Column-type mass exchange apparatus
FIELD: column-type mass exchange apparatus for gas, oil, chemical and allied industries; low-temperature absorption of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus is provided with pipe unions delivery and discharge of gas and liquid, contact plates with passages for phases and packings located on bearing members above plates. Packings are located on bearing members above level on liquid on plates at free volume of(75-96)% and specific surface of (10-250)m2/m3. Adjacent members of packing layers directed towards plate surface are oriented towards liquid drainage. At least two crossing layers of packing are placed above each plate.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic resistance of apparatus due to reduced volume of liquid in packing; reduced gas velocity; reduced drop entrainment.
The invention relates to column mass transfer devices and may find application in oil and gas, chemical and related industries in the implementation of mass transfer processes for gas - liquid, for example, when the low-temperature absorption of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas.
Known column mass transfer device according to the patents of the Russian Federation 2102105, 2088297, 2102106, CL 01D 3/22 comprising a housing, a perforated grilles - contact plate placed on them by the heads, which increases the efficiency of mass transfer between gas and liquid. The disadvantage of these devices is the reduction of free space - living section of the contact plates nozzles located directly on them and overlying the holes for the passage of gas, leading to increased hydraulic resistance of the column of the apparatus and reduces its performance.
Known connecting device for vessels on the author's certificate of the Russian Federation 602203, 01D 3/20; BI No. 14 in which over contact plates installed bulk separation elements nozzles transversely to the direction of gas flow, which increases the hydraulic resistance of the gas and liquid streams.
Known apparatus for countercurrent contact of liquid with a gas according to the patent of Russian Federation №2119814, CL 01D 53/18 - protot is p, including the case, which established the contact device in the form of a perforated flops plates installed over them surround the nozzles, which is the additional mass transfer and separation zone. The disadvantage of these devices is the locking holes located in the Central part of the fluid flowing along the axis of the apparatus, where the distance between the nozzle and the plates is minimal, the inability to use these devices for vessels with large diameters (1000 mm and more). Disorganized drainage and lack of uniform distribution of the gas stream increases the hydraulic resistance of the device, reduces their productivity and efficiency.
The aim of the invention is to improve the efficiency of mass transfer and separation, the reduction of hydraulic resistance by stabilizing and alignment layer and gas-liquid flow on mass transfer device.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the column mass transfer apparatus containing fitting supply and selection of gas and liquid contact plates with channels for the passage of phase and located above the plates on poles surround the nozzle, the nozzle located on the support elements above the fluid level on the plates and made with the free volume (75-96)%, specific surface area of 100-250 sup> 2/m3; which are used as supports overflow partition plates and the adjacent elements of the layers of the nozzle facing surface of the plate is oriented in the direction of discharge of the liquid; a nozzle overlaps the overflow liquid, and over the host of the fluid installed at least two additional overlapping layer of the nozzle, and the distance from the plate with a liquid to additional layers of the nozzle is equal to or more than the distance between the plates.
The applicant and not known to the authors design column apparatus in which the efficiency of mass transfer and separation processes, increased productivity and reduction of hydraulic resistance was achieved in a similar manner.
1 shows a General view of the column of the apparatus with the contact plates and located above them regular attachments.
Figure 2 shows the packing layer in plan, adjacent to the contact devices.
The column mass transfer apparatus (Figure 1) consists of a body 1 including the lower part 2 of larger diameter to separate the raw materials, i.e. for contacting liquid and gas flows, and the top 3 of smaller diameter to contact the gas stream with irrigated liquid and(or) its separation and filtering.
The housing 1 is equipped with a fitting gas supply system 4 and the liquid 5, the fittings gas 6 and the liquid 7.
In the lower part 2 is orpus 1 posted by:
- mass transfer plates 8 with perforations 9 for the passage of gas and modulations 10 for aspirating after its contact with the gas;
- top mass transfer plate 11, which is irrigated by the liquid through the nozzle 5;
- regular nozzle 12, consisting of elements 13, is placed above the mass transfer plates 8 and 11. The elements 13 are oriented in the direction of the overflow liquid 10 (2);
- nozzle separation section 14, is placed over the nozzle plate of the liquid supply 5.
In the upper part 3 of the housing 1 is placed in the filtering section 15 to the drain pipe 16.
The column mass transfer apparatus operates as follows.
The liquid fed through the fitting 5 on the top mass transfer plate 11, where it is distributed by the perforated surface and is in contact in countercurrent to the ascending gas flow from it are extracted high-boiling components. The gas flow on a regular nozzle 12 are distributed uniformly over the cross section of the device, on the developed surface of the nozzle destroy the foam, which is formed in contact with light hydrocarbons with high molecular liquid, separating the liquid out of it, and then served on the separation nozzle 14.
Flowing in countercurrent to the gas, the liquid wets the regular nozzle 12 having a developed surface 100-250 m2/m3with a large free volume (75-96)%, auromere distributed over the cross section of the apparatus, freed from gas bubbles (escaped), then transferred to the canvas underlying plates. To reduce the hydraulic resistance of columns for gas liquid and foam layer are sent between the elements of nozzles oriented in the direction of the overflow, while the nozzle is located above the liquid level, which reduces the hydraulic resistance in its movement.
Performing the column mass transfer device with volumetric regular nozzles located above the fluid level on the contact plate, allows to reduce the hydraulic resistance due to the reduction of the volume of liquid in the nozzle, which is not compressible, and, consequently, decrease the speed of the gas and to reduce drip out. Additionally, the hydraulic resistance is reduced when the orientation of the elements of the nozzle in the direction of draining. The nozzle is irrigated foam layer and the liquid made contact with the plates, while the developed surface contributes to the destruction of the foam. The implementation of free volume nozzles (75-96)%, and specific surface area in the range of 100-250 m2/m3practically does not increase the resistance of the contact device, eliminates the "zahlebyvayas" nozzle for increasing the efficiency of the contact device. The increase in specific surface higher than the upper limit reduces the live matter what their nozzles and free volume, consequently, increases the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle and the removal of the liquid droplet. The reduction of the surface of the nozzle below the lower limit leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the nozzle, i.e. to decrease the effectiveness of mass transfer between gas and liquid.
The column mass transfer apparatus containing fitting supply and selection of gas and liquid contact plates with channels for the passage of phase and located on the support elements on the plates surround the nozzles, wherein the nozzles are located above the fluid level on the plates, made with the free volume of 75-96% when the specific surface area of 100-250 m2/m3and the adjacent elements of the layers nozzles directed toward the surface of the plates, oriented towards the drain, and above each plate is installed, at least two overlapping layers of the nozzle.
FIELD: methods of treatment of anaerobically decomposable materials, refuse or waste water; separation of carbon dioxide from other gaseous agents obtained at decomposition of organic materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming of reaction mixture containing anaerobically decomposable organic materials, application of electric potential to it and accumulation of gas. For obtaining of gas at high amount of hydrogen and low amount of methane as compared with gases formed spontaneously from said organic materials, use is made of intermittent generation of electric current at intervals dictated by content of hydrogen and/or methane detected in gas obtained from organic material.
EFFECT: increased productivity in hydrogen; reduction of time required for processing organic materials.
15 cl, 14 dwg, 11 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: simultaneous absorption of selected components of acid gas and topping light fractions of hydrocarbons entrapped by liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of gas flow and liquid flow to first mixer where they are brought in contact in direct flow and are subjected to turbulent mixing; then multi-phase flow from first mixer is directed to second mixer and after second mixer multi-phase flow is divided into gas phase and liquid phase. Second mixer has housing 102 with inlet hole 122 and outlet hole 123. Housing is provided with at least one movable control member 104 mounted hermetically; control member has central chamber for forming part of first wall connected with inlet side of housing and part of second wall connected with outlet side of housing. These parts of walls are provided with through passages 106A and 107B.
EFFECT: enhanced topping of entrapped hydrocarbons; increased absorption capacity by acid gas.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; other industries; spraying heat-mass exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the engineering realization of the heat-mass exchange processes, which take place in the gas-liquid system, such as absorption, chilling, dust-trapping, aeration, and may find application in the chemical industry and its adjacent industries. The body of the apparatus is divided by the partition into the contact and separating zones. Inside the contact zone there are the sprayers and the contact components. The apparatus is supplied with the drum installed in the contact zone with the possibility of rotation. On the drum there are fixed with the possibility of rotation the Т-shaped contact components. The T-shaped contact components are formed by the solid and mesh-type plates. The invention allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, and also to improve the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus, that increases efficiency of the heat-mass exchange process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, the improvement of the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus and the increased efficiency of the heat- mass exchange process.
FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; designs of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the design of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane by the method of the liquid-phase chlorination of ethylene with the reaction heat removal at boiling of the working medium. As the contact device the reactor uses two layers of the metallic nozzle. The liquid 1.2-dichloroethane is fed from above to the nozzle, into the space between the layers of the nozzle feed the gaseous chlorine with nitrogen, and under the lower layer of the nozzle feed the gaseous ethylene with nitrogen, that allows to reduce the diameter of the reactor in 1.5-2 times due to the increased effectiveness of stirring and formation of the developed contact surface of the phases. At that the heat of the reaction is removed by evaporation of 1.2-dichloroethane in nitrogen. At that the temperature of the liquid is maintained below the boiling temperature. The technical result of the invention is the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.
1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; metallurgy industry; methods of the wet ash-trapping with the help of Venturi tube.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the wet ash-trapping with the help of the Venturi tube intended for trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers burning the solid fuel, and also may be used for trapping of the cement kiln dust in production of the cement and for the dust trapping in the metallurgical, chemical and other industries, where the ash-and-dust catchers use the Venturi tubes. The purpose of the invention is to increase the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers with the Venturi tubes and burning the solid fuels as well as the reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam to increase the boilers efficiency by sprinkling of the Venturi tube with the flue gases transiting in it, the acoustic injector giving more thin and uniform atomization of the water at the decreased consumption both of the water and the steam of the sprinkler, where the acoustic field is characterized by the strictly determined frequency, intensity and the variable acoustic pressure and the steam is in the narrow temperature interval. The flue gases passing in the Venturi tube are sprinkled by the acoustic injector using the steam with the temperature of 250-350°С and forming in the volume of the tube the acoustic field, which is characterized by the frequency of 20-22, 36-38 or 44-48 kHz, the variable sound pressure of no less than 140 dB and the acoustic field intensity of no less than 0.5 W/cm2. The offered method, unlike the methods applied now, allows to act on the flue gases transiting in the Venturi tube simultaneously by several methods of deposition of the ash: - the acoustic method (coagulation - under action of the oscillations of the certain frequency, intensity and the variable sound pressure); humidification of the ash particles of ash in the steam-water aerosphere of the very finely sprinkled water with the full spectrum of the drops dimensions for all the sizes of the ash particles). This considerably increases the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and increases the efficiency of the boilers.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and the increased efficiency of the boilers using the solid fuel.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.
FIELD: wet dust collection; chemical, textile, food-processing and light industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrodynamic dust collector has housing with inlet and outlet branch pipes, reservoir filled with liquid and provided with level indicator, phase mixer consisting of inclined blades with partitions and two layers of twin concave plates which are symmetrical relative to axis of apparatus, one central plate and sludge removal unit. Vibrator located in upper layers of liquid is secured to housing by means of elastic perforated membrane; ratio of width "a" of inclined blades to width "b" of first pair of concave plates is equal to a/b=4.0-4.5; ratio of width "b" of first pair of concave plates to width "c" of second pair of concave plates is within optimal range of b/c=1.25-1.5. Vibrator is made in form of section inscribed in sizes or liquid reservoir.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability of dust collection process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: absorption, desorption, dust and gas separation, drying, mixing and cooling gases.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus has housing, cover, bottom, phase supply and discharge branch pipes, vortex contact device consisting of upper base, tangential plates, plate and separator, liquid distributors equipped with injectors and mounted on upper base of contact device. Horizontal disk-type partitions are mounted in height of tangential plates of vortex contact device. Horizontal disk-type partitions and upper base of vortex contact device are provided with circular slots in area of attachment of tangential plates. Circular shoulders are made on external and internal shears of disk-type partitions and on external shear of upper base of vortex contact device. Separator is made in form of truncated taper ferrule; diameter of lower shear of this ferrule is equal to 0.75-0.9 of inner diameter of vortex contact device. Number of vortex contact devices ranges from 1 to 3. Distance between upper base of vortex contact device and lower shear of separator is equal to 0.3-1.0 of inner diameter of vortex contact device.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat and mass exchange of vortex apparatus at high loads in gas and liquid phases.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas-processing industry; devices of the gasses scrubbing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the equipment of the gasses scrubbing and may be used in the devices for realization of the heat-mass-exchange processes. The foam mass-transfer apparatus contains: the vertical body (1); the gas feeding branch-pipe (2) and the gas withdrawal branch-pipe (3); the purifying liquid collector (4) arranged in the lower part of the body (1); the branch-pipe for the purifying liquid feeding (5) and the branch-pipe for its discharge (6); the gas-distribution contact device, which has been made in the form of the absorption plate containing one or several wire-meshes (7). The nipple 2 used for feeding of the gas for scrubbing is fulfilled passing through the lateral wall of the body (1) and the inlet of the branch-pipe (2) is deepened below the contact device into the below wire mash space (8), in which there is the jet filter, which activates the sprayer installed on the shaft of the body (1) of the apparatus with the outlet of the scrubbed liquid directed to the lateral walls of the body (1). The sprayer may be fulfilled in the form of the jet (9), for example the centrifugal jet, the rotating jet or the impinging-spray jet; the sprayer also may be fulfilled in the form of the set of the individual spray integral-torch jets installed around the branch-pipe (11) feeding the scrubbing liquid from the collector (4). The being scrubbed gas is fed in the branch-pipe (2) by the ventilator (12), and the scrubbed gas is withdrawn through the branch-pipe (3) omitting the drip-separator (14). At that the feeding of the scrubbing liquid into the branch-pipe (5) for sprinkling the wire-mesh (7)of the absorption plate and to the branch-pipe (11) of the sprayer of the jet filter is exercised by the pump (13). The invention ensures the effective operation of the foam mass-exchange apparatus.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the effective operation of the foam mass-exchange apparatus.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: gas washer comprises housing made of top and bottom sections, branch pipe for discharging the dusted gas, branch pipe for discharging cleaned gas, spry trap, spraying device, and plates with stabilizer. At least one of the plates is provided with the vibrator made in the form of peripheral or central section of the plates. The vibrator can be connected directly with the housing at the site of the plates and is made of a toroid.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry; chemical industry; petrochemical industry; metallurgy; mechanical engineering and other industries; devices for wet purification of gases from a dust and mechanical impurities.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to devices for wet purification of gases from a dust and mechanical impurities and may be used, predominantly for purification of the atmospheric air fed into gas-turbine installations, and also in power, chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, engineering and other industries. The device for wet purification of air contains a chamber with a tank of a working liquid, an air feeding and withdrawal air ducts, a drain branch pipe for a waste liquid and slime, a working liquid level compensator. Inside of the chamber there are additional feeding air ducts with formation between them of an exhaust air duct of a free space for passage of a purified air. The air intake openings of the feeding air ducts are communicating with the aerosphere, and their opposite ends are dipped into the working liquid. At that an intake opening of the exhaust air duct is located inside the chamber above the level of working liquid. The free surface of the working liquid between the air ducts is covered by layers of elements with a positive floatation made out of a material with a high surface wetting properties forming "a pseudo-liquefied layer", relocating of which in height in the sealed chamber net is limited by a gauze. On the ends of the feeding air ducts dipped into the working liquid there are openings of a small diameter for passage of the atmospheric air. As the working fluid is used a hygroscopic having a high fluidity at low temperatures liquid, for example, anti-freezing agent, a brake liquid, alcohol. In the chamber there are holes for overflow of the excessive working liquid from a tank into a sealed toroidal container. The sizes of the holes are smaller than dimensions of the elements forming "a pseudo-liquefied layer".
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase efficiency of purification and dehydration of air due to an intensification of a mass exchange between the gas and the liquid.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction materials industry; metallurgical industry; chemical industry and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a wet purification of dusty hot gases by a liquid acting in the capacity of the water-flushing agent, and also to the further use of the heated liquid. The invention may be realized in construction materials industry, chemical, metallurgical and other industries. The device consists of a body, the lower part of which forms a liquid collector, the located accordingly in the lower and the upper parts of the body connecting pipes for feeding and removal of a gas, a drop catcher rigidly fixed under a connecting pipe of the gas discharge, stages of the gas purification rigidly fixed in the body under the drop catcher. A stage of the gas purification includes a built-in nozzle consisting of the elongated elements fixed in the body and oriented by the big axis along the stream of a heat-carrying agent, a distributive lattice rigidly fixed on the body under the nozzle, a liquid feeding device rigidly fixed under the distributive lattice in the way, that apertures for the liquid feeding are oriented by a gas stream, an additional lattice mounted under the device of the liquid feeding and rigidly fixed on the body. The design has at least two stages of a gas purification made similarly. At that the body in the place of the two stages connection has external bins for the collection of the heated liquid, and has windows for passages of the liquid. The windows are located opposite to the bins. The gas purification stages are located vertically and connected among themselves by the connecting pipes linking the bins of the above located gas purification stage with the device of a liquid feeding to the beneath located gas purification stage. The invention allows to raise efficiency of purification of the effluent gases with simultaneous decrease of their outlet temperature and with the further use of the liquid heated during purification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the effluent gases purification with a simultaneous decrease of their outlet temperature and advantage of the further use of the liquid heated during purification.
FIELD: distillery industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with distillery industry, in particular with a distillation column. The distillation column contains mass-exchanging plates, each of which contains a panel with installed on it caps and guiding partitions, outflow and receiving tools. The column is supplied with a variable diameter cylindrical shell fixed to an edge of a mass-exchanged plate with its internal surface, at least three mounted perpendicularly to the panel supporting rods with adjusters. The guiding partitions are made in the form of mounted radially on the panel solid wafers, the length of which makes 0.62-0.91 of the panel radius. The outflow and receiving tools are made in the form of hollow cylinders. The supporting rods and the hollow cylinders of the outflow and receiving tools are installed coaxially to each other and placed one by one in the stagger order between the guiding partitions. At that the diameter of the upper edge of the cylindrical shell exceeds the diameter of its lower edge, and the height of the outflow tool is lower than the height of the upper edge of the shell and exceeds the height of the lower edge of an overlying shell from the panel. The invention allows to improve stability of operations of the device.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved stability of operations of the device.