Device for measuring adhesion qualities of road cover and pneumatic wheel in zone of contact with varying speed of movement and specific pressures on surface

FIELD: tool-making industry.

SUBSTANCE: device for measuring adhesion qualities of road cover contains supporting frame, imitator of tire with standard protector samples and their tightening weights, triggering mechanism. Supporting frame is made of telescopic sections entering one another with one central and two jointed swiveling side posts with possible fastening in T-like position. Posts contains extendible pins, holding the frame on the surface of road cover during measurements. Tire imitator and a set of flat tightening weights are combined in common body with water reservoir and dispensing mechanism for sprinkling it onto road cover. Spring engine for moving tire imitator is made with possible cocking thereof by manual drive through a reducer, is also equipped with controller of spring pre-tightness and variable-speed gear for movement speed and traction force of moving branch of pulley block. End of chain of moving branch of pulley block is held in variable-speed gear in accordance to required movement speed of tire imitator on road cover, determined by means of stopwatch with automatic enabling/disabling, performed simultaneously with start-stop of rotation of replaceable circular diagram of automatic recorder with dynamometer, built into immobile branch of pulley block and measuring the value of traction force.

EFFECT: possible measurement of forces of sliding friction and friction of rest in longitudinal and transverse directions of motorway road cover in tire contact zone.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to means functioning of the transport complex: driver - vehicle - road by controlling each of the constituent elements of the established standard of road safety. A significant number of accidents (traffic accidents) associated with a lubricity coating of roads and streets, quality tires, designs braking device, and the driving skills of the drivers-drivers.

The traffic police (GIBDD) and forensic technical examination in order to identify the causes and culprits must produce instrumental measurement of CFU-f was. clutch at the scene of an accident.

However, in traffic (road Rules) are governed by the regulations on the values of deceleration for vehicles of different weights, only with speed start braking at 40 km/h, whereas modern rolling stock is of high dynamism and in the vast majority of traffic accidents, braking from a speed of 100 to 150 km/hour or more.

The coupling ratios of the qualities of roads, both newly constructed and in operation, regulate the amount of CFU-f was. clutch along roads with speed not exceeding 60 km/h.

While CFU-f was. clutch roads in the transverse direction of the coating, providing stability and the UE shall awsomest cars when performing maneuvers on the turns, cornering, overtaking and other, not measured and is not standardized at all, which does not ensure the requirements of road safety.

Statistics of accidents found that 75-80% of their cases is caused by the human factor - drivers. When driving to the most dangerous to the managing impacts include braking process of the vehicle, especially with high speeds and in demanding driving conditions: rain, icy conditions, contamination of the surface of the road, sheets, extrusions soil, snow cover area and other So many designs of cars provides redundancy and automating the process of braking through the use of anti-lock braking system ABS, providing optimal braking process even inept driver.

The main function of the ABS is to avoid braking ″Hughes″, i.e. the sliding of the wheel on the road surface, the friction force which is measured in the determination of CFU-f was. longitudinal clutch currently available devices. Length of trail braking ″Hughes″ when an accident is a major artifact, the size and nature of which is intermittent, continuous, etc. - technical expertise defines the technical condition of the car, driving ability of the partners and at fault accidents. However, vehicles equipped with ABS (and with 01.0.2005, all cars must be produced with ABS) in good condition it on the road when braking should not leave traces ″Hughes″. The serviceability of the ABS can only be determined by measuring the amount of friction forces rest in the contact between the tire and the road, the value of which of the available instruments for measuring the CFU-f was. grip road surfaces are not measured.

The absence of instruments to objectively monitor the actual values of CFU-f was. clutch does not ensure objectivity of all subsequent proceedings of the circumstances of the accident to establish the perpetrator and the defendant for compensation for material damage, its administrative or criminal responsibility in accordance enacted Law on compulsory insurance for all car owners. Given the existing number of car owners in Russia - more than 24.5 million at the rate of annual increase of 1.0 million in the last 7 years and 200-250 thousand accidents annually, waves avtostrahovka ″tsunami″ will be covered in the near future all the legal institutions of the state.

As a prototype made the invention as. SU 1730327 A1 ″a Device for estimating the coupling qualities pavements″.

Functional prototype units have a number of disadvantages, not allowing the measurement of CFU-f was. clutch throughout the range of the actual speeds start braking as possible MSE of the awn movement simulator bus 5 with the counterweight 13 is limited by the speed of free fall, composite cargo 8, not more than 9.8 m/s2or 36 km/h.

In addition, the counterweight 13 is not possible to simulate specific pressure on the samples of friction in the simulator bus 5 in accordance with the actual load on each of the axles of the vehicle (trailer). The friction conditions in the simulator bus 5 is limited or dry the surface of the road, or pre-moistened watering from a watering machine before, then it is impossible to create real conditions and the thickness of the film of water on the floor during its hydration jets falling rain causing aquaplaning effect - full pneumatic separation of the wheel from the road surface.

The spatial design of the support frame 1 in the form of a rigid triangle, which contains a functional prototype units do not satisfy the terms of portability and features at the lowest linear size measurement to perform on the largest possible extent covering the road, especially in the cross-section of the roadway, because the surface of the road under the left and right wheels of the vehicle has (track roadway) of CFU-f was different. clutch under the influence of operational factors, which creates a difference forces the rolling resistance of the wheels, the emergence of torque when braking, resulting arise drifts vehicle emissions him to strip the stre─Źno movement and other the phenomenon of loss of stability and control.

The result of the invention is the technical possibility of objective measurement of actual values of the forces of friction and peace in the longitudinal and transverse directions covering the road in the zone of contact of the tyre (samples of her protector) in a wide range of speeds and specific loads (axial weight)that take place during the operation of land transport, particularly cars, modeling of these forces in terms of dry or dozirovannogo moisture covering the road with the assessment of their compliance with normative values of CFU-f was. clutch of the Rules of maintenance and operation of roads.

The aim is also portable layout functional units measurement tools, since the determination of the actual values of CFU-f was. clutch is required in the preparation of the Protocol on the event of an accident (and the regulations on the implementation of the judicial technical expertise is prohibited the use of tabular data of CFU-f was. clutch in the scene, as well as judges are not allowed to take tabular data into account in the judicial processes of the accident), which involves the massive use of the device by inspectors of police, commissioners avtostroy companies, technical experts, road masters and technical services the ski road maintenance and other, performing their official functions by moving to the place of accident by car or motorcycle with a sidecar.

The essence of the invention, these objectives are achieved by the fact that, to ensure the portability of the support frame is made of telescopic dvigausciesya one another partition with a Central and two hinged on the hinge side racks can be mounted in the T-shaped position, racks contain retractable spikes to secure the frame on the surface of the road surface when performing the measurements.

To extend the speed range of the simulator bus on the surface of the road in accordance with the actual speed and the braking start of modern high performance vehicles, propulsion samples friction spring made with pre-adjustable preload springs in combination with multi-stage variable-speed drive torque of the drive and the speed of linear movement of the simulator bus on the surface of the road.

The platoon spring propulsion is manually driven through the reduction gear and the driven clutch to connect or disconnect it from the drive, which ensures independence from other energy sources in addition to the muscular effort of the contractor's measurements.

The real stresses in the contact zone simulator coated roads are created by a set of weights etc the cargo depending on axial load transport and air pressure in the tires, combined in one unit with water tank and mechanism dozirovannogo irrigation zone of friction simulator bus to cover the road that allows you to simulate a water film on the surface depending on the intensity of rain in the time of the accident.

Potential thrust force accumulated spring propulsion when his platoon is recorded on a removable paper chart in 5 or 10 kgf on the dynamometer, combined with a recorder and a built-in fixed branch of the polyspast, while the disk mounting diagrams embedded in the mobile branch of the polyspast and starts its rotation simultaneously with the beginning of the motion simulator of the tire to cover the road.

During this movement of the force engine thrust required to overcome the frictional forces in the contact zone simulator bus and covering the road, which is registered by the recorder at a paper chart.

Simultaneously with the rotation of the chart recorder automatically turns on and stopwatch that records the travel time of the simulator bus on the floor and turns on when you stop, which allows to determine the actual speed of the simulator in km/h.

In working condition, the frame of the meter is fixed on the sections where measurements are performed using the sliding pin inside the support legs of the frame in its transport to the ohms position, that eliminates the possibility of displacement under the influence of reactive forces and ensures that the multiple measurements to obtain an average value.

Structurally, "Measuring..." contains such components and parts:

Figure 1 is a top view of the meter;

Figure 2 - top view -"-;

Figure 3 - view of the regulator of the preload spring propulsion;

including:

1 - the area covering the road;

2 - the bus simulator;

3 - stud fixing frame of the meter on the surface of the road;

4 - pedal descent simulator tire;

5 - sliding-pillar frame;

6 - pin dowel fixing frame of the meter;

7 is a block sheave pulleys and bracket securing it to the rack:

8 - pin spring propulsion;

9 - screw Golovnin controller preload spring;

10 - the threaded portion of the outer casing spring propulsion;

11 - clip-lock of the first sliding frame;

12 - -″- second-″- -″-;

13 is adjustable along the length of the part of the mobile branch of the polyspast;

14 - variable speed and thrust force of the movable branch of the polyspast;

15 - the elements of the sliding sections of the frame;

16 - mobile branch of the polyspast;

17 - drive-compensator length of the bending branches of the polyspast with replaceable paper chart recorder;

18 - stopwatch;

19 - dynamometer with recorder;

20 - hinged front frame;/p>

21 - hook trigger device simulator tire;

22 is a handle for carrying the simulator tire with weights the weights;

23 - body simulator tire;

24 - regulator moisture regime of the area of the friction surface on the road;

25 - reservoir water;

26 - steel tape platoon spring propulsion;

27 - fixed block-"- -"- -"-;

28 - the outer body spring propulsion;

29 is a bracket fixed block spring propulsion;

30 - loop fastening the hinged rack frame;

31 - traverse for mounting components and parts;

32 - stationary branch of the polyspast;

33 is a cross mount folding rack frame;

34 - spring;

35 is movable block tape platoon spring propulsion;

36 - absorber block;

37 - reducer platoon spring propulsion;

38 - arm drive gear with the shaft;

39 is a bracket arm;

40 - coupling;

41 - pulley ribbon winding spring propulsion;

42 - flat dumbbell set weights simulator tire.

The operation of the meter is in the transport position, the meter is transported in the trunk of any car or stroller motorcycle, because it consists of two places: a frame attached to it functional units and unit simulator tire, consisting of a body 23 and a set of flat weights 42 in it. From eritel is placed on the surface of the road, on which you want to perform measurement of CFU-f was. clutch and depending on its type: longitudinal or transverse frame of the meter is oriented along the road pavement or across track lane.

Retractable hour 5 extends to the desired length of the zone of measurement and locked into position by the clamp sections 11 and 12. Folding rack frame 20 is disposed to the sides, forming the letter T, and in this position automatically stopped special vypiluj in the loops. Using metal an extension and a hammer, a few strokes on the end cap pins 6 hammer spikes 3 in asphalt concrete pavement, fixing the position of the frame from possible displacement when exposed to reactive forces. In the case of measurements on a cobblestone pavement or cement slabs cover, spikes driven into the gaps between the stones or slabs, and to secure sufficient fixing frame two spikes in any combination. Then the handle 22 take the bus simulator, the casing 23 which has a bottom U-shaped tunnel along the length, the width of which is somewhat larger cross-section most of the thick section of the frame. At the same time existing in the tunnel spring courses fix equidistance location of the simulator in the original position on the thinnest section of the frame, and the vertical height of the U-shaped tunnel in the building the e slightly greater than the height of all the lower pipe sections of the frame in its working position all pins fixing clogged in the road surface that provides a smooth bearing simulator bus with a fixed samples tread only on the surface of the road.

Simulator tire set U-shaped tunnel on the thinnest section of the lower part of the frame 15 and which was inspired by the designs of the tread of the tire 2 on the floor highway 1, then the movement to the rack 5 hook 21 of the housing 23 is introduced into engagement with the hook pedal descent 4.

From the housing 23 is removed unnecessary (in terms of measurement, respectively, required by the specific weight in kg/cm2according to the available space samples tread tires) of flat weights, and the remaining number of them must be the same in the left and right pockets of the housing 23. Then the regulator moisture regime 24 that opens automatically with the beginning of the motion samples protector) establish necessary in the task of measuring the position (the height of the water film at a rain intensity according to the information of meteorological services at the scene of an accident) and in the stock tank 25 pour water from portable containers (cans).

The flexible part of the working body, made in the form Malcocinado chain of twisted oblong or cylindrical zvenyu circular cross-section, perform starting with fixing the motionless branches of the polyspast 32 to the rolling element di is nomera 19, on the second end of which is also movable, fixed a writing device in the form of a marker holder or rapidograph (ball capsules do not provide the reliability of fixation), exchangeable for other colors for clarity, repeated measurements on the same place (usually at least three).

Bending branch of the polyspast 16 zapasowa by block 7 in accordance with the arrows on figure 1-2 or diagram in the instructions for life, and variable along the length of the branch 13 is fixed in the corresponding stream of variable-speed drive 14 according to the desired speed of movement of immitator bus to cover highway 1. Making sure that the clutch 40 is in the "on" position and connects the pulley variator 14 with gear 37, rotation of the handle of the cocking spring 38 lead mover in its working position, accumulating potential energy. The magnitude of this energy is controlled by the readings of the dynamometer 19 and scratches-marks on removable paper chart recorder 17 in 5 or 10 kg.

The accumulation of energy, the value of which corresponds to the weight of the set of weights 42 in the imitator bus 23, further platoon spring stop 34. If the weight of the set of weights exceeds the amount of energy fully cocked spring 34, use the pre-compression by screwing Golovnina 9 in the threaded portion 10 of the outer casing spring mover 28.

Work spring propulsion is based on reducing the length of the steel (or composite) tape, branches which are located on both sides of the spring 34 located inside the outer casing 28 through the entire height of it to the threaded part 10. Below the threaded part in the special slots attached to the body of one of the belt ends and a middle portion of it is in non-primed condition of the spring 34 rests on the movable rotating unit 35, which is fixed in the slot of the stop of the inner rod 8 on which rests the lower part of the spring 34. The second end of the tape is moved through the rotating, but still block 27 and is fixed to the pulley 41 of the CVT 14. During the rotation of the arm cocking 38 and the gear 37 of the tape wound on the pulley 41, the length thereof is reduced and the resulting reactive force compresses the spring 34, nakaplivaya potential energy of compression.

Making sure that all preparations are made in accordance with the regulations and in the working area of the meter on the surface of the road there are no foreign objects or limbs serving people the clutch operator 40 moves to the position "disconnected", then force the final energy values cocked spring 34 branches of the actuator 13, 16, and 32 are tightened and moving and rotating components and parts are kept alone only hook 21.

When the operator clicks the pedal is start 4 hook 21 is released, spring 34 expands and your inner rod 8 through the block 35 acts on the tape 26. Since one end of the tape is fixed to the housing of the propulsion unit 28 is stationary, and the second through the rotating block (but stationary) is connected to the pulley of the variator 41, the force of the wound spring down through her inner rod 8 with rotating and movable block 35 will be unwinding previously wound the tape and rotate the variator 14.

Because in one of the streams of the CVT 14 is fixed to the end of the chain bending branches 13 of the polyspast, the latter will nakativaetsa on the stream and move the housing 23 simulator tires with weights the weights 42 on the surface of the road. At the same time the reactive force displacement simulator on the floor of a highway through a fixed branch of the polyspast 32, which is structurally included dynamometer with the recorder 19, will be recorded on a paper chart 17.

To obtain a weighted average value of the friction forces of peace and power sliding friction simulator bus on the surface of the road at the scene of an accident, measurements are performed three times, without changing the position of the meter on the road, and on the same paper chart, but changing the color of the markers recorder for clarity, the measurement results.

The actual values of CFU-f was. clutch get the subsequent calculation of the relationship of average mn of the values of the tractive force, recorded on the recorder to the value of the total weight of the weights in the simulator bus and values of its own weight, i.e. the pressing force of the simulator bus to the surface of the road.

Meter coupling qualities of the road surface containing the support frame, the simulator bus with samples protector and their weights, the trigger mechanism, characterized in that the supporting frame is made of telescopic, dvigausciesya one another partition with a Central and two hinged on the hinge side racks can be mounted in the T-shaped position, racks contain retractable spikes to secure the frame on the surface of the pavement when performing measurements, the simulator tires and a set of flat weights the weights in a common housing with the water tank and dispenser leak it on the pavement, spring mover to effect the movement of the simulator bus made with his platoon manual drive through the gearbox, equipped with a regulator of the preload spring and the CVT speed and thrust force of the movable branch of the polyspast, the end of the chain attached to the variator according to the required speed of the simulator bus road surface, measured by a stopwatch with auto on-off carried out simultaneously with the beginning of the end of rotation changeable to Lugovoi chart recorder with a dynamometer, mounted in a fixed branch of the polyspast and measuring the amount of traction.



 

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