Electrochromic device and method of making electro-chrome device

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: electro chromic device has first substrate, which has at least one polymer surface, ground primer coat onto polymer surface, first electro-conducting transparent coating onto ground primer coat. Ground primer coat engages first electro-conducting coating with polymer surface of first substrate. Device also has second substrate disposed at some distance from first substrate to form chamber between them. It has as well the second electro-conducting transparent coating onto surface of second substrate applied in such a way that first coating is disposed in opposition to second one. At least one of two substrates has to be transparent. Device also has electrochromic medium disposed in chamber, being capable of having reduced coefficient of light transmission after electric energy is applied to conducting coatings. Electrochromic medium and ground primer coat are compatible.

EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; cracking resistance.

44 cl, 1 dwg

 

This application claims the priority of U.S. patent No. 09/978882, filed October 16, 2001.

This invention relates electrochromic devices comprising polymeric substrate materials. In particular, this invention relates to a plastic electrochromic devices used, in particular, as a transparent window areas and as aircraft Windows.

Electrochromic devices are well known in the prior art for use in various applications. Such electrochromic devices typically include a sealed chamber bounded by two panes of glass that are separated by a gap or space that contains the electrochromic medium. Electrochromic medium usually contains anode connection and cathode connection in one solution. Glass substrates usually contain a transparent conductive layers deposited on facing each other, the surface of and in contact with the electrochromic medium. Conductive layers on the two glass substrates are connected to electronic circuits. When a conductive layer is supplied electric current, the applied voltage is applied to the camera of the device electrically stimulates the electrochromic medium, which leads to discoloration of the environment. For example, when the excitation of the electrochromic medium it may begin to absorb light and dark is th.

Electrochromic devices are commonly used in devices of the mirrors used in cars. In this usage, you can embed the photo-cell electrochromic cell for detecting changes in light reflected by the mirror. When reflected by a given light level, for example, when the reflection of the headlights at night, the solar cell can be activated for the application of electric potential to the electrodes in the cell, which leads to color change electrochromic medium and causes a shading effect, due to which the mirror is obscured for the headlights.

Although electrochromic devices in most cases are typically used in the nodes of the mirrors, it was suggested that the use of such devices for other purposes in automobiles, for example, as glass windshields and Windows, as well as the transparent parts of other Windows, such as aircraft Windows and architectural Windows. For these various applications of electrochromic devices have been investigated the possibility of using various substrate materials. For example, it was proposed to include plastic as the substrate material in such electrochromic devices. However, the plastic substrate to create specific problems for electrochromic nodes, which are not peculiar to glass substrates.

For example, electrically conductive coating is usually I who are inorganic materials, which may well be linked with glass substrates. However, such coatings when applied to plastic substrates much more likely to create difficulties. The difficulties in the initial adhesion of the coating to the surface of the plastic substrate, and the preservation of the clutch after prolonged use, as well as cracking and delamination of conductive coating on the surface of the substrate.

Copolymers of acrylic acid and cyanoacrylate was used as a primer before connecting metal coatings on plastic substrates, and used the primer of the cross-linked polyurethane-based carbonation for adhesion of coatings of metal oxides with plastic substrates. A plastic substrate coated with metal oxides, are particularly useful for transparent parts aircraft Windows, because the coating of metal oxide is conductive, and easy to ensure melting of the ice and remove moisture from the transparent parts of the aircraft.

In addition, various known polymeric materials for use as electrochromic medium in electrochromic devices. Such polymeric electrochromic medium may include solvents or other components that are undesirable to react with the substrate material, create the Wai thereby problems for transparent electrochromic device.

Applying an electrically conductive coating on the plastic substrate for use in electrochromic devices creates problems for transparent parts. For example, the conductive coating can be provided by means of thin film layers on the substrate, caused by a process of high-temperature sputtering using a temperature, for example, about 500°C. However, the plastic substrate cannot withstand exposure to such high temperatures required for deposition. Thus, for plastic substrates must spraying at lower temperatures, which leads to a film coating having a lower conductivity. To improve the conductivity and improve the uniformity of the color switching, it is necessary to apply a thicker film. However, such thick films are more prone to defects in the film structure, such as cracking. As a result, when used in electrochromic devices are formed coating with inhomogeneous conductivity, which is undesirable. In addition, any discontinuities or cracks conductive film can open substrate material for the impact of the electrochromic medium and the underlying solvents.

In line with this, there is a need in electrochromic devices, which are made is of plastics material, which is easy to manufacture and which are resistant to undesirable cracking and failure.

This invention offers an electrochromic device, comprising: a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface; a primer layer on the polymer surface; a first transparent conductive coating on the primer layer, the primer layer concatenates the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate; a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form between them a chamber; a second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating is located opposite the second cover, at least one of the first and second coating is transparent; and an electrochromic medium, located in the chamber, while the electrochromic medium has a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, and electrochromic medium and primer are compatible.

One does not have restrictive embodiment, the substrate is a plastic and/or transparent materials.

This invention also provides electrochromic transparent portion, comprising: first and second spaced apart transparent substrate, forming between them a chamber, while the first and second substrates include first and second electrically conductive coating on the respective facing each other of the surfaces; and an electrochromic medium contained in the chamber, while the electrochromic medium has a lower light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second electrically conductive coatings to create an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, while the electrochromic medium contains electrochromic solution, dispersed in the polymeric matrix; at the same time, least one of the first and second substrates is a plastic, and at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coating bonded to a plastic substrate through the transparent primer composition, which is compatible with the electrochromic media is th.

The invention additionally offers the electrochromic device, comprising: a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface; a primer layer on the polymer surface; a first transparent conductive coating on the primer layer, the primer layer concatenates the first electrically conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate; a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form a chamber between them; a second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating is located opposite the second cover, at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, with at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coating is a coating made of two parts, containing the first electrically conductive portion deposited from a metal cathode, and a second electrically conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode; and an electrochromic medium located in the chamber, while the electrochromic medium has a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium.

This invention offers t is the train method of manufacturing electrochromic devices comprising: providing a first substrate having a polymer surface; providing a primer layer on the polymer surface; forming a first electrically conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate; providing a second substrate, at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent; forming a second electrically conductive transparent coating on a surface of the second substrate; placing the first and second substrates at a distance from each other, so that the first electrically conductive coating and the second electrically conductive transparent coating are located opposite each other to form a chamber between them; and ensuring electrochromic medium within the camera, and the electrochromic medium has a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, with a primer layer and an electrochromic medium are compatible.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, at least the first electrically conductive coating or the second electrically conductive coating containing a coating of two parts including a first electrically conductive portion, osazhdennyy metal cathode and second electrically conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode.

This invention also provides a method of manufacturing the electrochromic device, comprising: providing a first substrate having a polymer surface; providing a primer layer on the polymer surface; forming a first electrically conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate; providing a second substrate, at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent; forming a second electrically conductive transparent coating on a surface of the second substrate, at least a first electrically conductive coating or the second electrically conductive coating includes a coating of two parts, containing the first electrically conductive portion deposited from a metal cathode, and a second electrically conductive the portion deposited from a ceramic cathode; placing the first and second substrates at a distance from each other, so that the first electrically conductive coating and the second electrically conductive transparent coating are located opposite each other to form a chamber between them; and ensuring electrochromic medium within the camera, and the electrochromic medium has a reduced light transmittance upon application of electric is practical energy to the first and second conductive coatings.

For a better understanding of the invention below is a detailed description of the embodiment of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows the electrochromic device according to this invention, in the context.

This invention is directed to the creation of electrochromic device comprising two substrates, of which at least one is a substrate of polymeric material, for example, plastics material, or a substrate having a polymer surface. At least one of the substrates is transparent. Conductive coating attached to each of the substrates, and between the two conductive coatings on substrates are provided electrochromic medium. After the application of electrical energy to the coating electrochromic medium is set to an electric potential. Electrochromic medium includes dyes that change color, thereby altering the color of the environment when applied electrical potential. Color change changes the transmittance of light. If desirable, both substrates can be transparent with the formation of transparent electrochromic part, so that changes the light transmittance of the medium leads to a change of light transmittance electrochromic transparent part. For the best coupling conductive pok is itia plastic substrate material or a polymer surface and prevent unwanted interaction between the electrochromic medium and the polymer substrate, and exceptions thus undesirable cracking conductive coating and the polymeric substrate is used the primer.

Used here, the term "light transmittance" and "light transmission" means the full measure of the amount of light passed through the material, for example, the substrate or the transparent part. The magnitude of the transmittance of light in this specification are measured for light source And standard CIE. Used herein, the term "plastic" means organic, synthetic or processed material, typically a thermoplastic or thermosetting polymer with a high molecular weight, which can be extruded, cast, ekstradiroval, pulling or glued into objects, films or filaments (see Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (1974)).

In this invention, unless specified differently, all numbers expressing quantities, such as voltage, light transmittance, temperature, coating thickness and substrate, etc. used in the description and the claims, should be understood as modified in all instances by the term "about". Accordingly, unless otherwise stated to the contrary, digital options specified in the description and the attached claims, are approximate, which can vary depending on the desired characteristics of the subject provided the Yu with this invention. Finally, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should be construed, at least in the light of the given number of decimal places and using normal rounding rules.

Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters that define the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical values given in the specific examples, are probably accurate. However, any numeric value inevitably contains a certain margin of error, rezultiruja of deviations from the standard during the respective testing measurements.

The electrochromic device according to the invention shown in figure 1. In private, without restrictive embodiment of the invention shown in figure 1, the electrochromic device is an electrochromic transparent part 10. Electrochromic transparent part 10 can be used as any type of transparent parts, known from the prior art. For example, electrochromic transparent part 10 may be a transparent part of car glass, such as windshield, side glass, back glass or sliding roof; architectural glass, such as Windows of buildings or open top light; or a transparent part of the aircraft, such as Windows sa is she or window of the cockpit. It is assumed that although this invention is described as applied to a window nodes may also use other electrochromic sites, such as, but not limited to, rearview mirrors and side view of the vehicle, as will be described in more detail below.

The electrochromic device 10 includes a first transparent substrate 12 and the second transparent substrate 14. The substrate can be made of any material known in the prior art for use in electrochromic devices, such as, but not limited to, polymeric materials, glass materials, etc. At least the first substrate 12 or second substrate 14 is made of a polymeric material or contains a polymer coating on it. No restrictive ways to perform such substrates made of polymer material include a monolithic plastic or laminated material having a plastic surface. In no restrictive embodiment of the invention shown in the drawing, the substrates 12 and 14 shown in the form of a monolithic plastic layers. Although the description of the invention is applied to a plastic substrate, it is understood that the invention is not limited to this, and in the practical implementation of the invention can use any material as the material is oblozhki, until one of the substrates is a polymer material or includes a polymer surface layer. In one embodiment of the invention, in which one of the substrates is glass, the glass substrate may be monolithic glass layer or a layered material, which forms a glass surface.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, one of the substrates is a plastic, and the other substrate is glass. For example, the outer substrate may be glass, and the inner substrate may be plastic. This arrangement is particularly useful for applications in the glass of the vehicle, in which a plastic inner liner can prevent the rupture of the glass substrate when the glass is broken.

It should also be noted that the supply of electrochromic transparent part 10, at least one plastic substrate can provide a significant reduction in weight. This reduction of weight is especially desirable when used in Windows, such as window units and aircraft, where weight reduction has a significant impact on the overall performance and efficiency of the vehicle.

In the electrochromic transparent part 10, according to this invention, the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14 are transparent and, i.e. have a light transmittance of more than 0%, for example, are materials having a light transmittance of at least 10%. Additionally, one or both of the first and second substrates 12 and 14 can be colored or shaded.

The plastic substrate electrochromic transparent part 10, according to this invention can be any polymeric material that can be formed in the substrate, as indicated here. No restrictive examples of polymeric materials used as substrates include polycarbonates, high, copolymers of urethane and carbonate, polysulfones, polyamides, polyacrylates, polyurethanes, polyethers, polyesters, polyalkene, polysulfides, polyimides and polyvinyl acetate. No restrictive examples of the substrate materials of polyesters include polybutylene terephthalate and polyethylene terephthalate. No restrictive example of the used substrate material from the polysulfide is polietilensorbit. No restrictive example of the used substrate material from polyalkene is poly(4-methyl-1-penten). No restrictive examples of the materials used for the substrate of polyacrylates include polyalkylacrylate and polyalkyl(meth)acrylates, such to the to biaxial oriented stitched polymetylmetacrylate (also known as pulling aklilu) and cast acrylics. No restrictive examples of the materials used for the substrate of polycarbonates include polycarbonatediol, bisphenol-A-polycarbonate, ester polycarbonate and polyester polycarbonate. Other non-exhaustive nature of the sample substrate includes monomers CR-39® company PPG Industries, Inc. (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), which is diethylene glycol bis(allylcarbamate).

It is clear that the thickness of the substrate may vary within a wide range depending on their application. Typically, extruded acrylic substrate has a thickness of from 0.125 to 1 inch (3-25 mm) for many applications. Polycarbonate has usually a thickness of from 0.001 to 1 inch (0,025-25 mm) for most applications. It should be noted that the invention is not limited to the thickness of the substrate, and the substrate may have any thickness.

As shown in the drawing, the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14 are located at a distance from each other and essentially parallel to each other to form a chamber between them. This arrangement preferably is provided with spacer elements 16. The spacer elements 16 can be positioned between the substrates in any way, ensuring the preservation of the required distance and the sealing between the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14. One does not have restrictive version of you is filling up the invention, the spacer element 16 passes through the perimeter of the electrochromic transparent portion 10 near the outer edges of the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14 with the sealing, as is known from the prior art. While it is not necessary, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the spacer element 16 may be located slightly inward from the outer edges of the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14. This arrangement provides a slight overhang the edges of the first and second substrates over the spacer element 16, which may open part of the first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20, the description of which will be described below, to improve electrical contact. The spacer element 16 may be made of any electrically insulating material, such as, but not limited to, polymeric material. One does not have restrictive embodiment, the supporting element 16 is curable organic polymeric material such as thermoplastic, thermosetting or curable under the action of ultraviolet light polymeric material. In another, without restrictive embodiment, the spacer element 16 may be epoxy based organic sealing material.

Electrochromic medium 22 is contained in Utri camera, formed between the first substrate 12 and second substrate 14. Electrochromic medium 22 may be a material of any type known in the prior art, and may be of any shape, such as, but not limited to, the electrochromic solutions, semi-solid materials, etc. Electrochromic medium 22 includes dyes that define the color. Such materials are well known in the prior art for coloring in progressively darker colors or shades as application of a higher voltage to the transparent part 10. One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention shown in the drawing, a voltage is applied to the electrically conductive coatings 18 and 20 by means of the tire 24 and 26, which are located along at least part of the periphery of the transparent portion 10 and provide electrical contact with the coatings 18 and 20, respectively. Bus 24 and 26 can be made of any material with a high conductivity, is typically used to perform tire and is widely known from the prior art. No restrictive examples of materials for tires include a metal foil, for example, copper foil, a metal coating, for example, a gold coating, and conductive metal-containing ceramic paint, such as silver ceramic paint.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, this staining between States with applied electric voltage and without application of an electrical voltage is samostirayuscheysya, i.e. electrochromic medium 22 can be switched between the electrochromic active state in which the electrochromic medium 22 is painted after application of electric potential, and electrochromic not activated state, in which the electrochromic medium 22 is automatically returned or erased its not colored state when removed electrical potential.

In another without restrictive embodiment, the electrochromic medium 22 is switched and not Samothrace, so that the application of the electric potential causes the coloring electrochromic medium, and the electrical environment remains in the colored state until the electrical potential is changed to the opposite.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the electrochromic medium 22 is electrochromic medium in the solution phase, in which the material in the electrolyte solution with ionic conductivity, remains in solution in the electrolyte during the electrochemical recovery or oxidation (including gel). In another without restrictive embodiment, electrochromatic 22 is electrochromic medium, with the holding surface, in which the material is attached directly to the electrode electronic conductivity or withheld in its immediate vicinity, remains attached or deducted by electrochemical recovery or oxidation. In another without restrictive embodiment, the electrochromic medium 22 is electrochromic medium with electric deposition, in which the material in solution in the electrolyte with ion conductivity, forms a layer on the electrode and electronic conductivity in the electrochemical recovery or oxidation.

Although this is not necessary, electrochromic Wednesday 22 may include at least two compounds including at least one anodic electrochromic compound and at least one cathodic electrochromic compound, with the anode connection is oxidizable material, and the cathode connection - recoverable material. After application of electric potential to the electrochromic medium, the anodic electrochromic compound is oxidized, and a cathodic electrochromic compound simultaneously restored. Such simultaneous oxidation and reduction leads to a change in the absorption coefficient of at least one wavelength in the visible spectrum of light. The combination of the anode and atomnogo electrochromic compounds in electrochromic medium 22 sets the color after application of electric potential. As is well known in the prior art, such cathodic electrochromic compounds are usually referred to villagename dyes, such as anodic electrochromic compounds are usually referred to phenazine dyes.

Electrochromic Wednesday 22 may also contain other materials, such as solvents, setpagetitle, light stabilizers, heat stabilizers, antioxidants, thickeners, viscosity modifiers, and similar materials.

The solvent used in the electrochromic medium can be any suitable solvent known in the prior art. No restrictive examples of solvents include cyclic esters such as propylene carbonate, isobutylparaben, γ-butyrolactone, δ-valerolactam and mixtures thereof. One does not have restrictive embodiment, the solvent is propylene carbonate.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the electrochromic medium 22 includes electrochromic solution, which contains the anodic electrochromic compound and a cathodic electrochromic compound, mutually distributed in the polymeric matrix. Such polymeric matrix can be a polymer matrix of any type known in the prior art. Such polymer matrix usually sod is rat polymers, having reactive functional groups that are covalently crosslinked with the formation of compounds with bridging connection. Although this is not necessary, such a polymer matrix can be formed by crosslinking polyols with compounds having isocyanate groups, which is formed of polyurethane polymer matrix. No restrictive examples of electrochromic solutions, distributed in such polymer matrices are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 5679283, the content of which is included in this description.

The first substrate 12 and second substrate 14 is provided with each layer of electrically conductive material on facing to each other surfaces. Namely, the first conductive coating 18 is located on the surface 28 of the first substrate 12 and the second conductive coating 20 is located on the surface 30 of the second substrate 14 so that the cover 18 and 20 are located opposite one another, i.e. coating located on the inner surfaces of the chamber formed by the substrates 12 and 14. The first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 can be any material which is well connected with the surface of the substrate is resistant to corrosion to any materials within the electrochromic device, as well as in the atmosphere, and has good electrical conductivity. Additionally, in one embodiment, the imp is the implementation of the invention, in which the electrochromic device is an electrochromic transparent part of the cover 18 and 20 are essentially transparent to visible light. The first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 can be made of the same or different materials, including, for example, tin oxide, indium oxide-tin (ITO), tin oxide doped with fluorine (FTO), tin oxide doped with antimony, ITO/metal/ITO (IMI), as well as any other materials known from the prior art.

The conductive coatings 18 and 20 may be applied using any of the well known ways, including pyrolysis, chemical deposition from the vapor phase and magnetron sputtering in vacuum. The first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 can be made of the same or different materials. Without limiting this invention, the coatings used in this invention include electrically conductive glass coated alloyed with fluorine-tin oxide offered by the company PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the name NESA®", and an electrically conductive glass coated with indium oxide-tin offered by the company PPG Industries, Inc. called "NESATRON®".

It is clear that some of the coating cannot be used for polymer surfaces or substrates. Namely, application of technology, which require high temperature the tour, cannot be used for coating polymeric substrates, because the increased temperature leads to melting or other deformation of the substrate. The temperature at which the polymer substrate can be coated without negative impact on the substrate depends on the substrate material. It is believed that the coating technology using pyrolysis cannot be used for coating a polymeric substrate.

According to one non-limiting variant of the invention perform the first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 have a surface resistivity in the range from 1 to 10 Ohms per square, for example, in the range from 2 to 5 Ohms per square. In addition, the thickness of the first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 may be the same or different from each other, and the thickness of the coating may be uniform or nonuniform. Although this is not necessary, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the first and second conductive coatings 18 and 20 is made of a covering material and have essentially the same uniform thickness in the range from 300 to 30000 Åfor example, from 1000 to 28000 Å.

The attachment of conductive coatings to glass surfaces is usually carried out using deposition of magnetic sputtering, which are well known in the prior art. When applying the and polymeric substrate or substrate, having a polymeric surface, such deposition processes typically require the formation of thick films to ensure good conductivity of the film surface. However, such thick films are more prone to cracking.

Although this is not necessary, to improve the adhesion between the conductive coating and the surface of the plastic substrate (or substrates, including polymeric coating or layer), you can use the primer between the conductive coating and the substrate. For example, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, in which the substrates 12 and 14 are both plastic, the first primer layer 32 can be located on the surface 28 between the first coating 18 and the first substrate 12 and the second primer layer 34 can be located on the surface 30 between the second cover 20 and the second substrate 14, as shown in the drawing. Any primer composition can be used as a primer layer for adhesion of the layer of conductive coating to a plastic substrate. Additionally, in the particular embodiment of the invention, in which the electrochromic part is the transparent part, primer layers 32 and 34 are essentially transparent to visible light.

It should be noted that the electrochromic medium and plastics the new substrate may include materials, which interact with each other, so this adversely affects the appearance and/or the parameters of the transparent part 10. For example, the electrochromic medium may contain a solvent and/or polymer matrix, which reacts with the plastic substrate. Such a solvent and/or polymer matrix can lead to swelling or cracking of the plastic substrate, causing unwanted electrochromic properties of the node, such as a matte finish, and can lead to cracking of the conductive coating of the transparent part. To prevent this, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the electrochromic medium and the primer are compatible. In the present description the expression "electrochromic medium is compatible with the primer material" means that the components of the electrochromic medium and primer do not interact with each other so as to adversely affect the appearance of the transparent part 10, for example, without cracking and opaque, and/or on the parameters of the transparent part 10, such as optical distortion, defects and reduction of the quantitative change of the light transmittance of the transparent portion 10 between the excited and not excited States. In particular, in this particular embodiment, grunto the internal layer performs the function of the barrier layer, which prevents contact electrochromic medium with a plastic substrate and remains relatively neutral to the electrochromic medium. Thus, the primer helps with the adhesion of the conductive coating to the substrate and helps to eliminate unwanted interaction with the transparent part 10.

Not limiting the invention priming compositions that are compatible with the electrochromic medium can be selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxy acrylates, silicates of zirconium and mixtures thereof. A few do not have restrictive variants of execution, the primer may be (a) a polyurethane composition, such as cross-linked polyurethane-based carbonitrile; (b) acrylic composition, such as copolymers and tripolymer of alkylacrylate and acrylic acid, including (i) copolymers of cyanoacrylate and acrylic acid, (ii) copolymers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, (iii) tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, hydroxyethylacrylate and acrylic acid, and (iv) tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, or (C) of zirconium silicate, such as tripolymer alkoxide of zirconium, colloidal silicon dioxide and acrylation. Examples of such primer compositions are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4554318, 4609703, 5776548 and 5994452, with the holding of each of which is included in this description.

Another not having restrictive example primer for plastic layer or substrate is SiOx. For example, and without limiting the present invention, a layer of SiOxthickness from 100 to 400 angstroms can increase the adhesion of the transparent coating of the type specified above. A layer of SiOxit also serves as a barrier for containment of gases and liquid solvents, located on the floor, which is able to penetrate through the coating and prevent swelling or infiltration into the underlying plastic surface.

Because the primer may also contain a polymeric material, adverse interaction may also occur with a plastic substrate. Thus, one does not have restrictive embodiment, the primer composition is compatible with the electrochromic medium, and with a plastic backing to prevent unwanted interactions inside the transparent part. For example, the primer must be resistant to the solvents used in the plastic substrate.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, at least one of the substrates is a polycarbonate layer, the electrochromic medium contains a solvent of propylene carbonate and primer is the tsya crosslinked polyurethane-based carbonation.

The coatings used in this invention can be applied using a metal cathode or ceramic cathode, as is well known in the prior art. Conductive coatings that are applied using deposition processes using a cathode of a metal alloy, typically include morphology, which allows organic solvent to pass through the coating. In this organic solvent may chemically affect primer coating and/or a plastic substrate, causing swelling, expansion and sometimes cracking of the conductive coating.

Conductive coatings that are applied using deposition processes using ceramic cathode, usually include the high order structure and a large modulus of elasticity in comparison with the conductive coatings deposited from a metal cathode at the same temperature and thickness. Therefore, such conductive coating deposited from a ceramic cathode, are less porous and have a high chemical resistance in comparison with the conductive coatings deposited from a metal cathode. However, when applied to a plastic substrate, the thickness of the conductive coatings deposited from a ceramic cathode, must be controlled to minimize the compressive stress on the plastic the first substrate.

In particular, the voltage compression of conductive coatings is focused on coating thickness and depends, in part, on the deposition temperature, the difference in expansion coefficients between the substrate and the conductive coating, the coating thickness, the crystallinity of the coating and the elastic modulus of the coating. Thus, although the conductive coating deposited from a ceramic cathode, high crystallinity and a higher modulus of elasticity compared with the conductive coatings deposited from a metal cathode at the same temperature and thickness, such conductive coatings have also compressive stress, which is much more, for example, approximately three times greater than for conductive coatings deposited from a metal cathode at the same temperature and thickness. Higher compressive stress can lead to cracking and warping conductive coating and additionally can lead to the separation of the conductive coating from the substrate material and the primer. Cracking can further include electrochromic medium in contact and can interact with the primer layer and/or a polymer substrate, which in turn can lead to swelling of the substrate and further damage to the coating. Thus, to minimize stress in the coatings when used with plastic substrates, the woman conductive coating, deposited from a ceramic cathode should be limited. However, with such limited thickness, it is impossible to provide suitable conductivity. To resolve this problem, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, electrochromic conducting coating is a coating made of two parts, including a first portion deposited from a metal cathode and a second portion deposited from a ceramic cathode, with a coating thickness sufficient to protect any underlying layers. Layered coating provides the desired characteristics of the electrical conductivity necessary for electrochromic transparent parts, and also serves as a barrier layer that prevents chemical impact on the underlying layer, i.e. the primer layer or the polymeric surface of the substrate.

The first and second parts of the conductive coatings mentioned above, can be created in any order. For example, the conductive coating may include a first portion that is deposited from a metal cathode directly on the substrate or the primer above, and the second part, which is deposited from a ceramic cathode directly on the first part, so that it can be in contact with the electrochromic medium. In the alternative, the conductive pokretanje to include the first part, which is deposited from a ceramic cathode directly on the substrate material or on the primer, and the second part, which is deposited from a metal cathode directly on the first part, so that it can be in contact with the electrochromic medium. However, if there are doubts about the harmful chemical interaction between the coating deposited from a metal cathode, and the electrochromic medium, the coating deposited from a metal cathode, it is necessary to besiege the first, so that deposited from a ceramic cathode coating could provide some protection of the first coating.

One does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the portion of the conductive coating, which is deposited from a ceramic cathode has a thickness in the range from 100 to 1000 Å.

Additionally, the conductive coating is prone to cracking in the stretch mode at a voltage of 0.5% inch/inch, i.e. the coating can grow only 0.5% before cracking. Thus, a very small swelling of the primer composition can lead to expansion and subsequent cracking of the conductive coating. Chemical effect on the priming composition can be further reduced by ensuring that the density of the stitching primer I have is large enough to prevent any swelling of any solvent, which can penetrate through the conductive coating. One does not have restrictive embodiment, the density of crosslinking the primer composition of the lower molecular weight at one stapling 500 g/mol.

Thus, one does not have restrictive embodiment of the invention, the transparent portion includes at least one polymer substrate and primer layers, compatible with the electrochromic medium, in combination with a single layer or multiple layers of electrically conductive coatings. In another without restrictive embodiment, the transparent portion includes at least one polymer substrate and multiple layers of electrically conductive coatings are designed to prevent contact of the electrochromic medium with the polymer substrate. In another without restrictive embodiment of the invention, the transparent portion includes at least one polymeric substrate and a multilayer electrically conductive coating is configured to prevent contact of the electrochromic medium with a polymeric substrate, in combination with a primer composition that is compatible with the electrochromic medium.

Below is a description of the present invention in relation to not having hranitelno nature of the method of manufacture. In this way generate the first and second substrates, with at least one of these substrates is a polymer, such as a plastic or polymer comprising a layer or coating on it. One does not have restrictive embodiment, both the first and the second substrate is a plastic material.

Each of the substrates provided with a coating of primer on one of its surfaces. The primer can be applied on each surface of the substrate using any known techniques, for example, coating by spraying. It should be noted that you can use different techniques of application for each primer cover, and what type of technology coating depends on the type of substrate.

After that, the first and second substrates provide the first and second electrically conductive surfaces, respectively, on their priming the surface. The coating can be a single-layer coatings deposited using the technology of magnetic vapour deposition, or coating can be multilayer coatings, as mentioned above. In particular, the first and the second coating may include each of the first conductive portion deposited on the substrate using a metal cathode, and the second conductive portion deposited on the first conductive part with what ispolzovaniem ceramic cathode. Due to this, the conductive coating is formed in the form executed as a single unit or layered conductive coating, as mentioned above. As an alternative solution, the first conductive part can be precipitated using a ceramic cathode, and the second conductive part can precipitate on the first conductive portion using a metal cathode.

The first and the second substrate, including the conductive coating on their respective surfaces have a distance from each other, while the first conductive coating of the first substrate is opposite to the second conducting coating of the second substrate. During the manufacture of the first and second substrates can be kept at a distance from each other and opposite to each other using any known method, for example, by means of a frame. The first and second substrate supply spacer element around at least part of their perimeter. One does not have restrictive embodiment, between the first and second substrate at the edge of place stitched material to provide the desired distance between them.

Electrochromic medium capable of reducing the light transmittance upon application of electrical potential to the first and second conductive coatings, placed between the first and second is dlogtime, for example, by injection electrochromic medium through the material of the spacer element and between the substrates. Then electrochromic medium is subjected to curing, for example, by using heat.

In contact with the first and second conductive coatings include means, for example, bus 24 and 26, respectively. For example, the anode bus can be placed in contact with the first conductive coating and cathodic bus bar can be placed in contact with the second conductive coating. Provide conductors (not shown) for connecting each tire with a source of electric current. After the electrical energy to the tire, electrochromic the environment is electric potential, so that the electrochromic medium changes color, reducing the transmittance of light through the electrochromic transparent part.

Although the electrochromic device according to this invention, described above with respect to the electrochromic transparent part 10 includes a transparent substrate, a primer and an electrically conductive coating, in another not having restrictive embodiment, the electrochromic device is not transparent, so that one or more of its elements must not be transparent. For example, but without limitation of the present invention, the electrochromic condition the device may be electrochromic mirror, which includes an opaque reflective coating (not shown) along the surface 30 and 36 of the substrate 14. Such reflective coatings are well known to experts in the field of technology, and not having restrictive examples of such coatings include silver and/or chromium. In this configuration, the dimming electrochromic medium 22 will darken the reflection from the reflective surface, as mentioned above. It should be noted that in the embodiment of the invention in which the reflective coating is on the surface 30 of the substrate 14, the coating may be located between the substrate 14 and the conductive coating 20 (with ensuring the opacity of the substrate 14) or between the substrate 14 and the primer layer 34 (providing opacity as the substrate 14, and a primer layer 34). It should additionally be noted that in this particular embodiment, in which the reflective coating is on the surface 30 of the substrate 14, an opaque substrate may be, for example, metal or a polymeric material.

Below is a description of examples of the present invention, which illustrate the invention and should not limit the scope of the invention.

Example 1

A primer composition was prepared as follows: the oligomer from cyanoacrylate and acrylic acid was prepared in cyclohexane is not with 25% solids. Was added cross-linking agent is 2-(3,epoxycyclohexyl-5,5-Spiro-3,4-epoxy)cyclohexane-metadoxine for the reaction, at least 50% of the carboxylic acid groups.

The prepared solution was applied on one surface of the stretched acrylic plastic and subjected to curing at 198°f (88°). The plastic substrate, including the primer on one of its surface, was placed in a vacuum chamber, and on primed surface napisali a coating of indium oxide-tin (ITO), a metal cathode for providing a resistance of 10 Ohms/square.

The procedure was repeated for the second substrate.

The electrochromic device made of two layers of the plastic substrate from stretched acrylic-coated indium oxide-tin. Namely, the solution viologens of xylopyranose, dimethylbenzene, tetrabutyl of monitortypestate, propylene carbonate and polyester polyurethane was placed between the two substrates as electrochromic medium electrochromic device.

After application of the electric potential of 1.0 V to the conductive coating of ITO, the device is switched from the light transmittance of 65% to 1%. The device is then kept for 3 months and subjected to repeated testing. Although the device had a similar light transmittance were observed to have small cracks emanating from the hole at back the third conductive ITO coatings.

Example 2

A primer composition was prepared from 0.1 parts carbonitrile sold as KM-1667 firm Stahl Corp., 0.9 parts of trimethylolpropane and 1 part MDI sold as Mondur MR Bayer Corp. The final solution had a 10% solids in diacetone alcohol.

The prepared solution was applied on one surface of the two substrates of polycarbonate Lexan®sold G.E.Corp., and subjected to curing at 230°f (110° (C) within 4 hours. Primed substrates were placed in a vacuum chamber, and then on primed surface of each substrate was napisali conductive ITO coating with resistance 3-10 Ohms/square metal cathode.

It was made electrochromic device, as described in example 1 of the two coated substrates. When application of the electric potential of 1.0 In the device switched from 67% to 1% light transmittance. The device is then kept for 2 months and subjected to repeated testing. Although the device showed a similar range of light transmittance, in the conductive coating of ITO appeared small cracks.

Example 3

Primer composition for a stretched acrylic sheet and acrylic sheet Plexiglas®made of a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and acrylic acid was prepared from 25% solids in cyclohexanone. Was until the Allen cycloaliphatic diepoxide for the reaction, at least 50% of the carboxylic acid groups. Was prepared in a final solution of 10% solids.

Prepared a primer composition was applied to one surface of the substrate from stretched sheet of acrylic and acrylic Plexiglas®and was subjected to curing at 195°f (91°). Each primed surface napisali conductive ITO coating with a resistance of 3 Ohms/square metal cathode in a vacuum chamber.

Were made electrochromic device, as described in example 1, the prepared substrates from stretched acrylic and strips of Plexiglas®. When application of the electric potential of 1.0 V to the conductive coating, the device is switched from 62% to 0.1% light transmittance. The device is then kept for 3 months and subjected to repeated testing. Although the devices showed a similar range of light transmittance, in the conductive coating of ITO has a small hairline cracks and large cracks.

Example 4

Primer, prepared as in example 1 was applied on tanety acrylic and subjected to curing at a temperature of 190°F. On primed surface was covered with a layer of ITO with a thickness of 500 Å from a ceramic cathode. On top of this layer was applied to the ITO layer of the metal cathode to achieve a resistance of the pavement 2 Ohms/square. This procedure repeat the Riley for the second substrate from stretched acrylic.

Of the substrates was fabricated electrochromic device, as described in example 1. The device was switched with the light transmittance of 65% to 0.5% when a voltage of 1.0 C. After 3 months, the shift range has remained the same.

The device is then kept for 3 months and subjected to repeated testing. The device showed a similar light transmittance, and found no cracks in the ITO coatings.

Example 5

Primer composition prepared as in example 1, was deposited on two substrates acrylic plexiglass and subjected to curing at a temperature of 190°F. On primed surface of the substrate caused the ITO layer of the metal cathode to achieve a resistance of the pavement 2 Ohms/square. Then on top of this layer was applied a layer of ITO with a thickness of 500 Å from a ceramic cathode.

It was made electrochromic device, as described in example 1, including coated substrate. The device was switched with the light transmittance of 64% to 0.5% when a voltage of 1.0 V to the conductive coatings. The device is then kept for 3 months and was subjected to repeated testing. The device showed a similar light transmittance, and found no cracks in the ITO coatings.

Example 6

A primer composition according to example 2, was on the Esen two substrates made of polycarbonate Lexan® and subjected to curing at a temperature of 230°F. For each primed surface was covered with a layer of ITO with a thickness of 800 Å from a ceramic cathode. On top of this layer was applied to the ITO layer of the metal cathode to achieve a resistance of the pavement 5 Ohms/square.

It was made electrochromic device, as described in example 1, including coated substrate. The device was switched with the light transmittance of 68% to 2% when a voltage of 1.0 V to the conductive coatings. The device is then kept for 4 months and was subjected to repeated testing. In the ITO coating was not detected cracks and the shift range is not changed.

Example 7

A primer composition according to example 2, was deposited on two substrates made of polycarbonate Lexan® and subjected to curing at a temperature of 230°F. For each primed surface was covered with a layer of ITO of a metal cathode to achieve a resistance of the pavement 2 Ohms/square. On top of this layer was applied a layer of ITO with a thickness in the range of 200-1000 Å from a ceramic cathode. The thickness of the second layer was changed to examine the effectiveness of different thickness of the top coating.

It was made electrochromic device, as described in example 1, including coated substrate. The device was switched with the light transmittance of 62% to 0.2% privilegeny voltage of 1.0 V to the conductive coatings. The device is then kept for 4 months and was subjected to repeated testing. In the ITO coating was not detected cracks and the shift range is not changed.

Above was the description of examples of implementation of the present invention. It is clear that these examples are illustrative only. Many changes and modifications of the invention which are obvious to a person skilled in the art, are included in the scope of the attached claims.

1. The electrochromic device containing a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface, a primer layer on the polymer surface, the first conductive transparent coating on the primer layer, the primer layer is made to ensure adhesion of the first electrically conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form between them a chamber, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate located opposite the first electrically conductive coating, with at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent and at least one from the first and second conductive coatings consists of two parts - the first conductive part, asadena the metal cathode, and the second conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode, and an electrochromic medium located in the camera is able to acquire a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium.

2. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the first substrate is a plastic material.

3. The electrochromic device according to claim 2, characterized in that the first and second substrates are transparent and the primer layer is transparent.

4. The electrochromic device according to claim 2, characterized in that the second substrate is a plastic material.

5. The electrochromic device according to claim 2, characterized in that the plastics material is selected from polycarbonate, high, polyurethanes, copolymers of urethane and carbonate, polysulfones, polyamides, polyacrylates, polyethers, polyesters, polyalkenes, polyimides, polysulfides, and polyvinyl acetate.

6. The electrochromic device according to claim 5, characterized in that the primer layer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate, silicates of zirconium and SiOxand mixtures thereof and each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, OK the IDA indium-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI or mixtures thereof.

7. The electrochromic device according to claim 5, characterized in that the polycarbonate is selected from polycarbonatediol, bisphenol-A-polycarbonate, polyester, polycarbonate, complex polyester polycarbonate and diethylene glycol bis(allylcarbamate).

8. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said first and second substrates are transparent and the specified primer layer is transparent.

9. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the first and second substrates are transparent plastic material and the primer layer is a transparent primer layer, optionally a second transparent primer layer located between the surface of the second substrate and the second electrically conductive coating, bonding the second conductive coating with the second substrate, while the second primer is compatible with the electrochromic medium.

10. The electrochromic device according to claim 9, characterized in that the primer layer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate, silicates of zirconium and SiOxor mixtures thereof.

11. The electrochromic device according to claim 10, characterized in that each of these conductive by the of ryti selected from tin oxide, the indium oxide-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI or mixtures thereof.

12. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the primer layer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate and silicates of zirconium, or mixtures thereof.

13. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the primer layer is selected from cross-linked polyurethane-based carbonitrile, copolymer cyanoacrylate and acrylic acid, copolymer of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, hydroxyethylacrylate and acrylic acid, tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, and tripolymer alkoxide of zirconium, colloidal silicon dioxide and acrylation.

14. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the primer layer contains a cross-linked polyurethane-based carbonitrile and electrochromic medium contains polyurethane.

15. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that the electrochromic medium contains at least two compounds including at least one anodic electrochromic compound and at least one cathodic electrochromic compound, while the application of electrical potential to the electrochromic medium is simultaneously chislenie anodic electrochromic compounds and recovery of cathodic electrochromic compounds, which leads to the reduction of light transmittance.

16. The electrochromic device according to item 15, wherein the electrochromic medium is Samothrace.

17. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, wherein each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, indium oxide-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI or mixtures thereof.

18. The electrochromic device according to 17, wherein each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, indium oxide-tin, IMI or mixtures thereof.

19. The electrochromic device according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a highly reflective, opaque coating on the surface of one of the first and second substrates.

20. The electrochromic device according to claim 19, characterized in that the plastics material is selected from polycarbonate, high, polyurethanes, copolymers of urethane and carbonate, polysulfones, polyamides, polyacrylates, polyethers, polyesters, polyalkenes, polyimides, polysulfides and polyvinyl acetate, a primer layer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate and silicates of zirconium and mixtures thereof, and each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, oxide and the palladium-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI or mixtures thereof.

21. The electrochromic device according to claim 20, characterized in that at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is composed of two parts, containing the first electrically conductive portion deposited from a metal cathode, and a second electrically conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode.

22. The electrochromic device according to claim 19, wherein the opaque coating is located between the first or the second substrate and the respective first or second electrically conductive coating.

23. The electrochromic device according to claim 19, characterized in that the first or the second substrate is located between the opaque coating and the respective first or second electrically conductive coating.

24. Electrochromic transparent portion containing first and second spaced apart transparent substrate, forming between them a chamber, while the first and second substrates include first and second conductive transparent coating on the respective facing each other surfaces and electrochromic medium in said chamber having a lower transmittance of light while supplying the electric power to the first and second conductive coatings for the building electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, while this environment contains the electrochromic solution, dispersed in the polymeric matrix, at least one of the first and second substrates are made of plastic and at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is attached to the plastic substrate through the transparent primer composition, which is compatible with the electrochromic medium.

25. Electrochromic transparent part of paragraph 24, wherein the plastic substrate is selected from polycarbonates, high, polyurethanes, copolymers of urethane and carbonate, polysulfones, polyamides, polyacrylates, polyethers, polyesters, polyalkenes, polyimides, polysulfides and polyvinyl acetate, and the primer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate, silicates of zirconium and SiOxand mixtures thereof.

26. Electrochromic transparent part on A.25, characterized in that the electrochromic medium contains at least two compounds including at least one anodic electrochromic compound and at least one cathodic electrochromic compound and the application of electrical potential to the electrochromic medium causes the simultaneous oxidation of anodic electrochromic compounds and recovery of cathodic electrochromic compounds that Pref is the CIO to reduce light transmittance.

27. Electrochromic transparent part on p, characterized in that at least one of these electrically conductive coating is selected from tin oxide, indium oxide-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI and mixtures thereof.

28. Electrochromic transparent part of item 27, wherein at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is composed of two parts - the first conductive portion deposited from a metal cathode, and the second conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode.

29. The electrochromic device containing a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface, a primer layer on the polymer surface, the first conductive transparent coating on the primer layer, which links the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form between them a chamber, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate located opposite the first cover, with at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, at least one of the first and second electrically conductive coating is coated of the two the t, containing the first electrically conductive portion deposited from a metal cathode, and a second electrically conductive portion deposited from a ceramic cathode, and the electrochromic medium in the camera, can have a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, while primer is compatible with the electrochromic medium.

30. A method of manufacturing electrochromic devices containing the creation of the first substrate, having a polymer surface, application of a primer layer on the polymer surface, forming the first electrically conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, a second substrate, with at least one of these first and second substrates is transparent, the formation of the second electrically conductive transparent coating on a surface of the second substrate, with at least one of the first or second electrically conductive coating is formed consisting of two parts, containing the first conductive part, which precipitated from the metal cathode, and a second conductive portion which precipitated from a ceramic cathode, the location of the first and second substrates at a distance from each other is a, so the first conductive coating and the second conductive coating located opposite each other to form a chamber between them, ensuring electrochromic medium within the camera, and the electrochromic medium capable of having a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and primer layer and the electrochromic medium are compatible.

31. The method according to item 30, wherein the first substrate is a plastic.

32. The method according to p, characterized in that the first and second substrates are both transparent and primer layer is transparent.

33. The method according to item 30, wherein the first and second substrates are both transparent and optionally containing coating of primer material which is compatible with the electrochromic medium between the surface of the second substrate and the second electrically conductive coating.

34. The method according to p, characterized in that the first and second substrates are both transparent and the first and second primer layers are transparent.

35. The method according to p, wherein forming the first electrically conductive coating includes forming the first coating of two parts, the first conductive part, which precipitated the first padlock the metal cathode, and second conductive parts, which are precipitated on the first substrate from a ceramic cathode, and forming a second electrically conductive coating includes forming the second coating of two parts, the first conductive part, which precipitated the second substrate from the metal cathode, and the second conductive part, which precipitated the second substrate from a ceramic cathode.

36. A method of manufacturing electrochromic devices containing the creation of the first substrate, having a polymer surface, application of a primer layer on the polymer surface, forming the first electrically conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, a second substrate, with at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, the formation of the second electrically conductive transparent coating on a surface of the second substrate, with at least one of the first electrically conductive coating or the second electrically conductive coating includes two parts, the first conductive part, which precipitated from the metal cathode, and a second conductive part, which is precipitated from ceramic cathode, the location of the first and second substrates at a distance from each other, so that the first conductive coating and the second conductive PR is transparent floor are located opposite each other to form a chamber between them, and ensuring electrochromic medium within the camera, and the electrochromic medium capable of having a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings.

37. The method according to p, characterized in that the primer is compatible with the electrochromic medium.

38. The electrochromic device containing a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface, a primer layer on the polymer surface, the first conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, with a primer layer concatenates the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form between them a chamber, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating is located opposite the second coating, with at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, highly reflective, opaque the coating on the surface of one of the first and second substrates, the electrochromic medium located in the chamber, can have a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and create elektricheska the potential to the electrochromic medium, moreover, the electrochromic medium and primer are compatible.

39. The electrochromic device containing the first substrate, selected from polycarbonates, high, polyurethanes, copolymers of urethane and carbonate, polysulfones, polyamides, polyacrylates, polyethers, polyesters, polyalkenes, polyimides, polysulfides and polyvinyl acetate, a primer layer on the surface of the first substrate, the first transparent conductive coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, with a primer layer concatenates the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form a chamber between them, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating is located opposite the second coating, with at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, and the electrochromic medium located in the chamber, can have a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, and the electrochromic medium and primer are compatible.

40. The electrochromic device according to 39, differently the, what primer is selected from acrylates, polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate, epoxides, epoxyacrylate, silicates of zirconium and SiOxand mixtures thereof, and each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, indium oxide-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI and mixtures thereof.

41. The electrochromic device containing a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface, a primer layer on the surface of the first substrate, while the primer layer is selected from polyurethanes, urethaneacrylate and silicates of zirconium and mixtures thereof, the first conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, with a primer layer concatenates the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, a second substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form a chamber between them, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating is located opposite the second cover, at the same time, at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, and the electrochromic medium located in the chamber, can have a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive by the rythem and create an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, moreover, the electrochromic medium and primer are compatible.

42. The electrochromic device according to paragraph 41, wherein each of the first and second electrically conductive coatings is selected from tin oxide, indium oxide-tin, tin oxide doped with fluorine, tin oxide doped with antimony, IMI and mixtures thereof.

43. The electrochromic device containing a first substrate having at least one polymeric surface, a primer layer on the surface of the first substrate that is selected from cross-linked polyurethane-based carbonitrile; copolymer cyanoacrylate and acrylic acid, copolymer of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, hydroxyethylacrylate and acrylic acid; tripolymer of cyanoacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid, and tripolymer alkoxide of zirconium, colloidal silicon dioxide and acrylation, the first electrically conductive transparent coating on the primer layer of the first substrate, with a primer layer concatenates the first conductive coating with a polymer surface of the first substrate, the second a substrate located at a distance from the first substrate to form a chamber between them, the second conductive transparent coating on the surface of the second substrate so that the first coating raspolozhennuyu second coating, in this case, at least one of the first and second substrates is transparent, and the electrochromic medium located in the chamber, can have a reduced light transmittance upon application of electrical energy to the first and second conductive coatings and the creation of an electrical potential to the electrochromic medium, and the electrochromic medium and primer are compatible.



 

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FIELD: optical signals processing.

SUBSTANCE: device has serially place, along one optical axis, optical coherent radiation source, collimator, ultrasound light modulator, first integrating lens, screen, second integrating lens and line of n photo-detectors, n subtraction blocks, n threshold blocks, adder with weight coefficient, support signal generator, delay line and voltage generator.

EFFECT: lower time for determining photo-detector number with maximum effect.

2 dwg

FIELD: electro-optics.

SUBSTANCE: magneto-optical element provided plane of polarization rotator based on Faraday-effect is made o f single single-axis crystal. Rotator has domains of both orientations in all its stable state without applied external magnetical field. Limits of domains for switching to any other stable state are disposed to move when external magnetic field is applied without forming additional domains.

EFFECT: reduced time for switching domains; reduced sizes of switching elements.

13 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: fiber-optic and open digital and analog communication lines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method involves concurrent transfer of two optical data signals over optical communication line, their reception and comparison, and noise suppression. Optical data signals are shaped across output of nonlinear optical element by supplying at least one optical beam to element input and varying input power or phase, or frequency of one optical beam supplied to input of nonlinear optical element, or by varying electric or acoustic field applied to this element. In this way optical change-over between two unidirectional distributed and coupled waves propagating through nonlinear optical element is ensured. Each of these waves at output of nonlinear optical element corresponds to optical data signal. These data signals are supplied to differential amplifier designed for subtracting electric signals and/or to correlator which separates coinciding part of amplitude of these signals as function of time. As an alternative, optical data signals are shaped across output of tunnel-coupled optical waveguides of which at least one functions as nonlinear optical element.

EFFECT: enhanced noise immunity of line, eliminated impact of photodetector noise onto data signal reception.

33 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: element has Bragg phase grid, which is formed in electric-optical material or in additional layer applied to it. Grid is provided with means for forming non-homogenous non-periodic outer electric field along direction of optical radiation movement, by means of which diffraction efficiency of grid is determined. Optical elements system has at least two Bragg phase grids, having different periods and placed serially along direction of movement of optical radiation. System of optical elements is controlled by effecting on grids with non-homogenous non-periodic outside electric field.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 29 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device has reflector, means for producing image and optical system for projecting image on display, as light source a board with light diodes is used, light flows of which are concentrated on an optical system. Protector is provided with sensor of outer light level and connected to common current adjuster.

EFFECT: broader range of use, higher precision, lower energy consumption.

2 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: optical instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: electro-optic phase modulator has electro-optic chip, transparent electrodes and protective case. Transparent current-conductive electrodes are applied directly onto chip. Electro-optic chip provided with applied electrodes is flexibly fixed between protection glasses and is placed inside protective case.

EFFECT: simplified design; improved reliability.

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: magnetic device has variable magnetic field source which field is perpendicular to surface of magneto-optic material, and magnetic field source which field is oriented along gradient of magnetization of material. Magnetic field source which field is perpendicular to surface of magneto-optic material is made in form of transparent current-leading structures. One of conductors of the structure crosses center of light beam and the other one - along aperture of light beam in perpendicular to gradient of magnetization. Device permits to take control over location of optic vortexes within diffracted radiation and changes amount of information transmitted by light beam.

EFFECT: improved functional capabilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: multichannel optical commutator is made of two bunches of optical fibers, two collimators which have their focuses to place bunches' edges of, and light-guiding element mounted between collimators. As light-guiding element either mirrors or two acoustic-optical deflectors are used or their combination. Device allows to connect N users in series, which N user are connected to first bunch to S users which are connected to second bunch and visa versa and to conduct communication between users connected to one bunch.

EFFECT: units of fiber-optic assemblies and telecommunications can be made to provide speed of operation of channel switching within microsecond range and to provide number of switching channels up to 10000 at the same communication unit.

EFFECT: 21 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

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