Differential hydromechanical variable-speed drive

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: variable-speed drive comprises two differential stages connected in series. The differential sage whose shaft is connected with the engine is the input shaft of the variable-speed drive and is made of a differential mechanism. The second differential stage is a hydraulic differential converter provided with two planet rows defined by the kinematical links of multi-gearing hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor provided with different gear ratios . The axles of the satellites of the first and second differential stages are mounted inside the housing . The housing is set in bearings inside the crankcase of the variable-speed drive and represents a carrier for both of the differential stages. The carrier is provided with the free running clutch.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to timing mechanisms continuously variable transmission and can be used in machine building, in particular the transport engineering.

Differential hydro-mechanical variator is designed for automatic stepless conversion of rotational motion between the shaft of the motor and the shaft of the working body of machines and mechanisms with the aim of optimal collaboration engine and variator for varying arbitrarily the value of external load on the working body.

It is known device, the most similar set of features to the claimed invention, for stepless variation of torque and a smooth transmission to the drive wheels.

The known device, three-dimensional hydromechanical transmission with external separation power (OGE), is a single-circuit or double-circuit transmission, respectively, with one or two differentials and volumetric hydraulic transmission. The power supplied to ogmp, is divided into two streams through mechanical and hydraulic units, and only part of it (usually smaller) is passed to the hydraulic machine. Therefore, compared with the volume of the hydraulic transmission ogn has a higher efficiency at the same capacity and the adjustment ranges [1]. Single ogn consists of volume hydraulic transmission and d is ferentiating mechanism with mixed or external gearing. Depending on the location of the differential element with respect to the bulk hydraulic transmission distinguish IGMP with a differential element in the input or differential element in the output.

Power from the master to the slave shaft ogmp is transmitted in two streams. First, the power flow is transmitted through the sun gear to the satellites and then drove on. There are only mechanical power loss. The second stream power is transmitted to the adjustable hydraulic pump, next to unregulated or regulated hydraulic motor and through the satellite carrier. Here the power is lost in the hydrostatic transmission (GOP). The bulk of the power loss falls on the GOP.

Significant disadvantages of single-circuit ogmp are the need for regulation of the hydrostatic transmission, which complicates the design through the use of active control systems, and a limited range of automatic control

R=imax/imin,

where imax- high ratio ogmp;

imin- low ratio ogmp.

Increase the adjustment range is achieved in the circuit ogmp with two differentials and hydrostatic transmission, the construction of which perform three circuits: parallel, serial, and parallel-series connection of difference the RC. The most common is the scheme with the parallel connection of differentials, in which all power is not passing through the hydraulic transmission is transmitted from a driving shaft to a driven two parallel flows, the Converter power flow is hydrostatic transmission with differential mechanism in the output.

In order to avoid circulating power gear ratio of the entire transmission i is within the range between the i02and i01where i01, i02- gear ratio respectively of the first and second differentials locked link associated with hydraulic transmission. When |i01|>|i02|, i.e. i01=imax, i02=iminthe control range R=imax/imin=i01/i02.

Common faults for all schemes are limited adjustment range, the design complexity, due to the use of expensive and complex regulated hydraulic drive and automatic control system.

The challenge which seeks the invention is to provide an automatic without the use of control systems, control of torque on the output shaft depending on changes in the external load and the control range of the variator

ivar=1/iass÷1,

where i var- gear ratio of the variator;

iassspecified gear ratio.

During implementation of the invention can be obtained from the following technical results:

- increase the value of efficiency;

the range of automatic control, covering the whole range of frequency of rotation of the output shaft of the variator from its minimum specified value at maximum torque to the rotation frequency equal to the frequency of rotation of the motor shaft, and a torque equal to the torque of the motor;

- improvement in fuel-economic and environmental characteristics of the internal combustion engine in collaboration with hydro-mechanical differential variator;

- internal automatism, which does not require solving the problem of logistics management;

- the possibility of engine braking;

- quietness, smoothness and consistency of traction on the drive wheels;

- the ability to quickly change modes;

- motor protection in overclocking mode and stop mode overload.

The problem is solved in that the device consists of two series-connected differential stages. A differential stage, an input shaft which is connected with the engine and is the input shaft of the variator is a mechanical differential, milling is m, internal gear ratio which can have different values. The second differential stage is a hydraulic differential transducer having two planetary series, each of which is formed of kinematic links mnogochislennyh hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor with different values of the internal gear ratios. The satellite axes of the first and second differential stage has in common to both of the differential stages of the case. The casing is mounted on bearings in the crankcase of the variable speed drive is used for both differential speed shared planet carrier that has a freewheel. In addition to the mechanical connection, due to the presence of a common carrier, between the planetary series hydraulic differential Converter operates dynamic hydraulic connection in the circuit which is equipped with an automatic bypass and adjustable valves.

Unlike the prototype, in which the two Converter power flow input differential consists of kinematically connected hydrostatic and differential transmission, the present invention solves the problem of converting power flow input of the differential by means of a hydraulic differential Converter that allows to achieve the above-mentioned technology is ical results.

The principle of operation of the hydromechanical differential variator based on the equality of the interaction of oppositely directed with respect to each other moments produced by the driver as a result of the action of internal forces of the differential speed, and the automatic change of the pressure p and the flow rate of fluid Q through the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor, which occurs as a result of changes in the relative velocities of the links of the differential speed when changing speed of the output shaft relative to the constant speed of the input shaft.

Figure 1 shows the kinematic diagram of the construction of the proposed differential hydromechanical variable.

Figure 2 presents the dimensionless characteristic changes of the flow rate Q and pressure p in

ivar=nII/nI,

where Qmax slave- maximum flow rate;

pmax- maximum pressure;

p0- the pressure at ivar=1;

K=1/iassthe transformation ratio.

At the kinematic scheme of figure 1 is indicated:

And1mechanical differential mechanism; And2- hydraulic differential Converter; 1 - input element of the differential mechanism, it is also the input shaft of the variator; 2-2' - satellites; 3-3' - output element of the differential mechanism, it is the same as the input link guide is aplicacao differential Converter; 4 - led (chassis) of the variator; 5 and 6 driven wheels, respectively, of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor; 7 - driven shaft of the motor, it is the same output shaft of the variator; 8 - operated valve; 9 - automatic bypass valve; 10 - hydraulic pump; 11 - hydraulic motor; 12 - freewheel; 13 and 16 respectively of the inlet window of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor; 14 and 15 respectively of the outlet window of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor; 17 - expansion tank; 18 - annular channel; 19 - Carter variator; 20 - filter; 21 - exchanger.

Case 4 differential hydro-mechanical variator is supported by bearings mounted in an oil-filled crankcase 19. To compensate for thermal expansion of the oil sump has a surge tank 17. The first differential stage of the variator is a mechanical differential mechanism, composed of the input shaft 1, satellites 2-2', output link 3-3' and led 4. The second differential stage of the variator is a hydraulic differential transducer formed by the planet carrier 4, mnogochislennymi gear pump 10 with movable axes and driven wheels 5, which number shall be not less than two, and the motor 11 with the moving axes and the drive wheels 6, the number of which must be at least two. The hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor are the inlet 13 and 16, the outlet 14 and 15 is on, the number of which is equal to the number of driven wheels of the hydraulic pump and drive motor.

In a hydraulic annular channel 18 is set to automatic by-pass valve 9 operated valve 8. Between the planet carrier 4 and the crankcase 19 is installed freewheel 12 on the intake screens of the hydraulic pump has a filter 20, in the lower part of the crankcase 19 is installed, the heat exchanger 21.

With a stationary driver 4 torque M1from an external source of energy is transmitted to the input link 1 differential mechanism, A1that rotates at a rotational speed of n1and through the planetary gear 2-2' is transmitted to the gear 3 kinematic link 3-3'. When this link 3-3' rotates in the same direction as the input link 1. The rotation of the link 3-3' and gears 5 creates a flow of the working fluid, defined by the equation

where M3-3'=MGNthe torque on the input shaft of the hydraulic pump;

p is the fluid pressure, PA;

VGN- the working volume of the hydraulic pump, m3.

Drove 4 perceives the reactive torque from the mechanical differential mechanism And1equal to MA=-M1(1-i13)directed in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the input link 1.

When using a gear pump with two or more driven wheels force is on the side of the pinion 3' gear 5, perceiving the circuit point in the process of displacement of working fluid, when bringing it to the centers of the gears 5 creates a torque on the driver 4, defined as M4A2=-M1i13(1-i3'5).

The sum of the moments M4A1and MAequal ∑M4=M4A1+M4A2=-M1(1-i13i3'5) and has a direction coincident with the direction of rotation of the input link 1.

The flow of working fluid through the outlet ports of the hydraulic pump 14 enters the annular channel 18 and through the inlet window of the motor 75 in its working cavity formed by the depressions of the gears 6 and 7. Torque on the output shaft of the motor is determined by the equation

MGM=pVGM/2π=MGNig=-M1i13ig=MII,

where p is the fluid pressure, PA;

VGM- the working volume of the motor m3;

hydraulic gear ratio.

Hydraulic gear ratio from the equilibrium condition drove 4where.

Carrier 4, which is common to the two differential stages, in the presence of the torque on the output shaft 7 MC=-MIIis in equilibrium and the number of revolutions n4=0, and the number of revolutions of the output shaft of the variator. P and |M C|>|-MII| difference points to the driver 4 is perceived freewheel 12. When the number of revolutions of the output shaft under the action of load exceeding the calculated up to nII=0 the pressure in the annular cavity grows until a residual pressure automatic by-pass valve 9 and the difference between the flow through the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor flows from the annular channel 18 into the internal cavity of the housing 19. Due to a significant increase in temperature of the working fluid when flowing through a slit valve 9, this may be short-term in the process of driving a vehicle.

When reducing the load on the output shaft II reactive torque on the carrier 4 from the side of the motor decreases, the flow of hydraulic capacity decreases while total mechanical moment ∑M4formed by the operation of the differential stages And1and a2at a constant rotational speed of the input shaft I carries out the transmission of power in parallel to the mechanical power flow. The difference between the total torque and the reactive torque causes rotation of the carrier 4 in the same direction that the input I and output II shafts, and the number of revolutions of the output shaft II increases fromto nII=nIthat defines the range of the machine the economic regulation of the variator i var=1/iass÷1. Thus there is a redistribution of power flow on hydraulic and mechanical circuit, and nII=nIall the power is transmitted through a mechanical path.

When the speed of rotation of the output shaft nII=nIthe relative velocities of all links is equal to zero, hence Q=0. When the speed change nIIrate changes took n4and, accordingly, the speed of parts of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor relative to the carrier 4. Changing the number of revolutions of the output shaft in the range of nII=1/iassto nII=0 occurs when n4=0. When n4=0 the fluid flow Q=n3'VGN=nIIVGMandthe pressure p=pmax. In connection with the redistribution of power flow when the change speed of the output shaft of the hydraulic parameters of power flow p and Q are changed in accordance with the schedule shown in figure 2.

To ensure a constant pressure pmaxin the range of the accelerating mode, when QGN≠QGMin the hydraulic system automatic bypass valve 9. In addition, the hydraulic system provides controlled valve 8, the purpose of which is to break the flow of the working fluid in the hydraulic circuit, which is necessary when the engine is running, getaway car, Rassadin is of the engine with the transmission while driving.

Compared with the prototype of the automatic stepless adjustment of the kinematic and force parameters is carried out in the complete absence of any control system is achieved simplicity of design options.

Improving efficiency is by reducing hydrostatic losses, in the absence of local resistance in the controls, low values of the length of the stream and the speed of movement of the working fluid in it.

The property of reversibility rotary hydraulic machine under the action of the load of the output shaft provides engine braking.

Damping properties of hydraulic circuit causes the quietness, smoothness and consistency of traction on the drive wheels.

Low inertia rotating parts at low pressure and, accordingly, the small mass of the body of the variator allows quick change of the operation mode.

The freewheel mounted on the shaft carrier, and automatic bypass valve in the hydraulic circuit protects the engine in overclocking mode and stop mode overload.

Comparative analysis of the structures of automatic transmissions, gliniany and toroidh variable-speed drives manufactured today's automotive industry different from the Russian Academy of Sciences, shows a high degree of technological continuity in relation to the existing production gear and hydraulic machines, the high degree of commonality, much less the cost of materials and labor, and, consequently, a much lower cost.

Automotive differential hydromechanical variable speed, is used as the automatic transmission when coupled with the engine makes it possible, when changing in the whole range of external load, to operate in the mode area of equal capacity, which leads to the optimal degree of capacity utilisation and, consequently, a considerable reduction of fuel consumption.

Achieved technical results cause the multifunctional use of the invention in all fields of engineering.

Sources of information

1. Hydraulic and pneumatic automation and hydraulic mobile machines. Volumetric hydraulic and pneumolysin and transmission. Edited by Guskov CENTURIES - Mn.: Enter. HQ., 1987. - S-221.

Differential hydromechanical variable, consisting of kinematically connected to the input of the differential mechanism and its parallel Converter power flow that contains an input element, an output element of the differential mechanism, and the output frame link guides who, an output link of the Converter, wherein the Converter power flow is a hydraulic differential mechanism having two planetary series, each of which is formed of kinematic links mnogochislennyh hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor with different values of the internal gear ratios, the satellite axes of the first and second differential stage has in common to both of the differential speed transmission housing, which is mounted on bearings in the crankcase of the variator and is used for both differential speed shared planet carrier with a pre-installed freewheel, and in addition to the mechanical connection, due to the presence of a common carrier, between the planetary series hydraulic differential mechanism operates dynamic hydraulic connection, in the circuit which is equipped with automatic overflow and controlled valves.



 

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