitor 68.
The condensate postupayushie is in the output channel 76 of the capacitor, contains benzene hydrocarbons, for example benzene, toluene, xylene, and possibly the remains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in water formed during the condensation of steam coming from the ejector 66. The condensate is adsorbed porous layer 77 of activated carbon contained in an adsorption column 78. The channel 76 is connected to the top of the column 78, and the water collecting on the bottom of the column can be assigned a channel 78A in the tank 72. Can be used multiple adsorption columns with layers of activated carbon arranged in series.
At the outlet of the condenser exhaust gases pass through the pump 79. There can be used the liquid ring pump, cooled by heat exchanger so that the gases leaving the installation, had a temperature close to ambient temperature.
The extracted gas contains mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons, as well as the remains of the reactive gas and hydrogen gas H2coming from the furnace 10. It can be directed through the channel 79A to the torch and at least partially used as fuel for the heater 80. In this case, it is mixed in the buffer tank 82 with a combustible gas such as natural gas flowing through the channel 84. From the buffer tank 82 fuel enters the burner 86 of the heater 80.
In the other embodiment of the invention, illustrated in figure 2, the ejector condenser 64 (or each of multiple consecutive ejector condensers) contains a refrigerator (condenser) 168 direct action (not the refrigerator with external cooling), located after the ejector 66.
The stream exiting the ejector 66 is provided in the capacitor 168 in direct contact with cooling water.
The condensate and the cooling water is collected in the collection 170, and is then passed to the Stripping column 172. The gas discharged from the capacitor 168 is directed into the buffer tank 82.
In the Stripping column 172 enters the water vapor and air. Water vapor may be fed from the output of the heater 80, the latter must be of sufficient size to enable the flow of steam to the ejector 66 and a Stripping column.
Gases leaving the Stripping column and containing air, water vapor, benzene hydrocarbons, and possibly a small amount of naphthalene, go to the torch.
The waste liquid Stripping columns are collected in the reservoir 174. These fluids contain mostly water, which is returned to the condenser 168 as cooling water. The collected excess water containing small amounts of benzene hydrocarbons, can be flushed into the sewer.
Although it is still implied the use of this image is the shadow to the furnaces to seal porous substrates using a matrix of pyrolytic carbon by the method of chemical infiltration gaseous phase, it seems obvious that the invention also applies to industrial furnace for coating substrates pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition from the gaseous phase and, more generally, to industrial plants that use hydrocarbons and removes waste gases containing resin (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), such as, for example, to furnaces for carburizing.
The following Tables are the results of the analysis of oil and water is carried out after the operation of the plant shown in figure 1, during periods of different duration.
Table I shows the composition of the washing oil source (use time = 0), through 1231 hours of operation and through 2137 h her work. Also specify the source and subsequently measured amounts of oil, as well as the mass of the absorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
It can be stated greater the absorptive capacity of the washing oil, which was used above the oil Jaritherm AH".
Table II shows the values of hydrocarbons in water measured at the inlet and outlet of the adsorption column 78 with activated charcoal over 3500 hours of operation. Also indicated phenolic ratio, pH value, a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions), turbidity, total content of org is practical carbon and solids content.
It is possible to ascertain the effectiveness of filtration using activated carbon from the viewpoint of removing residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene hydrocarbons from the condensate from condenser 68.
|The results of the oil analysis|
|Work time (h)||0||1231 h||2137 h|
|Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|
|Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (mg/l)||138,3||102836||150827|
|Benzene hydrocarbons (mg/l)|
|Only benzene hydrocarbons (mg/l)||0,0||680||820|
|Total hydrocarbons (mg/l)||138,3||103516||151647|
|The original oil volume (l)||800||800||800|
|The measured volume (l)||800||901||942|
|Volume change (l)||0||101||142|
|Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (kg)||0,11||98,65||138,79|
|The results of the water analysis|
|To filter||After filter|
|Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ág/l)|
|Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ág/l)||11728,4||1,5|
|Benzene hydrocarbons (ug/l)|
|Only benzene hydrocarbons (ug/l)||18400||<40|
|Total hydrocarbons (ug/l)||30128,4||<41,5|
|Full carbon (mg/l)||5,2||0,55|
|Suspended solids (mg/l)||2||0,3|
1. Method of treatment of exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons, including leaching of exhaust gases oil for recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, characterized in that the use of aromatic oil of the type having a vapor pressure less than 100 PA at a temperature of 0°and specified aromatic oil type is sprayed into the exhaust gases before entering the pumping device.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the washing of the exhaust gases is carried out by injection of oil into the stream of exhaust gases passing through the spray column.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the oil is continuously circulated between the tank recirculation, which gets the oil containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and at least one nozzle, spray oil in the waste gas stream.
4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the oil is cooled during transport from the reservoir recirculation to the spray nozzle or nozzles.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use oil-based XI the tins.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pumping out of the exhaust gases is performed by the method of passing the flue gas through at least one of the ejector condenser refrigerator with external cooling.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the condensate coming out of the ejector condenser, process, method of transmission through the layer of activated carbon to collect light hydrocarbons and possible residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pumping out of the exhaust gases is performed by the method of passing the flue gas through at least one of the ejector condenser from refrigerator direct action.
9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the condensate coming out of the ejector condenser, process, method, pass them through a Stripping column.
10. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that at least part of the washed gases emerging from the ejector condenser is used as fuel gas for steam production to supply them ejector condenser.
11. The installation for the treatment of exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons, comprising a device (30) flushing oil, characterized in that the installation further comprises a device (60) pumping gas, and a device (30) flushing oil is between from what Arctium to enter the treated exhaust gases and pumping device, when the washing device is a spray oil contains the column (32)that engages with a hole to enter the treated exhaust gases, to ensure their circulation inside the column, and means of injection oil in a spray column.
12. Installation according to claim 11, characterized in that the spray column (32) contains the Venturi.
13. Installation according to claim 11, characterized in that the washing device includes a reservoir (40) recycling oil containing an inlet opening connected to the spray column, the holes for the output of oil, coupled with by means of injection oil in the column to ensure a continuous circulation of oil between the reservoir is recirculated by means of injection oil and spray column, and the hole for the output of the washed gases, connected to the pumping device.
14. Installation according to item 13, wherein the washing device comprises a heat exchanger (54)located in the path of the exhaust gases after the spray column, and means to supply heat exchanger coolant.
15. Installation according to item 13, characterized in that it comprises a heat exchanger (52)is located on the route of passage of oil between the reservoir (40) recirculation and spray column (32), and means to supply the specified heat exchanger coolant.
16. The setup is as in claim 11, characterized in that the pumping device includes at least one ejector condenser (68) with external cooling.
17. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that it contains means (78) treatment with activated carbon, connected to the output of the condensates from the ejector condenser.
18. Installation according to claim 11, characterized in that the pumping device includes at least one ejector condenser (168) with fridge direct action.
19. Installation p, characterized in that it contains a Stripping column (172)connected to the output of the condensates from the ejector condenser.
20. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that it contains a heater (80) to produce steam to ejector condenser, and the specified heater equipped with the fuel gas supply connected to the opening of the gas outlet of the ejector condenser.
21. Industrial plant chemical vapor phase deposition for the formation on substrates sludge containing pyrolytic carbon, or to seal porous substrates using a matrix containing pyrolytic carbon, including the furnace containing the insertion opening for the reacting gas and the hole for the output of the exhaust gases, and installation for the treatment of exhaust gases as defined in any of PP-21 that engages with the hole pickup is as off-gases from the furnace.
FIELD: column-type mass exchange apparatus for gas, oil, chemical and allied industries; low-temperature absorption of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus is provided with pipe unions delivery and discharge of gas and liquid, contact plates with passages for phases and packings located on bearing members above plates. Packings are located on bearing members above level on liquid on plates at free volume of(75-96)% and specific surface of (10-250)m2/m3. Adjacent members of packing layers directed towards plate surface are oriented towards liquid drainage. At least two crossing layers of packing are placed above each plate.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic resistance of apparatus due to reduced volume of liquid in packing; reduced gas velocity; reduced drop entrainment.
FIELD: methods of treatment of anaerobically decomposable materials, refuse or waste water; separation of carbon dioxide from other gaseous agents obtained at decomposition of organic materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming of reaction mixture containing anaerobically decomposable organic materials, application of electric potential to it and accumulation of gas. For obtaining of gas at high amount of hydrogen and low amount of methane as compared with gases formed spontaneously from said organic materials, use is made of intermittent generation of electric current at intervals dictated by content of hydrogen and/or methane detected in gas obtained from organic material.
EFFECT: increased productivity in hydrogen; reduction of time required for processing organic materials.
15 cl, 14 dwg, 11 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: simultaneous absorption of selected components of acid gas and topping light fractions of hydrocarbons entrapped by liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of gas flow and liquid flow to first mixer where they are brought in contact in direct flow and are subjected to turbulent mixing; then multi-phase flow from first mixer is directed to second mixer and after second mixer multi-phase flow is divided into gas phase and liquid phase. Second mixer has housing 102 with inlet hole 122 and outlet hole 123. Housing is provided with at least one movable control member 104 mounted hermetically; control member has central chamber for forming part of first wall connected with inlet side of housing and part of second wall connected with outlet side of housing. These parts of walls are provided with through passages 106A and 107B.
EFFECT: enhanced topping of entrapped hydrocarbons; increased absorption capacity by acid gas.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; other industries; spraying heat-mass exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the engineering realization of the heat-mass exchange processes, which take place in the gas-liquid system, such as absorption, chilling, dust-trapping, aeration, and may find application in the chemical industry and its adjacent industries. The body of the apparatus is divided by the partition into the contact and separating zones. Inside the contact zone there are the sprayers and the contact components. The apparatus is supplied with the drum installed in the contact zone with the possibility of rotation. On the drum there are fixed with the possibility of rotation the Т-shaped contact components. The T-shaped contact components are formed by the solid and mesh-type plates. The invention allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, and also to improve the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus, that increases efficiency of the heat-mass exchange process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, the improvement of the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus and the increased efficiency of the heat- mass exchange process.
FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; designs of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the design of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane by the method of the liquid-phase chlorination of ethylene with the reaction heat removal at boiling of the working medium. As the contact device the reactor uses two layers of the metallic nozzle. The liquid 1.2-dichloroethane is fed from above to the nozzle, into the space between the layers of the nozzle feed the gaseous chlorine with nitrogen, and under the lower layer of the nozzle feed the gaseous ethylene with nitrogen, that allows to reduce the diameter of the reactor in 1.5-2 times due to the increased effectiveness of stirring and formation of the developed contact surface of the phases. At that the heat of the reaction is removed by evaporation of 1.2-dichloroethane in nitrogen. At that the temperature of the liquid is maintained below the boiling temperature. The technical result of the invention is the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.
1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; metallurgy industry; methods of the wet ash-trapping with the help of Venturi tube.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the wet ash-trapping with the help of the Venturi tube intended for trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers burning the solid fuel, and also may be used for trapping of the cement kiln dust in production of the cement and for the dust trapping in the metallurgical, chemical and other industries, where the ash-and-dust catchers use the Venturi tubes. The purpose of the invention is to increase the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers with the Venturi tubes and burning the solid fuels as well as the reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam to increase the boilers efficiency by sprinkling of the Venturi tube with the flue gases transiting in it, the acoustic injector giving more thin and uniform atomization of the water at the decreased consumption both of the water and the steam of the sprinkler, where the acoustic field is characterized by the strictly determined frequency, intensity and the variable acoustic pressure and the steam is in the narrow temperature interval. The flue gases passing in the Venturi tube are sprinkled by the acoustic injector using the steam with the temperature of 250-350°С and forming in the volume of the tube the acoustic field, which is characterized by the frequency of 20-22, 36-38 or 44-48 kHz, the variable sound pressure of no less than 140 dB and the acoustic field intensity of no less than 0.5 W/cm2. The offered method, unlike the methods applied now, allows to act on the flue gases transiting in the Venturi tube simultaneously by several methods of deposition of the ash: - the acoustic method (coagulation - under action of the oscillations of the certain frequency, intensity and the variable sound pressure); humidification of the ash particles of ash in the steam-water aerosphere of the very finely sprinkled water with the full spectrum of the drops dimensions for all the sizes of the ash particles). This considerably increases the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and increases the efficiency of the boilers.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and the increased efficiency of the boilers using the solid fuel.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.
FIELD: wet dust collection; chemical, textile, food-processing and light industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrodynamic dust collector has housing with inlet and outlet branch pipes, reservoir filled with liquid and provided with level indicator, phase mixer consisting of inclined blades with partitions and two layers of twin concave plates which are symmetrical relative to axis of apparatus, one central plate and sludge removal unit. Vibrator located in upper layers of liquid is secured to housing by means of elastic perforated membrane; ratio of width "a" of inclined blades to width "b" of first pair of concave plates is equal to a/b=4.0-4.5; ratio of width "b" of first pair of concave plates to width "c" of second pair of concave plates is within optimal range of b/c=1.25-1.5. Vibrator is made in form of section inscribed in sizes or liquid reservoir.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability of dust collection process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises groups of parallel rectangular plates with corrugated bottom. The ribs of the corrugation are oriented along the flow, and the distance between the plates does not exceed 30 mm. Between the plates, rods or pipes are arranged at an angle 90±15° to the vector of flows. The plates are assembled in groups of parallel plates inclined downstream. The uniform distribution of fluid over the plates when fluid flows from one plate group to another group is provided by means of distributing-overflowing devices.
EFFECT: decreased hydraulic drag.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: coke industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in cooling of coke gas while simultaneously removing naphthalene from final gas coolers and treating gas in absorber with benzene-rich absorbing oil fed through nozzles into top section of absorber in countercurrent to coke gas moving from bottom upward through leg-supported grid plates. Invention is further characterized by that coke gas is fed into absorber at velocity ≤ 3.0 m/sec and perforations on grid plates have relative area 0.3-0.6 and are 0.04-0.09 m in diameter.
EFFECT: reduced investment and operating expenses.
FIELD: apparatus for performing heat- and mass-exchange processes in gas-liquid systems; chemical, food-processing and microbiological industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus has housing, horizontal partitions, contact tubes fitted with distributing branch pipes and helical spirals. Mounted in between horizontal partitions forming the gas inlet chamber coaxially with contact tubes and distributing branch pipes secured on lower horizontal partition are gas-and-liquid distributors consisting of plates located radially relative to distributing branch pipes forming slots for flow of gas. Upper end faces of plates are provided with blank secured on horizontal partition; lower ends of plates are lowered into circular clearance formed by inner surface of contact tube and outer surface of distributing branch pipe; at least two plates located near each other are provided with inserts at side end faces which form passage for liquid together with plates; this passage is communicated with chamber for introducing the liquid through holes made in blank. Side surfaces of distributing branch pipes have holes for flow of liquid. Plates of gas-and-liquid distributor are mounted tangentially relative to side surface of distributing branch pipe.
EFFECT: smooth distribution of liquid over perimeter of contact tubes; increased area of passage of liquid into circular clearance; avoidance of deposits on surfaces of distributing branch pipes.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: natural gas industry; chemical industry; oil refining industry; other industries; distributing devices for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the distributor of liquids and may be used in natural gas industry, chemical industry, oil refining industry and other industries, in particular, in column and flushing devices for sprinkling of heads or to contact a gas stream. The device contains a distributing collector (or a box) communicating with the union of a liquid feeding and with the chutes supplied with the overflow walls with cut-outs. The external side of the overflow walls at the cut-outs is supplied with the inclined ledges crossed with the inclined ledges of the adjacent chutes. The inclined ledges are made out of a porous flexible harness and (or) the ribs arranged on the overflow walls and the porous flexible harness is made in the form of a continuous spiral fixed on the upper part of the walls in the cut-outs and in the lower part - on the ribs in a plane of the internal overflow walls. The porous harness in its lower part is supplied with a set of the flexible porous guides. The distributor ensures an effective and uniform distribution of a liquid, a decreased entrainment of a liquid by a gas stream and has a minimal height.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an effective and uniform distribution of a liquid, a decreased entrainment of a liquid by a gas stream and has a minimal height.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical engineering; methods and devices for purification of liquid hydrocarbons from impurities.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the processes and devices of chemical engineering and may be used in power industry, oil-and-gas producing industry, chemical industry, food industry and other industries for purification of the liquid hydrocarbons, desorption, rectification and in the similar processes in the gas-liquid system, in particular, in the systems of ecological protection as installations for trapping vapor of hydrocarbons (HC)from the air-steam mixture (ASM) and their recuperation; in the systems of transportation, storage, and realization of the oil products. The liquid hydrocarbons saturated with impurities are fed into the desorber made in the form of a horizontal disk-type heat-exchange apparatus having the section forming the central zone of feeding of the saturated liquid hydrocarbons and the zones of sublimation and condensation of the hydrocarbons. Desorption is conducted at an excessive pressure in the mode of a reverse flow of the saturated hydrocarbons the vapor phase by heating of the saturated hydrocarbons and evaporation from the film formed on the rotating disks of the light fractions from the side of outlet of the liquid hydrocarbons from the horizontal disk-type heat-exchange apparatus in the zone of sublimation and simultaneous chilling of the wet reflux in the zone of condensations on the opposite side of the horizontal disk-type heat-exchange apparatus. The installation contains the desorber made in the form of the horizontal disk-type heat-exchange apparatus, which is installed inclined to the side of outlet from it of the purified liquid hydrocarbons and is connected by pipelines of feeding of the saturated liquid hydrocarbons and withdrawal of the purified liquid hydrocarbons, on which the pump, the heat exchangers, the containers of accumulation of the saturated and purified liquid hydrocarbons are located. The invention allows to diminish considerably the overall dimensions of the installation, to improve profitability of the purification systems at increasing their efficiency.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the installation overall dimensions, improved profitability of the purification systems, increased their efficiency.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: gas-processing industry; petroleum industry; other industries; gas-cleaning equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the designs of the gas-cleaning equipment of industrial and domestic designation and may be used in various branches of industry. The installation contains: the body forming a reaction zone; the conical unit forming a zone of dispersion; the located inside the body shaft with a drive unit and a feeding screw supplied with solid plates, the dispersion grates and calibrating grates; the branch-pipe for feeding the gas for cleaning; the absorber feeding union; the drips separator and the slime separator. The installation is supplied with the cylinder forming the absorption area, integrated with the tank-collector supplied with the distributing grate for sprinkling by the absorber of the gas subjected to cleaning. The tank-collector is supplied with the chutes for feeding the absorber in the channels of the feeding screw. The installation ensures a high level of cleaning of the gases from toxic impurity, from dust and mists, a high degree of trapping of the raw and the finished products.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a high level of cleaning of the gases from toxic impurity, a dust and mists, the high degree of trapping of the raw and the finished products.
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises rotating shaft and cylindrical housing with the flanges and bottoms. The top section of the housing receives branch pipes for supplying and discharging gas. The bottom section of the housing receives the branch pipes for supplying and discharging liquid. The housing is provided with the assembly of separating ring baffles interposed between the cylindrical inserts and interconnected by means of longitudinal studs, which defines the transverse central sections and two side sections from the side of bottoms. The end sections from the side of flanges with bottoms receive heat exchanging devices made of a ring (spiral) tubular heat exchangers mounted coaxially with respect to the contact stacks. The sections with built-in heat exchanger for supplying heat and branch pipe for discharging liquid defines boiler. The section provided with the heat exchanger for withdrawing heat and branch pipes for discharging condensate of light fractions (phlegm and steam-gas phase defines dephlegmator (and condenser). The central sections with longitudinal radially oriented plates, branch pipes for supplying accelerated fluid and discharging liquid and condensate of fractions define rectifying apparatus. The heat and mass exchange apparatus is inclined to the boiler at an angle 0.1-5°.
EFFECT: reduced sizes and mass.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas purification .
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary purification of gas be means of absorbent in the chamber mounted in the absorber still, supplying gas and absorbent to the chamber, and discharging gas and absorbent from the chamber. The chamber is completely separated from the housing by means of dummy passages, and the bottom section of the chamber is sealed by means of hydraulic gate. The gate liquid is made of saturated absorbent. The absorbent that flows down from the top part of the absorber is fed so that it is in a contact and flows counter to the gas discharged from the chamber. The absorber comprises housing with the connecting pipes for supplying gas and discharging saturated absorbent in the still, mass exchange sections, and vertical baffles. The section for preliminary purification is made of a chamber closed over periphery and completely separated from the housing of absorbent by baffles. The bottom part of the section is provided with hydraulic gate and is connected with the inlet connecting pipe for supplying gas.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption and prolonged service life.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: gas-production industry; oil-producing industry; other industries; methods and devices for separation of a liquid from a gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods for separation of a liquid from a gas and to the design solution of the devices for distribution of the gaseous and the liquid flows along the cross-section of the apparatus and separation of the liquid from the gas flow, which may be used for the processes of separation, absorption, rectification in the gas-production industry, oil-producing industry and in the apparatuses for realization of the similar production processes. The method of separation of a liquid from a gas includes: the radial feeding of the mixture into the body of the apparatus, its distribution along the cylindrical wall with the subsequent division into the radial flows directed to the axis of the apparatus and passing into the axial flows. The radial flows are divided into jets, separate them from the liquid on the surfaces located along the wall, then additionally distribute in the cross section of the apparatus. Separation of the radial flows from the liquid conduct on the vertical porous components, using which the liquid is diverted into the still bottom unit of the apparatus below the mixture feeding. The device for realization of the method of separation of the liquid from the gas includes the perforated shell established inside the body of the apparatus opposite to the gas inlet fitting pipes with a clearance to the body overlapped by partition in its upper part. On the shell opposite to the perforation there are the vertically orientated rows of the porous volumetric components overlapping the channels of the perforation. The clearance between the shell and the body and the top of the shell are overlapped by the semi-dead plate with the gas passage fitting pipes connected with the internal cavity of the shell. The shell in its lower part has the water lock or is partially overlapped. It is made out of out the plane components closed by the body of the apparatus. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the separation and to reduce ablation of the liquid.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the separation and reduction of the liquid ablation.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; textile industry; food industry; light industry; other industries; ventilation wet dust-catchers.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of the ventilation wet dust-catching and may be used in chemical, textile, food, light and other industries for purification of the dusty gases. The dust-catcher contains: the body with the inlet branch pipe; the mounted on the body fan with the branch pipe for withdrawal of the purified gas; the drop catcher; the upper and lower partitions located in the body, on one of which there is the fixed water-baffle; the tank with the liquid and with the liquid level regulator; the device for the slime removal. On the lower partition place in the body, which is arranged in the tank with the liquid, there is the fixed vibrator. The ratio of the height "d" of the upper level of the water counting from the lower edge of the upper partition to the height "b" of the upper level of the water up to the surface of the maximum height of the water-baffle is in the optimal interval of the values: d/b = 0.3...0.5. The ratio of the height "d" of the upper level of the water from the lower edge of the upper partition to the distance "c" from the water level in the tank with the liquid to the lower edge of the upper partition is in the optimal interval of values: d/c =1.0...1.5. The vibrator is made in the form of the rectangle inscribed in the dimensions of the lower plate or is made in the form of the arranged with a certain pitch elements of the vibrator inscribed in the dimensions of the lower plate, and the ratio of the total length of the partitions «L» to the length of the apparatus "B" is in the optimal interval of the values: L/B = 0.65... 1.7. The invention ensures the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust catching process due to the greater surface of the gas-liquid suspension.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust catching process due to the greater surface of the gas-liquid suspension.
4 cl, 2 dwg