Method for determining remoteness of sweat-fat hand mark

FIELD: control-measuring criminalistics equipment, possible use for determining remoteness of sweat-fat hand marks.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining remoteness of sweat-fat hand mark includes detection of mark, for example by means of dactyloscopic powder, photometry of image of papillary lines in all mark points, digitization of image of mark together with background surrounding it, construction of brightness histogram relatively to mark and relatively to background, determining of average quadratic brightness deviation relatively to mark and relatively to background, production of their relation and comparison to calibration curve produced using a test object.

EFFECT: increased precision when determining remoteness of mark.

7 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of measuring forensic technology and can be used to determine the limitations of education podozerovym traces hands.

The known method an approximate assessment of the limitations of the education track, identified by nitrate of silver, which consists in the fact that identified by this method trace papillary lines analyzed visually. While an evaluation of its accuracy and suitability for identification. In particular, in a dry, heated indoor track papillary pattern from a month ago is unclear, but remains suitable for identification within 3 months. Identification of nitrate of silver traces 5-6 month old does not give a clear picture (see Wearhow and other Fingerprint examination: current state and prospects of development. - Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house of Krasnoyar. University, 1990. - 416 S. (str-162)).

However, this method is subjective and has a low accuracy of the estimates.

Also known a method of analyzing image texture object, namely, that represent the image of the object in the form of the input matrix of numbers, each element of which corresponds to a level of intensity of the signal generated by the object. Choose the size of the window through which to view the input matrix of numbers, depending on the analyzed texture is bhakta, at least two times less the size of the input matrix numbers. The step of moving window set to the window size. Choose at least one texture feature characterizing the texture of the object, and determine the value of the selected texture characteristic for the initial position of the window, and then for all Windows. Break the interval of values calculated at least one texture characteristic of at least two putinterval and each pointervalue assign the code. Set for each window on the input matrix numbers belonging calculated values of the texture characteristic corresponding pointervalue and encode this calculated value of the texture characteristic code corresponding potential, resulting in the output matrix, each element of which corresponds to one window on the input matrix of numbers. Choose at least one symptom of a group of elements of the output matrix, with the same code, and calculate the value of the selected characteristic that identify the texture image of the object (method of analysis of the texture image of the object (see the patent of the Russian Federation 2105351, IPC G 06 K 9/68).

However, this method is not suitable for measuring ago leaving traces.

The closest is the way of establishing the relative long time the minute traces of papillary pattern, identified by the method of thermal vacuum deposition (TVD), namely, that identified by this method traces of papillary lines photometrate when moving the recording device across the display papillary lines. Then measured the amplitude of the curve, the resulting photometric measurements associated with contrast revealed traces, the frequency of the sinusoidal line associated with the information content of the traces, and the slope associated with the clarity of the edges of papillary lines. The relative remoteness of the track is determined from the specified amplitude: the traces of the older 1.5 months (javnosti) amplitude three times more than traces of older 2-3 hours (fresh) (see Wearhow and other Fingerprint examination: current state and prospects of development. - Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house of Krasnoyar. University, 1990. - 416 S.(str-162)).

However, this method has low accuracy, as analyzed not all image trace.

The objective of this method is to improve the measurement accuracy of the old trace.

This object is achieved in that a method of setting limitations otogirisou track arms includes identifying a trace, for example, using fingerprint powder, photomatrixovina display papillary lines at all points of the track, the digitization of the image footprint with OCD is concerned with his background, the histogram of brightness separately track and background separately, the definition of average standard deviation of the brightness separately track and background separately, obtaining their relationship and comparison with a calibration curve obtained using the test-object.

The originality of the proposed solution is to use the new technique of processing the video track, which is implemented by additional measurements of the luminance levels of the background region and the determination of the average standard deviation of the brightness separately track and background separately. A similar set of actions for establishing ago otogirisou track hands is not known.

The proposed method is illustrated by drawings:

Figure 1. Otogirisou trace of the finger detected by using fingerprint powder immediately after its abandonment.

Figure 2. Histogram of brightness levelsareas of the track (1) and background (2) to track identified immediately after its abandonment.

Figure 3. Image trace, detected fingerprint powder, after 20 min after its abandonment.

Figure 4. Image trace, detected fingerprint powder, after 65 min after its abandonment.

Figure 5. Image trace, detected fingerprint powder, 125 min after its abandonment.

6. Image trace, the detection of the frame fingerprint powder, after 245 minutes after they leave it.

7. The dependence of the average standard deviation of the brightness of a region of the trace, normalized by the average standard deviation of the brightness of the background area σsnfrom old track t in hours and its approximation.

The method consists in the following:

Mark identified the fingerprint powder and intended for determining the limitation of its abandonment, is translated into a digital image, for example, by scanning. When processing digital images from your computer and removes the color information, and stores only information about the brightness of each pixel in the image, which is recorded in the form of a matrix. The scanning resolution of the image, it is recommended to choose at 600 dpi, which is optimal for the transfer of parts of the structure of papillary pattern. To handle the track area of the selected image area containing papillary lines (figure 1), construct a histogram of the luminance levels of the trace (figure 2) and calculation of the mathematical expectation of the brightness of the trace μsand average standard deviation of the brightness of the trace σs. For image processing the selected background area opalennyj fingerprint powder, but not containing papillary lines, and similarly manufacturers is seeking a histogram of the luminance levels of the background and the evaluation of the expectation of the brightness of the background μ nand average standard deviation of the brightness of the background σn. To assess the limitations of the track uses the value of the mean square deviation of the brightness of a region of the trace, normalized by the average standard deviation of the brightness of the background σsn. Next, the dependence of the specified parameter σsnusing a test object having a surface, similar to the one at which the detected set trace, and in conditions close to the conditions of storage (aging) of the footprint found at the scene. To this end, a test object formed of experimental tracks, which after various time intervals are detected by processing the fingerprint powder (Fig.3-6). This trail is constructed of gauge dependence of the average standard deviation of the brightness of a region of the trace, normalized by the average standard deviation of the brightness of the background area σsnshown in Fig.7, which is approximated by the inverse exponential dependence. Knowledge of the coefficients of the relationship established experimentally using the test-object, allows to determine the duration of the trace.

To calculate the above values using the following theoretical site the links.

For image analysis otogirisou track finger is allocated a plot of land with size a×b, containing papillary lines, which is described by the matrix of the video image I(x, y) with cardinalitywhere h is the pixel size. Then, a grouping of elements of the matrix of the video image (pixels) by counting the number of pixels of the image miwith the 7th brightness value, and builds a histogram of the relative frequenciesfor 256 levels of brightness Iiregistered image I(x, y) (histogram brightness levels). The resulting histogram is bell-shaped appearance, characteristic of the normal distribution. The mathematical expectation of the brightness of the trace μsand standard deviation of the brightness of the trace σsis evaluated using equation (Gerasimovich A.I. Mathematical statistics. - Mn.: Enter. School, 1983. - 279 p):

where x and y are the coordinates of the trace.

For image processing the selected background area opalennyj fingerprint powder, but not containing papillary lines, sizes×d (figure 1), and similarly evaluate the mathematical expectation of the brightness of the background μnand average standard deviation of the brightness of the background σn .

Figure 2 shows the results of calculating the histogram of the luminance levels of the trace and backgroundnormalized by the maximum value ofwhen a trace was detected immediately after its abandonment (t=0, where t is the duration of leaving a trace).

To exclude the effects of conditions ledoobrazovanie and scan, on the value distribution of the brightness levels is the normalized mean-square deviation of the brightness of the trace σsassociated with prescription footprint, on the average standard deviation of the brightness of the background σnfrom old trail beyond. To assess the limitations of the track is selected the specified value average standard deviation of the brightness of a region of the trace, normalized by the average standard deviation of the brightness of the background σsn.

To determine the limitations of the trace is the experimental determination of dependence σsnfrom time t using a test object having a surface, similar to the one which discovered the analyzed trace, and in conditions close to the conditions of storage (aging) of the footprint found at the scene. To this end, a test object formed of experimental tracks, which after various interest the ramparts of time are detected by processing the fingerprint powder (Fig.3-6). Dependence is approximated by the inverse exponential function of the form

The knowledge of this dependence allows for measured values of brightness region of the trace, normalized to the brightness of the background area σsnto determine the prescription otogirisou track finger t. This can be used in the expression for t, obtained from the relation (3):

It is clear that the greatest accuracy in determining t this method can be obtained for the case when upon leaving a trace less than or slightly more than one hour, i.e. for the time interval, where the dependence of σsnmost pronounced.

Thus, the task of establishing the old trail can be approximately solved by obtaining video otogirisou track arms, processed fingerprint powder, pre-rendering and the establishment of criteria of quality of the track, with subsequent comparison with test images of the traces obtained under certain conditions.

The way of establishing ago otogirisou track arms, including the identification of trace, photomatrixovina display of papillary lines, characterized in that photometrate display papillary lines at all points of the track, about improvisat the image trace together with the surrounding background, build a histogram of brightness separately track and background separately, determine the standard deviation of brightness separately track and background separately, receive their attitude and compared with a calibration curve obtained using the test object, when this is chosen as the test object surface, similar to the one which discovered the analyzed trace, in conditions close to the conditions of the storage footprint found at the scene, and is formed on the test object experimental tracks, which after various time intervals detected by processing the fingerprint powder.



 

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