Method for reclamation of open mines

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and serves to reduce the area of disturbed lands, volume reclamation of open pit operations, as well as providing access to uncovered reserves for underground mining method.

The known method development steeply dipping seams open way, including outbound and cutting trenches in covering the rocks, holding entry and cutting trenches in the layer mineral with the subsequent development of one or both sides of a cutting trenches in the direction of stretch of the reservoir [1], in which the reclamation of the surface is carried out after the development of the reserves, unearned layers.

The disadvantage of this method are the high costs for the next revision of the reserves of underground way, left at the bottom of the cutting trench and boards related to the necessity of opening the lower horizons of the underground workings - trunks and crosscuts.

Known combined method of mining where the upper horizons of the deposits have been mined in the quarry, and the lower open-pit and underground and underground layers [2].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of ability to work on the restoration of the surface in underground development of deposits.

Known for the way the river is tivali land [3], including the formation of a soil layer, characterized in that the soil layer is formed by introducing into the soil after the preliminary borovany complex mixtures of plant species oligotrophic nature with a wide ecological range, using a mixture consisting of three major groups of plant species or their substitutes.

Known method of land reclamation [4], including the formation of soil making in bare soil after preliminary borovany complex mixtures consisting of three major groups of plant species or their replacement, when replacement is to set the minimum weight of seeds of species in each group according to the formula: m=ga/2/b, where m is the minimum weight of the seeds, and the number of species in the group, g is the specific weight of seeds, b - number of species in group a real mixture.

A known method of reclamation of disturbed during mining lands [5], including the layout of the surface, making coal waste before plowing, seeding of plants and inoculation with strain with the sowing of the seeds of plants, the culture, take in the amount of 100-200 g/ha

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development [6], which includes a separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, processing career field and its expression is nivana in the overburden, placement of geotextile non-woven fabric of synthetic fibers, placement of grass seed and backfill soil at a depth of 50-100 mm, the surface of which is applied chemical improver.

A common shortcoming of these methods is the lack or difficulty of access to abandoned underground reserves after work on the restoration.

The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype is the way to develop the upper horizons of mineral resources [7], in which the development and subsequent excavation of the mineral produce of parallel trenches, the upper contours are separated from each other by a certain distance, and the dissection carried out step by step in-depth trenches with the notch mitrananda array public works in the direction to the centre to complete the merger in one pit to reach the final value of the effective depth of the excavation field, which take the underground workings polarisant in the direction from the outer sides of the trenches to the borders of the field.

The disadvantage of this method is long-term adverse ecological environment in mining areas due to the lack of the ability to work on the restoration of the surface when a failover left reserves underground.

the alignment of the proposed solution with the prototype and similar solutions, known from the existing art, allows to establish its compliance with the patentability criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

The task of the invention is the combination of processes of coal mining with the reclamation and preservation of access to stocks opened for further modification.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that during the laying breeds in open excavation from the ground surface to form an inclined trench to leave the open part of the exposed release layer in the sides of the excavation, which provides access and subsequent underground mining left the reserves and will be part of the site, and when reclaiming mines with reserves of coal, prone to spontaneous combustion produce isolation leave open part exposed out of the reservoir in the sides of the excavation, while doing enterogenous processing Nude output layer in the sides of excavations, and the flooding of reserve trenches of its sides formed from vodonepronicaemyj rocks.

The essence of the method is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the General top view of a mine field cut to reclamation.

Figure 2 presents a General view from above of a mine field cut after reclamation.

Figure 3 representation is a side view of a mine field cut after reclamation.

Figs.4-5 presents a choice of views from the side of a mine field cut after reclamation with insulation layers of clay mud and flooding of the trench.

Method of reclamation of open pit operations are implemented as follows.

At the open split trench 1 taking into account terrain, easy access of transport and ensure the mine pumping choose the place of burial site for the subsequent development of the reserves of underground and Visalia Board cut, rock of vysokogornogo side of the cut, the overburden from the sides, as well as fertile layer stack on internal waste dumps mine field 3, i.e. produce engineering reclamation (layout) 4, and then spend biological reclamation, together with the improvement of the basic inventory of the cutting trench.

At the conservation of the remaining reserves, prone to spontaneous combustion, the outputs of the layers is treated with antivirogram and isolate clay solution 6, and the flooding of the outputs of the layers 7 water 8 side of the trench 9 is formed from vodonepronicaemyj rocks.

The proposed method allows to reduce terms of land reclamation and to provide access to the opened inventory to practise their underground way.

Literature

1. Mining / Uposatha, Vgusakov, Aghapur, Gassoline, Wesoloski. - M.: Nedra, 1980.- P.14-15.

2. Combined method of mining. As the USSR №1439240, MCL. E21C 41/02.

3. The way land reclamation. RF patent №95113954, AV 79/02 Zarubin, S., L. F. Loginov, Ryzhuk NV and other 1995.08.03. Publ. 1997.10.10.

4. The way land reclamation. A. No. 95113954/13, AV 79/02. Zarubin, S., L. F. Loginov, Ryzhuk NV and other 1995.08.03. Publ. 1998.01.20.

5. Method of reclamation of disturbed by coal mining land. RF patent №94023111/15. Krasavin A.P., Kataeva, I., Vasiliev S.V. and other 1994.06.15. Publ. 1997.02.10.

6. The way to restore disturbed by surface mining. RF patent №96111633/13. Gerasimov V.M., Karasev SURDS, Rashkin AV 1996.06.07. Publ. 1998.04.27.

7. The way to develop the upper mineral horizons. RF patent №97101942. Atrashkevich A.A., atrashkevich VA and other

1. Method of reclamation of open pit operations, including the Department of topsoil at the opening of the mineral reserves and storage of rocks under development, the planning of open pit operations tab of rock and application of topsoil with vegetation recovery in accordance with the direction of land use, characterized in that during the laying breeds in open excavation from the ground surface to form an inclined trench to leave the open part of the exposed release layer in the sides of the horn is th generation, which provides access and subsequent underground mining left the reserves and will be part of the site.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when reclaiming mines with reserves of coal, prone to spontaneous combustion, is isolation leave open part exposed out of the reservoir in the sides of the excavation.

3. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the produce enterogenous processing Nude output layer in the sides of the mine workings.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the flooding leave the trench of its sides formed from vodonepronicaemyj rocks.



 

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