Absorption-membrane installation

FIELD: refrigeration industry; heat-and-power engineering; other industries; production of the absorption- membrane installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the absorption- membrane installation, which ensures production of cold and heat energy working as the thermal pump by extraction from the strong solution of the refrigerant through the semi-permeable membrane under the pressure exceeding the osmotic pressure formed by the pump, the boiling of the refrigerant heated from the external source of the low-potential power at the low pressure with production of the refrigerating effect and absorption of the formed vapors by the weak solution of the refrigerant with production of the heat energy of the condensation and dissolution. The pressure under the membrane is maintained above the pressure of the refrigerant boiling at the environmental temperature. The expansion refrigerator is installed streamwise the refrigerant weak solution and behind the membrane block with usage of the mechanical power of the expansion refrigerator onto the drive of the pump and (or) on the drive of the booster-compressor compressing the vapors of the refrigerant till their mixing with the refrigerant weak solution and absorption. The invention usage will allow to expand the capabilities of the installation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the capabilities of the installation.

5 cl, 6 dwg

 

The plant can be used in refrigeration, air-conditioning, as well as in power plants and for heating objects.

Known bromine-lithium absorption refrigeration plant for the production of cold by singling out a weak solution of the refrigerant to boil it at low pressure to get the refrigeration effect and absorption of vapor formed a strong solution when placing the installation in the mine. The allocation of the refrigerant from the weak solution lead through palanimanickam the membrane under a pressure higher than the osmotic, which creates a water column having a height corresponding to the depth of the mine (see A.S. SU 1078216, 1984).

The disadvantage of this method is to limit its application only in the mine, only to receive a cold and only using the boiling of the cooling agent.

The closest analogue of the claimed invention is the absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat in the heat pump mode by selection of a strong solution of refrigerant through a semipermeable membrane under pressure above the osmotic created by the pump, and the pressure under the diaphragm is supported above the boiling pressure of the refrigerant at ambient temperature, the boiling point of the refrigerant is heated from an external source of low-grade energy, at low pressure, the Institute of obtaining refrigeration effect and absorption of the resulting vapor with a weak solution of refrigerant from thermal energy of condensation and dissolution (see patent US 4152901, 08.05.1979).

The objective of the invention is to expand the capabilities of the device.

This object is achieved due to the fact that absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat in the heat pump mode by selection of a strong solution of refrigerant through a semipermeable membrane under pressure above the osmotic created by the pump, and the pressure under the diaphragm is supported above the boiling pressure of the refrigerant at ambient temperature, the boiling point of the refrigerant is heated from an external source of low-grade energy, at low pressure with obtaining refrigeration effect and absorption of the resulting vapor with a weak solution of refrigerant from thermal energy of condensation and dissolution, according to the invention is equipped with an expander mounted on the flow of weak solution of the refrigerant after the membrane unit using mechanical power expander to drive the pump and / or drive the booster compressor, clamped a pair of cooling agent before mixing them with a weak solution of refrigerant and absorb.

The lower evaporating pressure of the refrigerant and the intensification of the process of absorption of the refrigerant vapor with a weak solution of the refrigerant is performed by the ejector, connected in series for flow of weak solution of the refrigerant in socialsim refrigerant vapors, mixing them with a weak solution of the refrigerant, the compression of the mixture, and the direction of the mixture drain.

The allocation of the refrigerant is carried out sequentially on a semi-permeable membrane at a pressure above the osmotic of the strong solution of the refrigerant of the first stage with increasing concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant and subsequent isolation of the refrigerant of high purity at a pressure above the osmotic second stage selection of the refrigerant.

The allocation of the refrigerant from a strong solution of refrigerant and increasing the concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant is carried out stepwise with the number of stages more than two.

The plant is equipped with additional absorption and membrane installation, in which successively the flow of the refrigerant vapor after boiling at high pressure, a heat engine to produce mechanical energy, a pair of refrigerant after heat engine absorbs a weak solution at low pressure when cooled, the refrigerant is heated in the process of boiling.

In the proposed installation, you can use different refrigerants in vapor phase and in the gas for heat energy of dissolution of the refrigerant in the absorbent material.

Figure 1 shows the absorption and membrane plant for cold and teplovodenergia in the heat pump mode.

The installation consists of a high-pressure pump 1, the membrane unit 2, control valves 3, 4, an evaporator 5, the absorber 6. The evaporator is connected consumer cold 7 and the absorber - heat customer 8. Restrictions on the installation location no. You can apply different cooling agents and absorbents.

The device operates as follows.

Preparation for work.

Picking checking and measuring, protective and regulating devices, evacuation and filling of the plant with a solution of refrigerant and absorbent material must be performed in accordance with the rules of technical operation of refrigeration units, depending on the applied cooling agent.

Start.

When closed, the regulating valve 3 and open 4 starts the high-pressure pump 1. Covering regulating valve 4, establish the necessary pressure of the strong solution of refrigerant over a semi-permeable membrane in the membrane unit 2. After the pressure over the membrane will be installed above the osmotic will begin the selection of the refrigerant from a strong solution of refrigerant. The refrigerant pressure under the membrane will increase with the accumulation of refrigerant under the membrane when the pressure of the refrigerant under the membrane reaches a pressure higher than the boiling pressure of the refrigerant at ambient is the temperature, that would mean that the cavity under the membrane is filled with liquid refrigerant, opens the regulating valve 3 and the refrigerating agent about to enter the evaporator.

After separation of the refrigerant at the outlet of the membrane unit 2 will be a weak solution of refrigerant and installed low partial pressure of the refrigerant, as previously, the installation was vacuumed.

The evaporator is connected to the absorber pipe, or the evaporator and the absorber are made in one body, so above the surface of the refrigerant in the evaporator will also install a low pressure at which the refrigerant will boil due to the heat absorbed from the consumer cold 7, absorbing the heat of vaporization of the refrigerant. Refrigerant gas entering the absorber 6, absorbed by the weak solution of the refrigerant, it releases the heat of condensation and dissolution of the refrigerant by the absorbent, which is used by the consumer of heat 8.

Regulation in the process.

The regulation is to maintain the pressure of the strong solution over the membrane above the osmotic and below the membrane to above the boiling pressure of the refrigerant at ambient temperature.

Figure 2 presents the absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat in the heat pump mode with the use of ejector 9 for additional downward pressure copenhagenthe and intensification of the absorption process.

Preparation of the installation work, commissioning and regulation are the same as in the setup presented in figure 1.

Connecting the ejector 9 allows the use of potential energy weak solution of refrigerant to lower evaporating pressure of the refrigerant through the suction refrigerant vapor ejector, in which a weak solution of refrigerant flows with high velocity from the nozzle to the diffuser in the form of liquid droplets. This is done by intensive mixing of the refrigerant vapor with drops of a weak solution of refrigerant that intensifies the absorption process. Further compression of the mixture in the diffuser of the ejector allows to lower the pressure, the boiling point of the refrigerant through the suction and lead the absorbance at the most low pressure absorption, since the area of contact of the vapors with a weak solution of refrigerant maximum.

Figure 3 presents the scheme of absorption and membrane plant production of cold and heat in the heat pump mode, using a two-stage allocation of the refrigerant, which allows to receive the refrigerant from trudnoreshaemyh solutions. In the first stage separation membrane unit 2 results in the release of refrigerant when the pressure of the pump 1 and the design of membranes, allowing you to allocate as much of the refrigerant. Then raise the pressure of the selected refrigerant is that the pump 10 and the diaphragm 11 to receive the pure refrigerant.

Start installation when closed and valves 3, 12. After starting the pump 1 valve 4 is set to the selection pressure of the refrigerant in the membrane unit 2.

After raising the pressure of the refrigerant in the pipe to the pump 10 and, respectively, in the membrane unit 11 to 3 above the pressure of vaporization of the refrigerant at ambient temperature opens the regulating valve 3 and turns on the pump 10, which creates a pressure above the osmotic over the membrane unit 11.

The allocation of the refrigerant under the membrane 11 is controlled by the regulating valve 12, so that it does not fall below the pressure of vaporization of the refrigerant at ambient temperature. The processes of boiling and absorption did not differ from the corresponding processes in the unit, shown in figure 1.

In the process of regulation is to regulate the pressure drop across the membrane units 2, 11. In the case of the use of the pump 1 with a pressure equal to the amount of pressure above the osmotic in membrane units 2, 11 of the pump 10 is not needed.

Figure 4 presents the scheme of absorption and membrane plant production of cold and heat in the heat pump mode with the use of multi-stage selection of refrigerant and absorbent. Multistage selection of refrigerant and absorbent is necessary to obtain very low boiling temperatures of the refrigerating agent is. The allocation of the refrigerant in a multi-stage installation does not differ from those described above. Two-stage selection of the adsorbent is performed without additional high-pressure pump. Use the pump 1. The material of the membranes 15, 16 must have opposite properties, i.e. to allocate absorbent and hold the refrigerating agent. The subsequent stages of selection of refrigerant and absorbent require additional pumps.

Preparation of the installation work, commissioning and regulation are the same as in the unit, shown in figure 3.

Figure 5 presents the scheme of absorption and membrane plant production of cold and heat in the heat pump mode with the use of the expander. As the expander can be used piston or rotary pump. The expander 18 allows you to return part of the energy spent in the pump 1 to the pressurization and pumping the solution through the membrane unit 2. Pump 1 and the expander 18 may be combined on the same shaft. The expander allows you to reduce the cost of energy to drive the high-pressure pump up to 50%.

Preparation of the installation work, commissioning and regulation are the same as in the setup presented in figure 1.

Figure 6 presents the scheme of absorption and membrane units produce mechanical energy in the mode of a heat engine. As is vegetale 19 can be applied steam reciprocating-engine or turbine. Purpose and principle components of absorption and membrane installation is not changed. The refrigerant in the evaporator 5 is at high temperature and pressure, and absorption in the absorber 6 is at low temperature and pressure. Temperature conditions of operation of the evaporator 5 and the absorber 6 are generated by an external heat source 21 and the external cold source 22. In the presence of low-grade heat source only as an external heat source can be used for more absorption and membrane installation (see Fig.7). In this case, the absorber 6 of thermal engine is combined in one unit with the evaporator 27 of the cooling installation, and the evaporator 5 of the heat engine is heated cooling medium after absorber 28 of the heating installation. In the presence of external sources of low grade heat and cold absorption membrane unit with a heat engine can operate from these sources.

Preparation for operation, commissioning and regulation do not differ from the processes described above.

Example 1. Installation can be accomplished according to scheme 1, using commercially available components. Consider theoretical absorption and membrane refrigeration and heating plants, collected on the basis of reverse osmosis plants "Sharia-M500", the serial is produced by SPE "Biotechprogress". Installation of "Sharia-M500 should be equipped with a reverse osmosis element for seawater SW30-2540. For operation of the reverse osmosis element necessary supply of raw water in the amount of 1.4 m3per hour at a pressure of 6.9 MPa, the yield of clean water 83 l/h. These parameters correspond to the setting of "Sharia-M500", which supplied water source the item from 1.0 to 1.35 m3/h when the pressure at the inlet to the high pressure pump of 0.15-0.3 MPa. To provide at the input of the high-pressure pump afflux of 0.15-0.3 MPa, it is necessary to provide pre-supply pump with a capacity of at least 1.0 m3/h at a pressure not less than 0.15 MPa. These conditions satisfy domestic pump Kama 10".

Installation can be applied to the design of the evaporator and absorber, similar in design to the evaporation-absorbing drum install the HUB 3, with a corresponding change in size.

Refrigerant - water absorbent is sodium chloride NaCl (table salt). As applied to refrigerant - water, the process is carried out in high vacuum. Installation is filled with a NaCl solution with a concentration of the same which is used for testing reverse osmosis elements SW30-2540 (3,5% solution), which corresponds to a salinity of 3.5 kg of NaCl in 100 kg of solution. By interpolation of tabular data "Physical with the STS of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride" is defined as the specific weight of the solution, which is equal to 1,024 kg/l at 15°C.

Table a vapor pressure above a solution of sodium chloride in mm Hg designated the vapor pressure in the evaporator and absorber.

We assume that the ambient temperature in the absorber is the same and equals +6°C.

The vapor pressure in the absorber at a temperature of 6°for specific gravity of a solution is equal to 1,024 6,86 mm Hg (by interpolation digits 6,88-6,82 table with a vapor pressure above a solution of sodium chloride, mm Hg). In the evaporator from the membrane unit in accordance with the scheme served refrigerant is distilled from the salt water. The degree of purification of 99.2-99.4 per cent.

The free surface above the solution in the absorber is much larger than the surface of the water in the evaporator, so in the evaporator above the water surface will be the vapor pressure of the absorber 6,86 mm Hg Excess water vapor formed in the evaporator (at the temperature of +6°With a vapor pressure 7,01 mm Hg), are absorbed by the solution in the absorber and the evaporator temperature decreases to a temperature of 5.7°that is the cooling effect.

The proposed design of absorption and membrane refrigeration idealizirovan not observed, because thermal pressure and the ratio of the surfaces of the evaporator and absorber. The performance of the membrane installation the refrigerant is 83 l (the g)/hour. Heat of vaporization of water at a temperature of +6°With equal 593,9 kcal/kg Cooling capacity installation 83×593,9=49293,7 kcal/h (57328,57 W).

Energy costs drive pumps:

The high - pressure pump. Maximum power consumption 3 kW.

- Feed pump Kama 10". Power consumption of 0.4 kW.

Total power consumption, without taking into account the energy consumption for the vacuum is 3.4 kW.

Refrigeration factor 57,328:3,4=16,8, the heat absorber when using setup mode of the heat pump using the installation as a heating unit 57,328 kW+3,4 kW=60,7 kW.

Example 2. Absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat with the use of jet device (ejector). Estimated scope - cooling air in plants processing meat and fish products with the temperature inside the workshop +12° - +15°and heated air from showers, locker rooms and drying to a temperature of +25°when the outdoor temperature +18°C.

Refrigerant - water absorbent is lithium bromide.

The setup diagram is shown in figure 2

The unit is manufactured from commercially available components.

Unit composition

1. The high-pressure pump, instrumentation, valves and auxiliary materials the performance communications devices are used from reverse osmosis plants "Sharia-M500", commercially available SPE "Biotechprogress". Source water feeding 1.4 m3/h at 0.15-0.3 MPa. The estimated yield of pure water 0,083 m3/h ≈7%, which corresponds to the conventional absorption systems. The pressure of the allocation process of the refrigerant - to 6.9 MPa. Maximum power consumption by the high-pressure pump - 3 kW.

2. Feed pump - Kama-10".

Technical data:

- Rated volumetric flow - 1.8 m3/h;

- Head - 2.0 m (0.2 MPa);

- Suction height - not more than 7 meters

The pump must be mounted below the absorber 5 m to ensure the necessary overpressure solution suction pump, as in the absorber vacuum.

3. Evaporator - air cooler company GUNTNER. Izhevsk. Tip/34.

The heat exchange surface is 340 m2.

Cooling capacity - 60,3 kW with temperature pressure 7°C.

Fans - 3 pieces of 0.91 kW.

The inlet of the refrigerant - ⊘28 mm

The output vapor - ⊘64 mm

4. The absorber. As the absorber, a cooler is used the same company the next size A/34.

The heat exchange surface is 369 m2.

Performance - 73,9 kW with temperature pressure 7°C.

Fans - 3 pieces-1,280 kW.

The apparatus is installed in an inverted position, in this case, are provided with appropriate accretion of the battle of the ia input and output sockets.

The entrance of the mixture of vapors and liquids - ⊘64 mm

The output of the strong solution of refrigerant - ⊘28 mm

5. The ejector. In the installation you can use the ejector WAS 25 OST 5.5033-71. The nozzle diameter (dc) reduced from 15.1 mm to 2.1 mm according to the calculation. The remaining dimensions of the ejector are saved in OST 5.5033-71. The flow area of the pipe connecting the ejector to the evaporator and absorber is selected by the nozzles of these devices.

At an operating pressure of a solution of 7 MPa and the vacuum in the absorber the nozzle of the ejector will work as a fuel injector of a diesel engine. The spraying of the solution allows to intensify the process of absorption of the refrigerant vapor and simultaneously regenerate the part of potential energy weak solution of refrigerant. Together this reduces the pressure in the absorber and in the evaporator.

In the nozzle of the ejector potential energy weak solution of (pressure of 7 MPa) is converted into kinetic energy. The speed of the liquid at the exit of the nozzle according to the calculation - 115 m/S.

In the technical literature there is no methodology for the calculation of ejectors for the above conditions.

The ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow of weak solution of the refrigerant with a kinetic energy of steam in the ejector refrigeration machine with regard to the operating temperatures, the temperature drop in the evaporator due to the use of ejector will be 3�B0; C.

Thermo-technical characteristics of the installation with the ejector,

Cooling installation

Qou=G·r,

where G is the amount of refrigerant evaporated in the evaporator - 83 kg/h

r is the heat of vaporization of the refrigerant at the boiling temperature of +6°593,9 kcal/h

Q5=83·593,9=49293,7 kcal/h (57,33 kW)

The cooler 071/34 has a capacity for refrigerant R22 - 60 kW with temperature pressure 7°that ensures the temperature of the air in the cooled areas +13 - +14°C, evaporating temperature 7°C.

The heat load on the absorber (condenser).

Q6=Q5+L

About6=57,33+4,5=61,83 kW

The heat of dissolution of the refrigerant is much less than the heat of condensation, so it is ignored.

Heat exchange surface and the performance of the device 081 A/34 selected reserve QaAB=73,9 kW.

Temperature the pressure in the absorber is the same as on the cooler 7°C.

Temperature absorption 18°C+7°C=25°C.

Refrigeration factor 57,33:3,5=16,38.

The energy consumption for operation of the fans to 6.57 kW.

Example 3. Absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat with the use of two-stage selection of the refrigerant and increase the concentration of the absorbent in the solution.

Two-step installation allows you to get low so is the boiling temperature value of the refrigerant. In this case, lowering the boiling temperature is achieved by increasing the purity of the refrigerant and by increasing the concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant.

Job membrane blocks at high concentrations requires increased pressure source solution that is sent to the membrane unit. The increased pressure allows you to build a two-stage setup with a single high-pressure pump.

When the pump pressure of 150 kg/cm2you can apply the membrane module of the first stage operating at pressures: inlet - 150 kg/cm2the output of the refrigerating agent - 70 kg/cm2(ΔP=80 kg/cm ) and the second level: entrance - 70 kg/cm2and the output pressure is higher than the boiling pressure of the cooling agent at the temperature of the membrane unit. For example, for R22 at the temperature of the membrane unit +25°With the refrigerant pressure should not be less than 11 kg/cm2otherwise the process of boiling of the refrigerant will begin in the membrane with the formation of bubbles, cooling the membrane below the permissible temperature and cavitation effects of refrigerant flow to the membrane material.

With regard to absorption and membrane plant first stage is a coarse separation solutions presumably on nanofiltration membrane, which stands out as much as possible refrigerant, and the pressure is much higher in LW the political and application of membrane material, allows you to allocate a large amount of the cooling agent. The concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of the refrigerant after the first stage increases, thereby reducing the partial pressure over a weak solution of the refrigerant in the absorber and consequently leads to a decrease in pressure in the absorber and evaporator. The refrigerant after the first stage is cleared of impurities of the absorbent in the second stage of filtration and is sent to the evaporator, and a weak solution of refrigerant formed after the second step, bypassing the absorber directly to the suction of the pump.

Example 4. Absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat with the use of multi-stage selection of the refrigerant and multi-stage increase in the concentration of absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant.

Two-stage allocation of the refrigerant from the strong solution of the refrigerant described above. Multistage not fundamentally different. Multistage selection absorbent requires special membrane material that allows you to skip the absorbent and hold the refrigerating agent.

The ability to create multi-stage membrane units by increasing the concentration of the absorbent that is directed to the absorber, confirmed information on the measurement of multicomponent mixtures.

Given that the via PTFE membrane permeability decreases with increasing molecular weight hydrocarbons, and through the rubber increases (see Farzaneh N.G. Technological measurements and devices, Moscow: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1989, s) and that the hydrocarbons are widely used in refrigeration and that the molecular mass of adsorbent, as a rule, much larger molecular weight of the respective refrigerating agent, you can create single or multi-stage membrane units by increasing the concentration of the absorbent, which in turn leads to increased efficiency of the installation.

Example 5. Absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat with the use of the expander.

Experience in the application of expanders on the purification or desalination has firm ROCHEM. Expanders company uses to reduce energy costs to drive the high pressure pump. As the expander can be applied axial piston or rotary pumps.

The firm ROCHEM by water treatment plants to regenerate up to 50% of the energy used to drive the high pressure pump.

The use of the expander should not exclude the application of the ejector, as the ejector is necessary to intensify the absorption process.

Part of the energy of the high-pressure pump can be recovered in the expander, part of the ejector, for example, in the expander after the second stage of selection of the cooling agent, and after the first stupa and - in the ejector. If you want a significant lowering of the boiling point of the refrigerant, the expander can be connected to the compressor (turbocharger)that will work as a booster-compressor.

Example 6. Installing produce mechanical energy with the use of absorption and membrane installation.

For a heat engine, generally requires a heat source and a cold source for condensing vapors. In the evaporator 5 from an external source 21 is supplied thermal energy of high potential. When boiling refrigerant at high temperature are formed a pair of refrigerant high pressure. A pair of refrigerant high pressure supplied to the motor 19. On the other side of the engine creates a low pressure vapor refrigerant by cooling of the absorber 6 from the external cold source 22. The differential pressure vapor refrigerant provides the engine 19. Mechanical work consumed to drive the high-pressure pump 1 and the drive of the external device 20.

7 shows a special case of absorption of the membrane unit to produce mechanical energy, when there is no source of cold for the heat engine. Considered a heat engine that requires only a heat source with a temperature of +28°With a source of cold cases is it the second absorption membrane installation.

It is proposed to consider theoretical dual absorption membrane system, consisting of the following devices.

1. Installation, operating as a heat engine. Refrigerant is ammonia and the absorbent - water or salt of ammonia NH4CNS.

2. Installation, operating in the mode of getting cold and heat. Refrigerant - water absorbent is lithium bromide; chloride or lithium; or zinc bromide; or sulphuric acid.

The temperature to which will work the second t°o=+5°C t°to=+35°C, allow you to apply promiscuities absorption and membrane installation. Refrigerant - water heat of vaporization 594 kcal/kg When implementing the bromide ion will apply the ejector and the expander, the use of multi-stage selection of refrigerant and absorbent is not considered, as this complicates the installation.

Heat balance.

where Q6the heat of absorption of the vapor refrigerant in the absorber 6;

Q5the heat of the boiling refrigerant in the evaporator 5;

Q19- the heat consumed by the motor 19;

L1the work of the high - pressure pump 1;

Q28the heat of absorption of vapors in the absolute is the ber 28;

Q27the heat of the boiling refrigerant in the evaporator 27;

L23the work of the high - pressure pump 23;

L24the operation of the transfer pump 24;

L31the pump of the coolant 31.

1/3 of the work of the high-pressure pumps is regenerated by the expanders.

The efficiency of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy by about 20%.

Q19=Q5·0,2

The heat absorber 6 is equal to the heat of the evaporator 27, because the devices are combined in one unit, allowing you to equate O6=Q27,

To the left part of the equation had a positive value, so that the water from the pump 31, the cooling absorber 28, heated Δt≈2°C, as in the evaporator 5 cool Δt≈4°C, that is, the source water must be cooled.

The right part of the equation is an expression of useful work

or

L=Q5-Q28

To implement a dual setup with the following technical characteristics of components:

Bromine-lithium unit (heat pump)

The high - pressure pump unit from the desalination plant KRO-030-V (Korea), with the following characteristics.

- QNAS=15 l/min (0.9 m3/hour)

- P NAS=155 kg/cm2

NNAS=6 kW.

Feed pump.

- Q24=18 m3per hour

- R24=1,1÷1.5 kg/cm2

- N24=0.5 kW

Membrane unit 25, the ejector 29, the expander 30, the evaporator 27 and the absorber 28 should ensure the allocation of the refrigerant from the solution in quantity is 0.135 m3/h (15%) and boiling at a temperature t0=+5°C. the Expander 30 is used to return the drive energy of the high-pressure pump 23 in the amount of 1/3. The rest of the energy weak solution of refrigerant used in the ejector 29.

The power consumption of heat pump installation 6.5 kW excluding expander, taking into account expander

Cooling capacity Q27=135 kg/hour·of 594.5 kcal/kg=80257 kcal/h (93,33 kW).

The heat in the absorber Q28=93,33+4,5=97,83 kW

Water cooling absorber 28 has a temperature of +28°and in the absorber is heated to +30°C. Temperature absorption +35°C.

Ammonia refrigeration 1 (heat engine).

The refrigerating agent is ammonia, the heat of vaporization at the temperature of +25° - 278,66 kcal/kg

The high-pressure pump 1 should provide more performance than it is to install 2.

Accept the increase installation 1 compared to heat pump installation 2 2.3 times

- QNAS=0,9·2,3=2.07 m3per hour

- RNAS=155 kg/cm2

- NNAS=6·2,3=13,8 kW

Membrane unit and other equipment should ensure the allocation of 15% ammonia 2,07·0,15=0,31 m3per hour, boiling at a temperature of +25°and the absorbance at a temperature of +7 - +8°C. the Evaporator 2 and the absorber installation 1 are combined in one unit, presumably a plate heat exchanger, the temperature difference 2÷3°, Q6=Q27.

The expander 18 is used in the plant for energy recovery drive high-pressure pump 1 in the amount of 1/3.

The cooling capacity of the ammonia plant:

Q5=310 kg/hour·278,66 kcal/h=86384 kcal/h (100 kW).

Heat Q5can be converted into mechanical energy with a conversion efficiency of 20%, which will be 100·0,2=20 kW. From this it is necessary to drive the pumps with regard to return 1/3 of the energy using expander:

Installation of

Installation of

General circulation pump water supply 31 N=2 kW

Total: 15,7 kW

Developed 20 kW consumed 15,7 kW, possible produce mechanical energy of 4.3 kW.

The heat absorber installation 1.

Q6=100-20+13,8=93,8 kW

The condition Q6=Q27running: 93,8≈93,33.

The result of this dual absorption and membrane units will receive is the mechanical power of 4.3 kW at heating installation from an external source of energy water with a temperature of +28°C.

Water with this temperature there is unlimited in the tropical regions of the ocean.

1. Absorption and membrane plant for cold and heat in the heat pump mode by selection of a strong solution of refrigerant through a semipermeable membrane under pressure above the osmotic created by the pump, and the pressure under the diaphragm is supported above the boiling pressure of the refrigerant at ambient temperature, the boiling point of the refrigerant is heated from an external source of low-grade energy, at low pressure with obtaining refrigeration effect and absorption of the resulting vapor with a weak solution of refrigerant from thermal energy of condensation and dissolution, characterized in that it is provided with an expander mounted on the flow of weak solution of the refrigerant after the membrane unit using the mechanical energy of the expander to drive the pump and (or) to drive the booster compressor, clamped a pair of cooling agent before mixing them with a weak solution of refrigerant and absorb.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the lower evaporating pressure of the refrigerant and the intensification of the process of absorption of the refrigerant vapor with a weak solution of the refrigerant is performed by the ejector, connected in series for the flow of traffic, the labs solution of refrigerant, pagsasalaysay refrigerant gas, by mixing them with a weak solution of the refrigerant, the compression of the mixture, and the direction of the mixture drain.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the allocation of the refrigerant is carried out sequentially on a semi-permeable membrane at a pressure above the osmotic of the strong solution of the refrigerant of the first stage with increasing concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant and subsequent isolation of the refrigerant of high purity at a pressure above the osmotic second stage selection of the refrigerant.

4. Installation according to claim 3, characterized in that the separation of the refrigerant from a strong solution of refrigerant and increasing the concentration of the absorbent in a weak solution of refrigerant is carried out stepwise with the number of stages more than two.

5. Installation according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it is equipped with extra absorption and membrane installation, in which successively the flow of the refrigerant vapor after boiling at high pressure, a heat engine to produce mechanical energy, a pair of refrigerant after heat engine absorbs a weak solution at low pressure when cooled, the refrigerant is heated in the process of boiling.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: refrigeration industry; heat-and-power engineering; other industries; production of the absorption- membrane installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the absorption- membrane installation, which ensures production of cold and heat energy working as the thermal pump by extraction from the strong solution of the refrigerant through the semi-permeable membrane under the pressure exceeding the osmotic pressure formed by the pump, the boiling of the refrigerant heated from the external source of the low-potential power at the low pressure with production of the refrigerating effect and absorption of the formed vapors by the weak solution of the refrigerant with production of the heat energy of the condensation and dissolution. The pressure under the membrane is maintained above the pressure of the refrigerant boiling at the environmental temperature. The expansion refrigerator is installed streamwise the refrigerant weak solution and behind the membrane block with usage of the mechanical power of the expansion refrigerator onto the drive of the pump and (or) on the drive of the booster-compressor compressing the vapors of the refrigerant till their mixing with the refrigerant weak solution and absorption. The invention usage will allow to expand the capabilities of the installation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the capabilities of the installation.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the power engineering industry. To extract heat from a cold medium and transmit it to a hot medium, heat of dissolution is used as well as separation from the solution, two or more substances or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on their saturation lines or beyond these lines. For this purpose, in the cold part of the cycle, through a selective membrane or membrane, a solvent is moved from one solution to the other such that, one of the substances or one of the groups of substances separates from the solution or is absorbed, with heat release or heat absorption or no thermal effect. The second substance or group of substances is dissolved or separated by an absorber, with absorption of a large amount of heat. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle, heat is taken off the cooled medium. The obtained solution and separated substance or substances are channelled to the hot part of the cycle, heating them with oncoming heat exchanger. In the hot part of the cycle, there is oppositely directed movement of solvent through the selective membrane or membrane. As a result, a reverse thermal effect is achieved and heat is transferred to the hot medium. The obtained solution and separated substance are returned to the cold part of the cycle, cooling them with oncoming heat exchanger. Use of the invention increases efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.

9 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold involves the following stages. A cooling agent is evaporated from a strong solution. A heated vapour flow is expanded with the performance of work and formation of spent vapour. Vapour is condensed. A liquid cooling agent is expanded and evaporated so that the cooling effect is formed. The cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature is absorbed. Pressure of the solution is increased and the solution is heated before evaporation. The heated cooling agent vapour is separated into two flows after evaporation, one of which expands with the performance of work, and the other one is condensed and used for generation of cold and/or heat energy. The cooling agent vapour flow, after its expansion with the performance of work, and the flow of the cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature and reduced pressure, which is obtained at evaporation of the cooling agent with the formation of the cooling effect, are absorbed using a common weak solution and with the formation of a strong solution including the cooling agent of both flows that are specified above. A device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold is described.

EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of efficient generation of mechanical energy, heat and cold.

13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal pump. Thermal pump comprises multiple hollow elements provided with adsorbent. Said hollow elements house working fluid displacing between adsorbent and phase transition area. Hollow elements force the flow of heat transfer fluid in fluid circuit (101) by valve device over said hollow elements for them to be brought in thermal contact with fluid. Flow over hollow elements is alternated in cycles. At least two hollow elements, in every position of said valve, are flown over by fluid in parallel and at least two hollow elements are flown over successively. In every position of said valve, at least two sets of multiple hollow elements are flown over in parallel. At least one set of multiple hollow elements is arranged directly upstream or downstream of heat exchange (105, 106). The number of hollow elements flown over simultaneously in parallel makes at least one fourth, preferably, one third of the quantity of hollow elements flown over successively.

EFFECT: expanded applications.

18 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: energy.

SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at energy saving by rational use of renewable sources of heat and natural temperature drop in environment. Disclosed is a method of producing heat energy in a closed adsorptive cycle enhancement of temperature potential, consisting of consecutive steps of adsorption of cooling agent on adsorber, removal of cooling agent with adsorbent (regeneration), evaporation and condensation of cooling agent, adsorbent regeneration is performed by heating from renewable source of low-potential heat, and condenser is cooled to low temperature by using only natural temperature drop in environment.

EFFECT: invention increases temperature potential of heat source only due to use of natural temperature difference in environment.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for compressing the working fluid used to transfer heat from the coolant with a lower (E) to the coolant temperature with a higher temperature (Al), and may be used in the heat pump. The method combines absorption and change in concentration of the electrolyte solution, such as ZnCl2, (Na, K, Cs, Rb) OH, CoI2, (Li, K, Na) (Cl2, Br2, I, SO4) or substances whose concentration decreases with increasing temperature, in a polar solvent: H2O, NH3, Methanol, ethanol, methylamine, DMSO, DMA, AN, formamide, formic acid. A highly saturated solution is cooled, discharged from the absorber-exchanger (A1) from a high (1) to a low (2) temperature during passage through heat exchanger-crystalliser (NOT) to form absorbent crystals. Crystals separated (K1), remains low concentrated solution (2). For cooling low-concentrated solution is partially expanded (2), steam is supplied to crystals (R1) in which they are absorbed. Tighten the solution to the heat exchanger-evaporator pressure (E). The low-concentrated solution is expanded in the turbine producing work and refrigerating cycle to partially evaporate in an evaporator-heat exchanger (E) at a given temperature and solvent vapor formation. The additional absorbent crystals (K2) are separated, connecting them into the previously selected crystals (K1). Steam is heated by passing it through a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) and compressed (5) of its pressure absorber (A1). The low-concentrated solution (3) remaining after partial evaporation compressed to a pressure absorber (A1) and heated in a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT). The separated crystals are heated in the heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) is dissolved in a hot solution of (3) to form the highly-concentrated solution. Steam (4) is streamed into the absorber (A1), where the vapor is absorbed, and the heat is removed and re-formed starting solution.

EFFECT: method improves the efficiency of heat transfer, such as heating, air conditioning.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: device for implementing the adsorption cycle of increasing the temperature potential of a renewable heat source includes an adsorber, a heat exchanger in contact with the adsorbent granules, a vacuum tap, a container with liquid refrigerant and a heat exchanger partially immersed in the liquid refrigerant. The container with liquid refrigerant and the heat exchanger is a condenser and an evaporator. As the adsorbent, a composite adsorbent of methanol vapour is used, which is a porous matrix selected from the group consisting of silica gel, alumina, vermiculite, the pores of which contain a metal halide or nitrate from the range of: calcium, magnesium, lithium, nickel or cobalt in an amount of at least 17 wt %, Alcohols are used as the refrigerant-adsorbent.

EFFECT: increasing the temperature potential of a renewable heat source in a closed adsorption cycle.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

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