Method for creating of protective coating for storage of fish product

FIELD: fish and fish-processing industry, in particular, processes for storage of fish and fish products by providing protective coating layer.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying film-forming compound onto surface of fish product; using main film-forming compound such as chitosan solution or solution of chitosan and copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid. According to another version, before applying main film-forming compound, surface of fish product is preliminarily treated with pectin solution or sodium alginate solution.

EFFECT: provision for producing of ecologically safe, biodegradable food film coats allowing storage time to be substantially increased and fish product qualities to be kept.

7 cl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to food and fish processing industry, and in particular to methods of preserving fish and fish products by coating a protective layer, and can be used to produce protective coatings for storage of food products in the meat, dairy, fruits and vegetables and other areas of the food industry and agriculture.

Known application of films of chitosan for surface treatment of seeds of grain crops by spraying method (U.S. Pat. PCT Int. Appl. WO 94033062 (1964); Chem. Absfr. 120:185428h), which increases parastemal seeds during sowing and protects plants from root rot.

Know the use of chitosan, including other polymers, polyvinylchloride film packaging materials to make them biodegradibility (U.S. Pat. Japan, Jp. 91143901 (1991), Chem. Abstr. 115:210574j), as well as the manufacture of containers made of polyolefins for food storage (U.S. Pat. Japan, Jp. 9300074 (1993), Chem. Abstr. 118:146577v.).

It is also known the use of chitosan as an amendment in the composition of the protective protein casings for sausages (see RF patent №2159551).

There is a method of storage of meat and meat products by applying a film-forming 1%aqueous solution nizkotoksichnogo pectin (A.S. No. 1695865) to preserve the color of the product and prevent shrinkage during storage.

In addition to the, there is a method of storage of fish products in alginate jelly, composed of sodium alginate, lactic acid, and calcium chloride (Zuikova, L.P. Freezing and storage of fish in alginate jelly. N-T Bull. Sri MCI, No. 1-3, L., 1957), but it is not embedded in the industry due to their unprofitability, the bulkiness and complexity of processing fish.

There is also known a method of applying a protective coating on the surface of frozen fish products to extend its shelf life (see ed. mon. The USSR №683705, class. And 23 In 4/10).

The disadvantage of analog is its poor processability due to a significant consumption of large amounts of water

The closest technical solution to declared adopted for the nearest equivalent is the prototype of the invention is a method of processing frozen fish polymeric composition containing an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the modifiers - acetylcellulose (TEV) or oxypropylation (OPT) - to accelerate the formation of the coating on the surfaces of the blocks of frozen fish (see ed. mon. The USSR №971209, class. And 23 In 4/10).

The process of obtaining protective coating and its application for fish products includes the following stages:

- preparation of 2.5-3.2-percentage aqueous solutions of PVA and 0.05 to 0.3%solutions modifiers;

- cooling solutions up to 2-3°C;

- fish processing (boxed and is in units) by the method of dipping (immersion) at an ambient temperature of 7-10° With and on the surface of the fish - minus 15°C - minus 18°With the formation of the coating on the surface of the fish is 12-15 C.

The disadvantages of the prototype are:

- non-food coating composition, which is due to artificial and chemical nature of the used for the film-forming polymers;

- the necessity of removing the coating from the surface of the fish before using it;

- the need to allocate additional material costs, aimed at ensuring the fire / explosion safety of the operations and processes associated with the use of alcohol and alcohol-containing components.

The present invention aims at eliminating the disadvantages of the prototype, including the reduction of material costs, simplifying and improving the efficiency of the method of forming a protective coating on the surface of fish products with a simultaneous increase of the shelf life and maintaining a higher physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of products.

This solved the problem of creating a simple and efficient (cost-effective) method of applying a film-forming composition on the basis of chitosan on the surface of the fish products to generate it environmentally friendly, biodegradable, food (edible) film coating with a longer shelf life of fish products the functions and simultaneous preservation of its quality.

This is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of forming a protective coating for the storage of fishery products by applying a film-forming composition comprising cooling the surface of fish products, in contrast to the prototype, as the main film-forming composition used solution of chitosan, with the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

chitosan0,5-4,0
acetic acid1,0-3,0
waterthe rest,

the process of applying is carried out at a temperature of composition and surface fish products not exceeding 4°±1°and -18°±1°C, respectively, and after his graduation from fish maintained at a temperature not higher than -15°S, mainly within 10-20 minutes, until the formation of a homogeneous outer layer of the coating.

In addition, this objective is achieved in that there is an option in which the film-forming composition further comprises a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid, the initial quantity of the copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid is chosen so that in the finished the main part of its total value was in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 wt.%.

One of the best is the fast variant of the proposed method, wherein before the process of applying the primary film-forming composition of the surface fishery products pre-treated with 0.5 to 5.0%aqueous solution of pectin or 2,0-5,0%aqueous solution of sodium alginate, with the aforementioned processing is carried out at a temperature (of fluids) not exceeding 4°±1°and after fish maintained at a temperature not higher than -15°S, mainly within 10-20 minutes, until the formation of a homogeneous outer layer. The most effective from the point of view of quality indicators and consumer properties of the coating, including its strength and durability, causing, in turn, longer periods of storage of fish products while maintaining its quality, is an option in which the processing solution of pectin or sodium alginate and application of the primary coating is realized by means of successive overlapping layers on the surface of the fish, for example, by rotation of the above-mentioned processing and application.

In all cases the coating are carried out either by immersing the fish in the film-forming composition, either by airborne irrigation fish above-mentioned composition, and pre-treatment solution of pectin or algae is ATA sodium are also either by immersing the fish in the appropriate solution, either by airborne irrigation fish appropriate solution.

In conditions of large-scale factory production, especially in marine conditions, immediately after the coating is in the process of keeping carry out a rinsing the surface of the fish by air flow with a temperature not higher than the temperature of the latter for a more rapid and quantitative formation of the outer layer of the coating.

To obtain a film coating compositions used known natural biopolymer is chitosan food, sodium alginate, pectin, and a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid, obtained by known methods.

Used biopolymers are not only biodegradable, which solves the problem of disposing of the packaging, but edible, i.e. no need to remove coating products, however, their use in food helps cleanse the body - the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides.

The formation of composite coatings allows you to combine the properties of various polymers to increase strength, improve the adhesion characteristics of the materials to impart bioactivity, Biodegradability, and other properties of the obtained film coatings.

Chitosan food derived from waste produced in the production of food products - shells of crustaceans (TU 9289-067-00472124-03), clinically tested, recommended for use in the food industry, as well as semi-finished product for production of biologically active additives (BAA). Films of chitosan is able to biodegradation under the action of soil bacteria under aerobic conditions without the formation of harmful degradation products.

Chitosan inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi, viruses, microorganisms, it can be used to preserve some foods, used in medicine, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics and agriculture.

In addition, it increases irestaurant packaging films and their separability from the product.

To enhance the antibacterial properties of chitosan, improvement of film formation and reduce blogophere products proposed to be used as complexing agents eliminat sodium, pectin and a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and cretonne easy acid (CPF).

Alginic acid and their salts used in food industry, medicine, biotechnology. They possess immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antimutagenic activity, antitumor, anti-sclerotic, antihistanine properties, promote the excretion of heavy metals and radionuclides without disorders of calcium metabolism, the rate shall ithout the function of the thyroid gland, because they contain iodine, improve carbohydrate metabolism, reduce blood lipids.

Pectin is widely used in food industry as a gelling agent. Deposited on the surface of the product pectin forms a smooth gel that prevents shrinkage. He has a bactericidal effect on pathogens of acute intestinal infections without suppressing the normal microflora of the intestine.

Copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid (part of the antiseptic "katapola" broad-spectrum permitted for use in food and riboobrabativayuschiy industry) used to enhance the antibacterial properties of chitosan.

Application for film formation, addition of chitosan solution, and solutions of polysaccharides of plant origin - of sodium alginate and pectin, can improve the process of film formation, since the formation of the gel film on the surface of the fish contributes to a more uniform application of chitosan coating to improve the protective properties of coatings, including anti-microbial and moisture retention.

In General, the method of forming a protective film coating provides:

- preparation of a 1-3%solution of chitosan in 2%acetic acid, water (1-4%-s) solutions of sodium alginate and pectin, chitosan solution - SPL (1:,5-1:0,1);

- processing of fish products with the cooled surface, such as frozen fish or frozen fish products, by immersion in solutions of biopolymers certain concentration or

- processing, such as smoked fish products, method of irrigation.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by the following examples of its implementation.

The proposed method was first implemented in pilot laboratory of innovative technologies and environmental problems processing hydrobionts of the FSUE "GIPRORYBFLOT in accordance with the developed technological instructions for the preparation of biopolymer solutions and processing of fish products protective coatings based on chitosan.

Example 1. Applying a film coating of chitosan on frozen fish products is carried out at an ambient temperature not higher than + 10°using air cooling machines.

The concentration of the prepared solution of chitosan - 3%, the surface temperature of the fish is not higher than minus 18°C.

Film coating is formed by a single - a triple dip fish in a solution of chitosan. One dive - 15-20 C. After each dive is blowing cold air to accelerate the formation of a film on the surface of the fish, conatel the Noah anchoring of the coating is carried out in a refrigerated chamber at a temperature of not higher than minus 18° C.

Example 2. Carried out under the conditions of example 1, but to film coating using a solution of chitosan is a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid in a ratio of 1:0,1, which increases the bactericidal action film on the surface of the fish.

Example 3. Carried out under the conditions of example 1, but on the surface of the fish glides comprehensive coverage, for which the fish is immersed in a 1-2%solution of pectin, blows cold air before the formation of the visible gelation on the surface, then 1-2 times immersed in a 1-2%solution of chitosan, followed by blowing cold air.

With this method of treatment produces a uniform smooth coating, the rate of its formation is increased.

Example 4. Is carried out under the conditions of example 3, but for comprehensive coverage use 3%solution of sodium alginate and 1-2%solution of chitosan.

This method of treatment improves the quality of the coating, to increase its bactericidal properties and reduce blogophere products during storage.

Example 5. Smoked fish products processed by the method of film irrigation.

Due to the high dynamic viscosity of a 3%solution of chitosan, which makes it difficult to spray, working solutions should be pre-diluted with water to a concentration of 1-2% and is cooled to a temperature not higher than + 5°C.

In other variations is the working solutions should be prepared immediately concentrations of 1-2% in advance.

Irrigation vertically oriented fish is followed by blowing cold air.

Example 6. Is carried out under the conditions of example 5, but the fish glides comprehensive coverage, which first made by irrigation with 1%tion solutions of pectin or sodium alginate, followed by blowing cold air before the formation of the visible gelation of the coating, and then a 1%solution of chitosan (twice) with blowing cold air until the formation on the surface of the fish tape.

Layer-by-layer coating provides a more uniform film on the surface of the product.

Protective properties of thin film coatings (examples 1-6) were evaluated during refrigerated storage in comparison with control, kept in factory package. Frozen fish were stored for 7 months, fish hot smoked 3 months.

Found that all used film solutions promoted water conservation products (on average, it is higher than 5-15%) compared with the control. The water holding capacity of tissues experimental fish were also better than in the control. Indicators of volatile nitrogen bases from frozen fish in all cases practically did not change during storage.

Microbiological indicators experienced fish products throughout the store remained below the level reg is mentiroso SanPiN (QMAFAnM - less than 101CFU/cm3other microorganisms not found).

Sensory evaluation of fish production showed that during storage remained good appearance and taste experienced fish products.

During storage of the processed film coatings fish products found that coatings based on chitosan allow to preserve the physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of products that help to increase shelf life.

1. Method of forming a protective coating for the storage of fishery products by applying a film-forming composition comprising cooling the surface of the fish products, characterized in that as the primary film-forming composition used solution of chitosan, with the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

Chitosan0,5-4,0
Acetic acid1,0-3,0
WaterRest

the process of applying is carried out at a temperature of composition and surface fish products - not exceeding 4°±1°and -18°±1°respectively, and after his graduation from fish maintained at a temperature of not higher than - 15°S, mainly within 10-20 min, to which is of uniform outer coating layer.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the film-forming composition further comprises a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid, the initial quantity of the copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and crotonic acid is chosen so that in the finished the main part of its total value was in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 wt.%.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before starting the process of applying the primary film-forming composition of the surface fishery products pre-treated with 0.5 to 5.0%aqueous solution of pectin or 2,0-5,0%aqueous solution of sodium alginate, with the aforementioned processing is carried out at a temperature (solutions)- not exceeding 4°±1°and after the fish is maintained at a temperature of not higher than - 15°C, mostly in the 10-20 min to form a homogeneous the outer layer.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the coating are carried out either by immersing the fish in the film-forming composition, either by airborne irrigation fish above-mentioned composition.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the treatment is carried out either by immersing the fish in the appropriate solution, either by airborne irrigation fish respective solution.

6. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the processing solution of pectin or sodium alginate and application of the primary coating is realized by means of successive overlapping layers on the surface of the fish, for example, by alternating the above-mentioned processing and application.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that in the process of keeping carry out a rinsing the surface of the fish by air flow with a temperature not higher than the temperature of the latter.



 

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