Method for manufacturing roentgen refracting lens with rotation profile

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

 

The present invention relates to the field of rechentechnik and can be used to create a microfocus x-ray apparatus promising for nondestructive local analysis of materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, structural analysis, microscopy and microtomography.

A known method of manufacturing the x-ray refractive lenses with profile rotation, with axial symmetry axis and providing focusing of the incident radiation in a point focus by the formation of gas bubbles in a liquid enclosed in a cylindrical tube. (Y.Kohmura, M.Awaji, Y.Suzuki, T.Ishikawa, Yu.I.Dudchik, N.Kolchevsky, F.Komarov "X-ray focusing test and X-ray imaging test by a microcapillary X-ray lens at an undulator beamline" Review of Scientific Instruments v.70 (1999), pp.4161-4167).

However, this method does not ensure the formation of a refractive lens with a parabolic profile. Get under it with a spherical refractive profile on the border of bubbles creates a number of aberrations. The disadvantages of this method are the high requirements to the deviation of the axis of the tube that defines the optical axis of the set of lenses from linearity, low aperture lenses (less than 0.5 mm), a significant absorption of radiation between the bubbles, the fragility of the lenses.

There is also known a method of manufacturing an x-ray refractive linss profile rotation, having an axial axis of symmetry and ensures focusing the incident beam into a point focus by precision machining with the use of stamping processes, which use a stamp spherical shape (Y.Ohishi, A.Q.R.Baron, M.Ishii, T.Ishikawa, O.Shimomura "Refractive X-ray lens for high pressure experiments at Springs", Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics research, vol.A467-468 (2001), pp.962-963).

However, this method suffers from the following disadvantages: extremely high requirements for precision stamping and especially the cleanliness of the surface treatment, the use of a narrow set of materials that have the ability to stamping, significant absorption of radiation in the intervals between the lenses, the spherical profile of the lens has some aberrations in the formation of images.

There is also known a method of manufacturing an x-ray refractive lenses with profile rotation with minimized absorption, in which the optical axis of the parabola is located along the flat surface of workpiece. Such planar lens providing a focusing of the incident radiation in a bar focus, formed by deep plasma-chemical etching (V.Aristov, M.Grigoriev, S.Kuznetsov, L.Shabel′nikov, V.Yunkin, T.Weitkamp, C.Rau, I.Snigireva, A.Snigirev, M.Hoffmann, E.Voges "X-ray planar refractive lens with minimized absorption," Applied Physics Letters vol.77 (2000), pp.4058-4060).

However, this method applies only to even more ut the th range of materials, for which developed the processes of deep plasma-chemical etching (in fact, only silicon and polycrystalline layers of diamond). A limitation of this method is the relatively low depth of the surface relief (0.2 mm), which determines the length of the line focus.

There is a method adopted for the prototype, the production of x-ray refractive lenses with profile rotation, with axial symmetry axis and providing focusing of the incident radiation in a point focus by precision machining with the use of stamping processes, which apply the stamp to the desired parabolic shape with profile rotation. (B.Lengeler, C.Schroer, B.Benner, T.Gunzler, M.Kuhlman, J.Tummler, A.Simionovici, A.Snigirev, I.Snigireva "Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics", Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics research, vol.A467-468 (2001), pp.944-950).

However, the known method does not provide the manufacture of lenses of all known radiolucent materials and requires the use of only materials that have the ability to stamping. The disadvantage of this method is also extremely high requirements for precision stamping and especially clean surface treatment, since the surface roughness of the formed lens significantly reduces their optical characteristics. Achieved aperture lenses are less than 1 mm. In this way can be is formed only sets of lenses, having a constant radius of curvature applied to the stamp, which is a significant limitation of the method.

The proposed invention solves the problem of developing a simple and technologically advanced way to create a wide range of x-ray lenses with profile rotation, the technical result is to obtain lenses with larger aperture to several millimeters, having a perfect refractive profile in the form of a paraboloid of rotation in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface. In addition, the proposed method allows to form the set of parabolic lenses with variable radius of curvature, providing the lens with minimized absorption.

This object is achieved by a method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation, characterized in that for the manufacture of lenses with the required focal length F form one or more lenses with a focal length defined by the ratio ofwhere N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rwith/2δwhere Rwiththe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ - decrement of the refractive index of the lens material belonging to the class of x-ray refractive materials, which contribute the desired amount of material Lin the s where ρ - the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens, in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same internal radius R, a material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition, put the pot on a centrifuge, spend the rotation of the mandrel with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity at the angular frequency of rotationwhere η the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then pass the lens material in the solid state during the rotation, stop the rotation and hold the lens Assembly in the holder.

Getting lenses with accurate refractive profile is based on the fact that the surface of the pole rotating fluid has a perfect parabolic shape and has no asperities (roughness). In this case, the radius of curvature of the lens is uniquely determined by the frequency of rotation, which must be in the optimal range of frequencies based on the conditions of laminar fluid flow. Different methods of translation of the lens material in the solid state. Perform a specified sequence of actions in strict accordance with the calculated and selected in the experiment settings allows you to get an x-ray refractive lenses with about the ilem rotation, with the above advantages.

As the lens material belonging to the class of x-ray refractive materials, take materials, for which according to previous studies (Aristov V.V., Shabelnikov L.G., Shulakov E.V., Kuznetsov S.M., junkin VA, Grigor'ev M.V., S.I. Zaitsev "refractive X-ray optics". Surface. X-ray, Synchrotron, Neutron Studies, No. 1 (1999), p.7-13) the conditionthat μ - the linear absorption coefficient of the material for radiation with a wavelength of λ. Currently, the quality of x-ray refractive materials are widely used materials such as lithium or its compounds with light elements, beryllium, polymeric materials, graphite or polycrystalline layers of diamond, aluminum and silicon.

As the mandrel material manufactured lenses, which provides for a wide range of liquids wetting angle defined set us conditionwere chosen such materials mandrel as fused silica, glass, glass carbon and polystyrene.

Angular frequency of rotationwhere g=9.81 m/s2- free fall acceleration, is necessary to obtain a lens with a given radius of curvature, and must reside in the us plant is optimal for this method, the frequency range determined by the condition of laminar flow of the liquid material in the pot.

Achieving uniformity at a given angular frequency of rotation of the mandrel was monitored by optical microscopy.

As the lens material can take the material in the solid state, such as lithium fluoride masswhere k is the coefficient of shrinkage of the material during solidification, and translate it into a liquid state by melting during thermal heating, and the translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation to carry out the cooling of the material.

Thermal heating in these cases can be when using a source of microwave radiation, such as microwave ovens with a capacity of up to 2 kW.

To obtain lenses of legkookisljajushchihsja and hygroscopic materials, such as lithium and its compounds, in addition to every lens is applied protective coating, such as a layer of polymeric material, photopolymer material or the carbon layer from the gas phase, and the entire process is carried out in an atmosphere of inert gas (argon, nitrogen, helium).

As the lens material can take the material in the solid state mass M and translate into a liquid state by dissolving in an organic solvent (benzene, toluene, acetone, dimethylformamide, carbon tetrachloride, is utilitiesman), moreover, the weight of a solution found by the relation, where C is the concentration of the solution. The translation of the lens material in the solid state during the rotation in this case is performed by evaporation of solvent.

To ensure the solidity of the lens with a ratio of length of the lens to its radius ≥3 carry out layer-by-layer build-up obtain the desired parabolic profile by repeated cycles of adding a portion of the dissolved material in the amount ofwhere R is the ratio of dividing into portions and evaporation of the solvent, and the number of cycles corresponds to the frequency dividing into portions.

As the lens material can take material that is capable of polymerization, such as styrene, kimpel, etc. and transfer the lens material in the solid state during the rotation to be accomplished by the reaction of polymerization of the material.

The polymerization of the lens material can be adding to the original material of the catalyst of the reaction, for example, using epoxy resin with hardener.

As the lens material capable of polymerization, it is possible to take material that is capable of photopolymerization, for example, a negative photoresist, and its polymerization to conduct when exposed to a radiant flux from the light source.

To obtain the set is and the lens, characterized by a gradually decreasing radii of curvature according to the law Rn=R0qnwith a scale factor of q<1, where R0the radius of curvature of the first lens in the set, n=1,2...N number of unit lenses in the set, the rotation of the mandrel with the lens material may be carried out at increasing speeds according to the established us in the process of experimenting valuewhere g=9.81 m/s2- acceleration of free fall.

To obtain a lens with minimized absorption it is necessary to use a mandrel of stepped form, containing at least two plane-parallel grooves for forming the ribs in the output lenses, and the height of the steps is equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shift.

Example 1. For manufacture of single parabolic lenses (N=1) with a focal length of F0=314 cm as the lens material using lithium fluoride, for which the decrement of the refractive index is δ=7.958*10-06for wavelength λ=0.155 nm. The desired radius of curvature Rc=49.8 μm according to the formula F0=Rc/2δ. For lenses with aperture A=2R=2 mm material weight, calculated as ratiois M=41.4 mg With regard to shrinkage during solidification k=0.95 triboemission the mass of material M 0=43.6 mg Source material in solid form is melted in a pot made of quartz, a material which satisfies the conditionduring thermal heating to t=450°C. followed by a rotation at a rotational speed of 6000 rpm (according to the formulaangular frequency of rotation ω=628 s-1)not exceeding the boundaryfor the range of laminar flow (1450 s-1), and cool when removing the furnace. Received the lens is placed in the holder. This lens has a larger aperture (2 mm), has a perfect refractive profile in the form of a paraboloid of rotation in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface.

Example 2. Same as in example 1, the melting is carried out with the use of microwaves at a power of 200 watts.

Example 3. As the lens material used polymethylmethacrylate (emission spectra obtained for pure), for which the decrement of the refractive index is δ=4.18*10-06for wavelength λ=0.155 nm. When the rotational speed of 6000 rpm (angular speed ω=628 s-1) is the curvature radius Rc=49.8 μm. Focal length of a single parabolic lenses on the above wavelength is F0=596 see For lenses with aperture A=2R=2 mm, the mass of material is M=18.7 mg IP is odny material is dissolved in an organic solvent, which take dichloroethane to obtain the concentration of the solution with a=0.6. Then spend the rotation when the above frequency not exceeding the boundary for the range of laminar flow (850 sec-1) until complete evaporation of the solvent. The mandrel material is quartz.

Example 4. Same as in example 3, the weight of the source material in the solution is divided into p=5 servings and consistently spend 5 cycles of rotation.

Example 5. As the lens material using epoxy phenolic resin, for which the decrement of the refractive index is δ=4.25*10-06for wavelength λ=0.155 nm. When the rotational speed of 6000 rpm (angular speed ω=628 s-1) is the curvature radius Rc=49.8 μm. Focal length of a single parabolic lenses on the above wavelength is F0=553 see For lenses with aperture A=2R=2 mm, the mass of material is M=23.7 mg In the source material add the hardener, which is used as triethylindium providing high speed the curing reaction, in the amount of 2.2 mg followed by rotation at the above frequency, not exceeding the boundary for the range of laminar flow (650 sec-1) to complete curing of the lens. The mandrel material is quartz.

Example 6. Same as in example 3, as the lens material used in the comfort of negative photoresist SU-8 (trade mark), a lot of the source material is divided into 10 portions, rotation of the mandrel with the material produced when exposed to ultraviolet radiation of a mercury lamp with light 10000 Lux, consistently spend 10 cycles of rotation. The mandrel material is quartz.

Example 7. Same as in example 1. The speed control is performed for obtaining a set of 10 lenses with a scale factor of change of the radius of curvature of 0.95. In this case the initial speed is ω0=628 s-1consistently increase by a factor of 1.026 before reaching the end value ωwith=714 s-1.

Example 8. Same as in example 2. Form a set of 10 lenses, providing focal length 59.5 see the length of a single lens is 5.18 mm Using a mandrel of stepped form with step heights 148 μm, constituting 8 lengths of the phase shift when the number of steps 85. The mandrel has 4 parallel-sided recess width of 0.3 mm, the Process is carried out by dividing the source material at R=10 portions and holding respectively 10 cycles of rotation and evaporation of the solvent.

Thus, the proposed method is simple and feasible way to get a wide range of x-ray lenses with profile rotation, having an increased aperture to several millimeters, with perfect prelolas the th profile in the form of a paraboloid of rotation in the absence of asperities (roughness) of the surface.

1. A method of manufacturing an x-ray parabolic lens with profile rotation, characterized in that for the manufacture of lenses with the required focal length F form one or more lenses with a focal length determined by the value

where N is the number of lenses, a F0=Rc/2δwhere Rcthe radius of curvature of the parabolic profile, δ - decrement of the refractive index of the lens material belonging to the class of x-ray refractive materials

why make the necessary number of the lens material

where ρ - the density of the material of the lens, R is the radius of the lens,

in the liquid state in the mandrel has a cylindrical shape with the same inner radius, material which provides for the liquid contact angle, defined by the condition

put the pot on a centrifuge, spend the rotation of the mandrel with the material of the lens to achieve uniformity in the angular speed

where η the viscosity of the lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number,

then pass the lens material in the solid state during the rotation, stop the rotation and hold the Assembly whether the threat in the holder.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the lens material charge material in the solid state, transfer it to a liquid state by melting during thermal heat, and transfer the lens material in the solid state during the rotation spend it cooled.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that thermal heating is carried out using a source of microwave radiation.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that for obtaining lenses of easily oxidized and hygroscopic materials advanced on every lens cause the protective coating, and the whole process is carried out in an atmosphere of inert gas.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the lens material charge material in the solid state, was transferred to a liquid state by dissolving in an organic solvent, and the translation of the lens material in the solid state in the rotation process is carried out by evaporation of solvent.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that to ensure the solidity of the lenses with respect to the length of the lens to its radius ≥3 carry out layer-by-layer build-up obtain the desired parabolic profile by repeated cycles of adding a portion of the dissolved material and evaporation of the solvent, and the number of cycles corresponds to the frequency dividing into portions.

7. The method according to claim 1, great for the present, however, as the lens material charge material that is capable of polymerization, and the translation of the lens material in the solid state in the rotation process is carried out by reaction of polymerization of the material.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the polymerization of the lens material is performed during the addition of the catalyst the reaction in the source material.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that as the lens material charge material that is capable of photopolymerization and its polymerization is carried out at the influence of the radiation flux from the light source.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to obtain a set of lenses with increased optical power, which is characterized by a gradually decreasing radii of curvature according to the law Rn=R0qnwith a scale factor of q<1, where R0the radius of curvature of the first lens in the set, n=1,2...N number of unit lenses in the set, the rotation of the mandrel with the material of the lens is carried out at increasing speeds according to the value

where g=9,81 m/s2- acceleration of free fall.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to obtain a lens with minimized absorption using the mandrel of stepped form, containing at least two plane-parallel grooves for forming the ribs in the output is the INZ, the height of the steps is equal to the even number of lengths of the phase shiftwhere λ - wavelength radiation.



 

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