Method for sublimation of nonvolatile organic compounds

FIELD: physicochemical techniques.

SUBSTANCE: sublimation of nonvolatile organic compounds comprises heating thereof on conducting grid, through which electric current is passed. Organic substance layer is deposited on grid of current conducting material, in particular metal, and obtained layer is mechanically pressed to grid.

EFFECT: accelerated sublimation and increased purity of sublimed product.

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Technologies based on freeze-desublimation processes are ubiquitous in modern chemical technology. In particular they are used for deep purification of substances, the separation of isotopes, producing high quality metallic coatings, etc. ["Processes of sublimation and desublimation in chemical engineering. An overview", V. 9, M., 1985].

Because freeze-desublimation technologies typically used easily sublimating volatiles, the technical solution for the process of sublimation does not cause difficulties for this purpose used, for example, well-known devices for vacuum sublimation, in which the sublimation is carried out through direct thermal heating of a thick layer of matter [Fourcycle, Mfrequency. The technique of laboratory work. L.: Chemistry, 1982], [S.V. Ponomarev, Ascoltare, Lgeria, Vierinen. Experimental techniques in organic chemistry, M., 1998]. The conventional scheme of sublimator is shown in figure 1.

Recently, there is an urgent need for the development of technology transfer in the gas phase of large quantities of volatile ingredients connections. This is especially necessary for molecular electronics [Navarinsky. Molecular electronics, 2004]and pharmaceutical [Gbeji, Usamaru, Vphantom. Patent Ro the Russian Federation No. 2195264]. Available technological solutions applicable to volatile substances, in principle unsuitable for volatile ingredients of the compounds, as, for example, in the conventional sublimation - see figure 1, most overheating exposed inner layers of material and to achieve an adequate rate of sublimation, which may be subject only to the surface layer of the substance, the substance that is inside and cannot sublimate, is subjected to great heat of up to several tens or even hundreds of degrees. This can lead to partial or complete decomposition of organic substances.

The task was to develop a method of sublimation of volatile ingredients of organic compounds, which would provide increased sublimation at high purity of the final product.

This problem was solved by the present invention.

In the method of sublimation of volatile ingredients of organic compounds, including heating organic substances according to the invention the layer of organic matter applied to the grid of electrically conductive material, mechanically press the resulting layer to the grid, and the heat carried out by passing the effluent through a grid of electric current.

As the electrically conductive material preferably used metal.

Thus, the above mentioned drawbacks and completely removed the proposed technical solution, in which to increase the speed of sublimation and prevent thermal decomposition sublimation carried out by contact of a thin layer of organic substance with a large surface with a heated metal mesh, and to intensify the process of sublimation layer of organic substance is mechanically pressed against the grid, and to ensure uniform temperature of the front surface of the metal mesh and precise setting of the temperature of the heating grid is done through Dzhoulevo heat generated by passing through it an electric current.

The described method provides a high speed sublimation, firstly, due to the large surface area at which sublimation occurs, secondly, due to the high surface temperature, and thirdly, due to the good mechanical contact between the layer sublimiruet substance and the heated surface of the grid.

Preventing thermal decomposition of volatile ingredients substances is achieved in the proposed technical solution by heating only a thin surface layer of the substance from which and sublimating. The temperature of the grid, resulting in increased speed of sublimation leads simultaneously to reduce the time of contact with the heated surface, which reduces the likelihood of heat is izlozheniya molecules of the organic substance.

The heating grid due Dzhoulevo heat generated by passing through it an electric current, provides high temperature uniformity over the surface of the mesh, as the generated heat flux is proportional to the specific resistance, which for the metal mesh constantly across its surface. The non-uniformity of the temperature field may be associated with edge effects, the contribution which decreases with the increase of the characteristic mesh sizes. The proposed method can be implemented using a grid of sublimator shown in figure 2.

The proposed method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Sublimation thiourea.

Made sublimator constructed according to the described technical solution. (Diagram of the device shown in figure 2). In this drawing:

1, the cooled surface, 2 - stream of vapor of the substance, 3 - heater, 4 - layer organic matter, 5 - glass cylinder, 7 - piston for mehanichnogo preload layer of organic matter to the surface mesh of sublimator, 6 - exit to the vacuum system.

The internal diameter of the glass cylinder was 30 mm, For the manufacture of the grid heater used a stainless steel mesh with cell size in the light 0.071 mm, the wire diameter of 0.03 mm, the living section of the grid pillar is about 49.7 percent.

In sublimator put 0.400 g of thiourea (NH2-C(S)-NH2). Sublimation was performed in vacuum, the residual vapor pressure in the system does not exceed 10-3Torr. Desublimation (condensation) of thiourea was performed on a cooled with liquid nitrogen glass surface (the surface temperature was 196°). The temperature of the grid was 70°C. the Time of sublimation was 60 minutes

After sublimation condensed on the walls of the glass vessel substance was removed from the reactor. As a result of experience gained 0,307, thiourea. Inside sublimator remained 0,053 g of substance. The original purity of the preparation according to thin-layer chromatography is 98%, the purity of the thiourea obtained by the process of sublimation - condensation amounted to 99.3 percent.

Example 2 (comparative). Sublimation of thiourea accepted sublimator.

In sublimator put 0.400 g of thiourea. Sublimation was performed in vacuum, the residual vapor pressure in the system does not exceed 10-3Torr. Desublimation (condensation) of thiourea was performed on a cooled with liquid nitrogen glass surface (the surface temperature was 196°). The temperature of the bottom of sublimator was maintained equal to 70°C. the Time of sublimation was 60 minutes

Experience found that thiourea is not practically with what was blimishes. Of sublimator extracted 0,376 g of substance. The original purity of the preparation according to thin-layer chromatography is 98%, purity thiourea remaining in sublimator was 95%, which is considerably lower than the data specified in example 1 and subsequent examples.

Example 3. Sublimation thiourea.

Similar to example 1. But for making the grid heater used a stainless steel mesh with cell size in the light 0.071 mm, wire diameter 0.055 mm, the living section of the grid comprised 31.8%. Data - see table 1.

Example 4. Sublimation thiourea.

Similar to example 1. But the temperature of the grid was 60°C. Data - see table 1.

Example 5. Sublimation gabapentin.

Similar to example 1. But as sublimirovannogo substances used gabapentin - 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexadecane acid. The specified connection is an anti-epileptic drug drug. A complicating factor is that this substance has the amino acid nature and is zwitterions, and therefore it easily enters into a chemical reaction involving the removal of water with the formation of lactam or peptides. The temperature of the grid was 100°With, the process 360 minutes as a result of experience gained to 0.127, gabapentin. Inside sublimator remained 0,225 g of substance. The original purity of the drug is about data thin-layer chromatography is 99.6%, purity gabapentina obtained by the process of sublimation - condensation was 99.2%.

Example 6. Sublimation gabapentin.

Similar to example 5. But the temperature of the grid 120°C. Data - see table 1.

Example 7. Sublimation gabapentin.

Similar to example 5. But the temperature of the grid amounted to 140°C. Data - smfbl.

Example 8. Sublimation of fluticasone propionate.

Similar to example 5. But as sublimirovannogo substances used fluticasone propionate [(6-alpha, 11 beta, 16 alpha, 17 alpha)-6,9-debtor-11-hydroxy-16-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17-propionyloxy-17-thiocarbonic acid-3-(formerely)ether]. The specified connection is a drug steroid type, has anti-allergic effect. The following is the structural formula of propionate fluticasone.

The temperature of the grid was 200°With, the process 360 minutes as a result of experience gained 0,287, fluticasone propionate. Inside sublimator remained 0.083 g of the substance. The original purity of the preparation according to thin-layer chromatography is 99,3%, the purity of fluticasone propionate, resulting in a process of sublimation - condensation was 99.5%.

Example 9 (comparative). Sublimation of fluticasone propionate in the conventional sublimator.

In subl is motor put 0.400 g of fluticasone propionate. Sublimation was performed in vacuum, the residual vapor pressure in the system does not exceed 10-3Torr. Desublimation (condensation) of fluticasone propionate was performed on a cooled with liquid nitrogen glass surface (the surface temperature was -196°). The temperature of the bottom of sublimator was maintained equal to 200°C. the Time of sublimation was 360 minutes

Experience found that fluticasone propionate is practically not sublimated. Of sublimator extracted 0,367, substances. The original purity of the preparation according to thin-layer chromatography is 99,3%, the purity of fluticasone propionate, the remaining sublimator was 75%.

Example 10. Sublimation of fluticasone propionate.

Analogous to example 8. But the temperature of the grid was 220°and the process of sublimation - desublimate - 180 minutes Data - see table 1.

Example 11. Sublimation of fluticasone propionate.

Analogous to example 8. But for the process of sublimation was used grid sublimator in which the inner diameter of the glass cylinder is 40 mm Weight loaded propionate fluticasone amounted to 800 mg as a result of experience gained 0,635 g of substance. Inside sublimator remained 0,105 g connection. The original purity of the preparation according to thin-layer chromatography is 99,3%, the purity of fluticasone propionate, extracting the aqueous in the process of sublimation - condensation was 99.6%.

Example 12. Sublimation of fluticasone propionate.

Analogous to example 8. But desublimation compounds was performed on a cooled mixture of water and ice surface (the surface temperature was 0°).

Table 1
No.Sublimiruet substanceType of sublimatorThe living section of the grid

%
T-pa mesh (bottom),

°
T-pa ohlord. stand., °Time sublimation, minMass loaded in the Islands, gWeight sublimated in-VA, gThe mass remaining in the Islands, gThe purity of the original in-VA, %Purity sublimated in-VA, %
1ThioureaGrid d=30 mm49.770-196600.4000.3070.0539899.3
2ThioureaAccepted70-196600.40000.3769895 (OST)
3ThioureaGrid d=30 mm31.8 70-196600.4000.2500.1129899.2
4ThioureaGrid d=30 mm49.760-196600.4000.1960.1659899.5
5GabapentinGrid d=30 mm49.7100-1963600.4000.1270.22599.699.2
6GabapentinGrid d=30 mm49.7120-1963600.4000.2600.09699.698.5
7GabapentinGrid d=30 mm49.7140-1963600.4000.3470.01599.690
8Propionate fluticasoneGrid d=30 mm49.7200-1963600.4000.2870.08399.399.5
9Propionate fluticasoneOverall the passed -200-1963600.40000.36799.375
10Propionate fluticasoneGrid d=30 mm49.7220-1963600.4000.3590.00999.399.5
11Propionate fluticasoneGrid d=40 mm49.7200-1961800.8000.6350.10599.399.6
12Propionate fluticasoneGrid d=40 mm49.720003600.4000.2980.10199.399.5

1. The method of sublimation of volatile ingredients of organic compounds, including heated using a grid of conductive material through which electric current is passed, characterized in that the layer of organic material applied to the grid of electrically conductive material and mechanically grip the resulting layer to the grid.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein as the conductive material used metal.



 

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