Method and device for production of hydrogen from anaerobically decomposable material

FIELD: methods of treatment of anaerobically decomposable materials, refuse or waste water; separation of carbon dioxide from other gaseous agents obtained at decomposition of organic materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming of reaction mixture containing anaerobically decomposable organic materials, application of electric potential to it and accumulation of gas. For obtaining of gas at high amount of hydrogen and low amount of methane as compared with gases formed spontaneously from said organic materials, use is made of intermittent generation of electric current at intervals dictated by content of hydrogen and/or methane detected in gas obtained from organic material.

EFFECT: increased productivity in hydrogen; reduction of time required for processing organic materials.

15 cl, 14 dwg, 11 tbl, 8 ex

 

The present invention relates to a method of producing hydrogen from subjected to anaerobic decomposition of organic materials, including anaerobic degradable organic materials, as components of the waste and sewage sludge, the method of separation of the thus obtained hydrogen and jointly produced carbon dioxide, as well as devices designed to perform such a separation.

It is generally accepted that for continuous industrial growth requires additional energy sources. Currently, there is a real danger of excessive reliance on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels (hydrocarbons) is a limited source of stored energy, which usually occur during the combustion process. As a result of combustion of hydrocarbons mankind throws in the atmosphere of a billion tons of toxic pollutants. In this regard, the development of alternative sources of renewable fuels is a significant factor in both ecological and economic point of view.

Hydrogen is a fuel, not forming pollutants, since the only product of its combustion is water. Hydrogen has a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the manufacture of fertilizers, dyes, drugs with which edst, plastics, hydrogenated fats and oils, and methanol, and is used in various industries. This substance is also used as a rocket fuel and in accordance with the present invention, can be used as a negative emission fuel that allows you to clear the air with traditional engines.

Conventional methods of hydrogen production in industrial quantities are: (1) steam reforming of hydrocarbons, (2) partial oxidation of coal, (3) the electrolysis of water, and (4) direct use of solar radiation (photovoltaic method).

The disadvantage of steam reforming of hydrocarbons and partial oxidation of coal is the fact that consumed fossil hydrocarbon fuels. The production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water, which represents a relatively simple and environmentally friendly process is expensive and therefore uneconomical for most industrial applications because the amount of energy needed for electrolysis of water exceeds the energy obtained by the combustion of the hydrogen produced. Photovoltaic methods of hydrogen production limited limited access to solar energy for most of the peoples of the world.

The method of producing hydrogen from sugars such as glucose and maltose discussed in Energy and the Environment, Proceedings of the 1stWorld renewable energy congress. Reading, UK, 23-28 September 1990, S.Roychowdhury and D.Cox ("Roychowdhury"). The described method includes the preparation of "junk inoculum from materials taken from different depths of the waste in the drying, grinding (with getting "junk powder") and incubation "in place". It was noted that the resulting incubated cultural environment produces mainly carbon dioxide and methane, and small amounts of other substances that indicate the presence of inoculum highly methanogenic flora. However, it was found that inoculation of solutions of various sugars supernatant kind of cultural environment, or in some cases trash powder, leads to the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide without the formation of methane or oxygen. The result indicates the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria in the waste inoculum and/or the influence of hydrogen on the waste materials and the inoculate. It was found that the formation of hydrogen decreases with increasing acidity.

The present invention is partially based on the determination processing capabilities anaerobic degradable organic materials by passing through them relatively small and/or intermittent electric current to improve the performance of hydrogen and hearth is ing the formation of methane. Such treatment allows to obtain hydrogen from such typical waste materials from the collection of municipal waste and processing waste water in such quantities that chemically accumulated potential energy of the hydrogen produced exceeds the energy required for the generation of electric current, while reducing waste mass and/or reducing the time required for the processing or disposal of such material. Therefore, the present invention provides a method of producing hydrogen, which does not require the use of fossil fuels, which does not depend on, to some extent, accidental presence of sunlight and which can be used, for example, to provide communities with relatively undeveloped systems of electricity and other energy infrastructure system that provides useful energy from waste collected.

Of particular interest is the possibility of processing waste materials, because such materials are widespread problem in many cities of the world, being the habitat of such carriers of contagion as rodents, cockroaches and microorganisms that cause infectious diseases, as well as sources of greenhouse gases and pollution of ground water due to the formation of toxic baselaceltli. Obrabotka accordance with the present invention provides carbon sequestration from garbage waste, including those that represent deposits for sewage sludge.

Thus, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention provides a method of processing anaerobic decomposing organic material, including the generation of electric current within the specified material with the aim of increasing activity vodorodomobili microorganisms and reduce the activity of methane-forming microorganisms.

Anaerobic degradable organic materials that can be processed in accordance with this aspect of the invention, include anaerobic compostables cellulose materials and anaerobic digested sewage sludge. Anaerobic compostable cellulose materials normally found in the waste materials, which typically contain 70% cellulose materials and have a moisture content 36-46%. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge typically include sludge from facilities processing municipal wastewater; as a rule, they are mainly liquid and contain 2-3% solids. The natural form of the waste materials and sewage sludge contain methane-producing bacteria and vodorazdelnaya bacteria.

Other organic materials which can be subjected to the described treatment, include khlevnoy manure, selskokhozyaistv the installed waste and food waste. These materials can inoculants, for example, samples of waste materials or sludge before electroaparataj. If desirable, the inoculum may be subjected to pre-treatment by passing through it an electric current or by fermentation in the presence of elevated concentrations of hydrogen.

The term "anaerobic digestion" refers to the process in which organic compounds, for example, hydrates of General formula CnH2nAboutnand other nutrients, decompose in the environment, not containing oxygen donors. Under such anaerobic decomposition usually formed in relatively large quantities of volatile carboxylic acids, as acetic acid, another common decomposition product is ammonium bicarbonate. Although in some cases anaerobic decomposition precedes the aerobic decomposition, this fact is not a prerequisite for treatment of anaerobic degradable organic material in accordance with this aspect of the invention. It should be borne in mind that this method can be applied to organic materials in various stages of anaerobic decomposition, and that the generation of electric current can be performed before or together with the indicated decomposition.

Not limited to any specific the th theory, it is assumed that the electrical current promotes the hydrolysis of volatile carboxylic acids, which are known to function as electrolytes, and possibly ammonium bicarbonate, resulting in the formation of hydrogen. Since it is not observed the formation of oxygen, it can be assumed that the electrolysis of water is not involved in the observed formation of hydrogen. It is also assumed that the thus obtained hydrogen inhibits the division, growth and activity of methanogenic microorganisms, while largely supported the production of hydrogen-producing enzymes.

Considering the aspect of the invention may be implemented on virtually any large reprocessing facility for municipal waste or waste water, such as reservoirs for the digestion of sewage. This process can also be achieved on a smaller scale in any places where there are or may be formed such anaerobic degradable organic materials anaerobically compostable cellulose materials or anaerobically digested sewage sludge. For example, it is possible to carry out the decomposition of cellulosic materials and/or sewage sludge "on the spot", for example, in the local bunker or the camera, and not in a Central unit for processing waste or wastewater. Such anaerobic degradable org is not optional materials can be transported at the pumping station, equipped for producing hydrogen by processing in accordance with the present invention, or may be prepared to produce hydrogen on-the-spot treatment in the local bunker or the camera. When such technical solutions, the hydrogen can be accumulated or used in place of obtaining useful forms of energy, including the relatively small amount of energy required to generate an electric current.

Electric current can be generated, for example, by the application of electric potential between the electrodes in contact with organic material, for example, when one or more sets of electrodes placed inside the material. Consider the electrodes can be manufactured, for example, of lead, copper, steel, brass, or carbon, more preferably of steel bars, and most preferably, of impregnated metal graphite having high electrical conductivity. The sets of electrodes can be of any shape, for example, they can be made in the form of plates, bars, grids, etc.

Processing in accordance with this embodiment of the present invention may be carried out by application of electric potential in 1-7 volts, preferably 3-6 volts, most preferably, from 3.0 to 4.5 volts.

Preferably the generator is on, an electrical current when low dielectric and ohmic losses. The placement and separation of the electrodes can be adjusted in such a way as to create the above conditions, and may be a useful application of the program voltage regulation, comprising periodically changing the polarity. Voltage, the average distance between the electrodes and the number of electrodes may vary depending on the size and composition of organic material to be processed.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the considered aspect of the invention, each individual electrode is placed in the waste material and is surrounded by inert "cage", which effectively provides the immediate vicinity of the wet component of the waste material and component not adversely affect the electrical activity, with each electrode. It should be borne in mind that the optimal placement of each electrode in the waste material may require the application of the method of trial and error.

Electric current can be generated intermittently, preferably at intervals which are chosen so as to minimize the power consumption and to maximize the production of hydrogen, for example, at intervals determined taking into account the levels of hydrogen and/or methane gas from organic material. For example, the duty cycle applications electric p the potential can adaptively adjusted according to the information obtained through feedback from the gas detector and an associated controller. In one such technical solutions electrical potential when making the detection of trace amounts of methane and support it until almost complete suppression of methane formation; the corresponding time periods are registering. After terminating the application of electrical potential controller records the time to the new definition of education of the trace amounts of methane and after that starts the operating cycle, in which electric potential is supplied over a a bit longer time than the time corresponding to the suppression of methane formation and disconnection is carried out at a somewhat smaller time interval than the time corresponding re-detection of traces of methane. The voltage applied electric potential, if desirable, may be reduced in a controlled way, which is part of the adaptive management aimed at minimizing energy costs.

In a typical example of a processing method in accordance with this aspect of the present invention the formation of hydrogen begins during the generation of electric current in anaerobic degradable organic material, and the amount of generated hydrogen is increased to 70-75% of BEGO volume derived gases. The amount of methane produced is reduced to about 70% of the total volume of the obtained gases that occurs when the first transmission of electric current, to trace quantities. The performance of the process, carbon dioxide and nitrogen remains almost constant and does not change substantially depending on the output of methane or hydrogen.

When handling anaerobic degradable organic material in accordance with the present invention are formed of a significant amount of carbon dioxide. It is desirable to perform efficient separation of hydrogen from the carbon dioxide in order to increase the value of hydrogen, for example, by increasing the density of its accumulation and facilitate its application in fuel cells. Separated carbon dioxide can be used, for example, in greenhouses or in hydroponics.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention provides a method of separating carbon dioxide formed from an organic material, hydrogen generated from the organic material, resulting in the preferential absorption of the specified carbon dioxide in the liquid at high pressure, causing the hydrogen is captured in a special collectors.

As pressurized fluid is better use the ü water. The solubility of carbon dioxide in water is 21.6 volumes of gas to volume of water at a pressure of 25 atmospheres and 12° (54°F). When the pressure increases or the temperature decreases, the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the water volume increases, while a decrease in pressure or increase in temperature promotes the release of dissolved carbon dioxide. In most areas of the Earth the temperature of ground water is maintained at a value equal to the average annual air temperature plus 0.55°With (1,0° (F) for each 24,4 m (80') covering the layers of soil in the direction of the zone of saturation.

A gas mixture consisting, for example, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and small amounts of nitrogen and other gases can forcibly fed from the bottom of a water column height of at least 300 meters (about 1000') at a temperature 4-16°With (40-60°F). Such a post may, for example, be a hole passing for 300 yards downhill from the saturated zone of the local ground water. This method provides an extremely large heat sink through the subsoil, including ground water in the zone of saturation, the temperature of which for most climate zones in the course of the year usually has a constant value in the desired temperature range. For these purposes may also be used in anye posts located on the mountain slopes, but in this case may affect the negative impact of winter frosts and unwanted heat in the summer season.

In terms of the maintained temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide can be introduced into the solution, while the hydrogen gas can be collected and brought to the surface for various applications.

As explained in detail below, the fluid under pressure, containing carbon dioxide, can be removed, after an optional heat, she may be given the option of throttling the purpose of separation of carbon dioxide and energy transfer to the motor. Then throttled fluid can be cooled to increase its pressure and recycled for subsequent absorption of carbon dioxide.

According to another aspect of the invention features a device for use in separation processes, as a rule, to separate carbon dioxide from other gases resulting from the decomposition of organic materials, such as combustible gases such as hydrogen, methane and mixtures thereof. Such a device is disclosed in paragraphs 13 to 20 of the attached claims.

Brief description of drawings

In the accompanying drawings, illustrating the invention and not limiting egounlety:

Figure 1 depicts the scheme of successive operations, illustrating the production of hydrogen and suppression of methanogenesis from anaerobic degradable organic material in the presence of applied electric potential, and methanogenesis from anaerobic degradable organic materials without application of electric potential;

figure 2 - scheme sequential illustrating the process of producing hydrogen, including on-site anaerobic decomposition of organic material;

figure 3 - the information provided in Table 1 of Example 1 in the form of a histogram;

figure 4 - the information provided in Table 2 of Example 2 in the form of a histogram;

figure 5 - the information provided in Table 3 of Example 3 in the form of a histogram;

figure 6 - the information provided in Table 5 of Example 5 in the form of a histogram;

figure 7 - the information provided in Table 6 of Example 5 in the form of a histogram;

figure 8 - the information provided in Table 8 of Example 6 in the form of a histogram;

figure 9 - the information provided in Table 9 of Example 7 in the form of a histogram;

figure 10 - the information provided in Table 10 of Example 8 in the form of a histogram;

figure 11 - an embodiment of the invention, in which adaptively adjusts the application intermittently supplied voltage to maximize the formation of hydrogen while minimizing the formation of m is Tana;

figure 12 is an embodiment of the invention showing the generation of a voltage to produce hydrogen;

figure 13 is another embodiment of the invention;

figure 14 is another embodiment of the invention.

Figure 11 depicts the device 200, in which the appropriate electrodes, for example, the concentric electrodes 202 and 204, intermittently supplies power to influence solvated organic waste, located between the electrodes with the aim of producing hydrogen. In working condition, voltage is applied from source 216 in accordance with a working cycle, adjustable by means of the relay 212, which is always controlled by the controller 210 to facilitate the generation of hydrogen and prevent substantial formation of methane.

The controller 210 is supplied with a feedback from a gas detector 206/208. When the detection of trace amounts of methane between the electrodes 202 and 204 applied voltage during the recorded period of time to suppress the formation of methane. The time until the new formation of trace amounts of methane observed by the controller 210 and uses the operating cycle, comprising the application of a voltage between the electrodes 202 and 204 for a bit longer time than the time noted for the suppression of methane formation with subsequent neutral work electr the funds within less time as noted earlier, the appropriate determination of trace amounts of methane.

The specified duty cycle adaptive change in order to reduce the application time of the voltage and increasing the time between the application of voltage to minimize the formation of methane, while maximizing the formation of hydrogen with the lowest application of voltage to the electrodes 202 and 204. The voltage value is reduced by the appearance of another variable and adaptive regulate in accordance with the time of application of voltage to reduce energy consumption. This algorithm is adaptive adjustment quickly adjusts to changes in the composition of organic waste, moisture content, temperature, and other variables.

Figure 12 depicts an embodiment of the invention, in which the fuel gas obtained by the method of the present invention in the presence of the electrodes 230 and 232, partially available for conversion into electricity using a fuel cell or engine-generator 240. Adaptive adjustable voltage is applied to electrodes 230 and 232 is provided by the controller 236 and the relay 234 in order to minimize the energy consumption per therm of hydrogen produced. In addition, the adaptive controller 236 provides the regulation algorithm, allowing to minimize the formation of methane and ensure acivate maximum production of hydrogen. Solenoid operating valve 238 regulates the flow of fuel gas through line 242 to the site of energy conversion 240 so that it is consistent with adaptive adjustable duty cycle and other electricity needs, which will be distributed via insulated cables 244. Power required for pumping water, providing cycle heat pumping or generation of electricity at node 240 may be generated by thermal engine or generator, fuel cell, thermoelectric generator, or other device that converts the potential energy of fuel into electricity.

In many applications it is preferable to use a piston engine or generator, which is filled with fuel with a combined fuel injector SmartPlug and work with the ignition system, because these elements facilitate the work in extremely harsh conditions. The action of the SmartPlug system disclosed in U.S. patent No. 5394852 and 5343699 and this system allows the use of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide as a very low-grade fuel without additional conditioning, providing a very high thermal efficiency, and full of energy in comparison with operation of the engine on gasoline or diesel fuel. This fact is very important advantages : the STV remote actions and to reduce the cost of fuel and energy in the event of a ban on imports of fossil fuels.

Preferred hydrogen production provides thermodynamic advantages, based on a more rapid combustion of the fuel, the wider the ratio of air/fuel in combustible mixtures, and using the SmartPlug system the engine is running almost without throttle losses. These thermodynamic advantages cause a higher mean effective pressure in the brake system (UMER) under the same heat in comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel.

As follows from Table A, there is a real chance to clean ambient air through the engine-generator, working on a special hydrogen fuel derived from waste or sewage sludge, in contrast to the work using gasoline as fuel.

Table a
GasNA (ppm)CO (ppm)NO (ppm)
The surrounding air290,001,0
The engine exhaust by hydrogen, idle180,001,0
The engine exhaust by hydrogen, full power60,002,0
The exhaust of a gasoline engine, yostoi stroke 19025000390
The exhaust of a gasoline engine, full power196700095
NA = hydrocarbons; CO = carbon monoxide; NO = oxides of nitrogen

Figure 13 depicts a system designed to separate carbon dioxide from hydrogen by the method of differential absorption of carbon dioxide in a suitable medium such as water or sterically hindered amine. During operation of such a system, the gas mixture comprising hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of nitrogen and other gases, force is fed from the bottom of the water column 302 height of about 300 meters (1000') or more.

The gas mixture is fed to the bottom of the tube 304 by means of a suitable pump (not shown) and is supplied in such a suitable scrubbing zone as the spiral rib 306 which is attached to the pipe 304 so that the point of connection to the pipe is elevated compared to any other points on the element of rotation describing a spiral surface. As a result, as the cleaning gas absorbent liquid, they rise in the direction of the pipe 304. Carbon dioxide can be introduced into the solution while existing in the system pressure and temperature. The hydrogen coming from the top of the spiral, enters the pipe 308 and podes is on the surface for various applications.

As shown in the drawing, water enriched with carbon dioxide, takes place on the surface coaxial tube 310. Decreasing head pressure, bubbles of carbon dioxide that rise up and create a mixture of low density coming in getseparator section 312, in which the more dense water that has lost the ability to retain carbon dioxide, is returned in the circular space 302 and flows down to the bottom to replace the moving up of water rising through the pipe 310. Carbon dioxide collected at the top 310 is discharged through the pipe 314.

The figure 14 shows a variant embodiment of the invention, in which energy is used to compress the hydrogen and carbon dioxide, regenerative produced by the expander. The device 400 according to this option is a simple energy conversion system that unites these various renewable energy sources like sewage, garbage and agricultural waste with solar energy to generate electricity, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

In many situations and applications it is preferable to create pressure on the water in a suitable vessel 402 to ensure separation of different solubilities to clean hydrogen. During operation of the system, a mixture of hydrogen with carbon dioxide is forced serves on the tube 404 in the autoclave 402 at a nominal pressure 3100 kPa (450 lb/in 2). It is preferable to use a spiral mixer, consisting of spiral ribs 406 providing a flushing gas on the surface and creates a high ratio of surface to volume. As the absorption of carbon dioxide gas mixture goes a long way through the water, so that the hydrogen is collected at the top of the spiral scrubber 406 and displayed on the tube 408. As shown in the drawing, the carbon dioxide is absorbed in water, and the hydrogen is collected at the top of the separator 406.

The hydrogen is discharged through pipes 408 for immediate use in the engine or fuel cell, or, if necessary, can be stored for future use. Water saturated with carbon dioxide, is removed from the absorber 402 the tube 410 and served in the valve manifold 426, which has a pressure regulating valve to supply water enriched with carbon dioxide, in each of the groups of exchangers 414, 416, 418, 420, 422 and 424. Each of the heat exchangers is supplied with the output nozzle that is aimed at the blade or blades of each of the neighboring liquid rotary motors 430, 432, 434, 436, 438 and 440, which transmit the work on a common output shaft.

Water and a solution of carbon dioxide under pressure quickly and forcibly serves, for example, in the pre-heated heat exchanger 414 in the short-term opening of the control valve is, service element 414. As the liquid is heated, its temperature and pressure increase, so that the liquid evaporates and comes with a very high pulse in the drive motor 430. Each of the other heat-exchange chambers receives a portion of the liquid in the calculated points in time, therefore we can assume that the power shaft associated with the motor group, has a multi-phase torque, for example, six-phase, if each heat exchanger receives a portion of the liquid at different points in time, or phase, if two of the heat exchanger are filled simultaneously. Appropriate consumer power output of the fluid motor can be a generator 428 or other payload.

Preferably, the heat exchangers were provided with a concentrated exposure to a suitable collector, solar lighting, for example, from heliostat or shown in the drawing parabolic plates 442. In the case when solar energy is insufficient for the operation on energy conversion, additional heat may be generated due to the combustion in the respective burner 448. For this additional heating is preferable to use a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen and/or other combustible gases produced during the anaerobic fermentation of organic Mat is the Rial.

After heating and expansion to a suitable low pressure carbon dioxide enters the tube 458 and sent to the item appropriate application. Water condenses and collects in the reservoir 450, which is cooled by countercurrent heat exchanger 456 in the circulation of a suitable heat exchange fluid from 446 to 456 with the subsequent release through 448 in a suitable cogenerator. Cold water is pumped by pump 454 and returned to the autoclave 402, where again used to remove carbon dioxide and in the cycle of energy conversion.

The following Examples do not limit the scope of the invention and are merely illustration.

Materials and methods

Used electrodes consisted of steel rods with a length of 300 mm, a width of 25 mm and a thickness of 2.5 mm was also Used other metal electrodes made of lead, copper, steel and brass. We also used a pair of electrodes with the above sizes of graphite impregnated with copper; visible destruction of graphite electrodes was not observed.

Samples of waste materials were taken from sanitary waste station in Staten Island, New York with depth from 9.1 to 15.2 m (30-50 ft). The natural state of the waste materials produced by the formation of methane and carbon dioxide as main gases (in the ratio of 55:35) the reaction is AI methanogenesis and have a pH of 6.5 to 7.0.

Samples of wastewater were taken from the primary autoclave installations for the processing of sewage sludge in Brooklyn, New York. In their natural state sewage sludge produce methane and carbon dioxide (in the ratio of 65:30) as a result of methanogenesis and have a pH 7,0-7,5.

In one experimental series, each sample was examined in a three-neck flask with a capacity of 800 ml each of the holes which was closed with a rubber stopper. Two of these holes were inserted electrodes; a third hole provided with glass measuring tube connected to the gas analyzer. The electrodes were simultaneously attached to the battery with a voltage of 1.5 volts, causing the output potential was about to 3.0 volts. The assembled device was placed in a thermostat at a temperature of 37°or 55°C. Other experiments were performed using a New Brunswick fermenter Fermenter, with a glass vessel with a capacity of 6-8 l, in which you can regulate the temperature and stirring speed.

Example 1

As an experimental control, their sewage sludge in a flask with a capacity of 800 l were placed in the incubator at 37°C. As shown in Table 1 and figure 3, the resulting gases contained mainly methane.

Table 1

Methane production and diox is Yes carbon
Days% CH4% CO2% N2
165305
270255
370255
465305
560354
655405

Example 2

Sewage sludge from the primary autoclave was placed in a flask with a capacity of 800 l, which, in turn, was placed in a preheated incubator at 37°C. the Formed gaseous methane. For achieving optimum yield of methane through the liquid in the flask electrical current was passed. Gradually the performance of the process of methane was reduced and formed hydrogen and carbon dioxide. As shown in Table 2 and depicted in figure 4, the methane formation was completely suppressed while achieving maximum performance on hydrogen.

Table 2

hydrogen production and suppression of methane formation
Days% CH4% CO2% H2
16035-
27025-
3*452520
4252846
553060
6Traces3068
*start passing an electric current

Example 3

Sewage sludge from the primary autoclave was placed in a flask with a capacity of 800 ml, which, in turn, were placed in the incubator at 37°C. an electric current was passed through the sediment with a total voltage of 3 volts from two 1,5 volt batteries connected in parallel. Since the beginning of the pulses was observed very little methane. As follows from the data presented in Table 3 and depicted in figure 5, within 3 days of the performance of hydrogen reached the maximum value and the methane formation is almost completely suppressed.

Table 3

Production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide when voltage is applied from the beginning of the experiment
Days% H2% CO2% N 2% CH4
1652528
270252Traces
370188Traces
470208-
568254-

Example 4

A sample of sludge was placed in a 5 liter flask of New Brunswick fermenter and put 4 of the electrode. Through the sample, an electrical current was passed (2,5 volts, 0.05 amps). First, we observed formation only methane and carbon dioxide, with only a small hydrogen generation. As you increase the voltage to 4.0 to 4.5 volts and current to 0.11 to 0.15 amps methane formation was gradually suppressed, and, as shown in table 4, generation of hydrogen was increased.

Table 4

Production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide from sewage sludge in a 5-liter vessel
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4
1-301250
2535846
3430660
52530540
64825520
7602028
970254traces

Example 5

The waste materials obtained in a random sample of drilled wells were subjected to investigation to determine the lowest energy costs per unit of energy produced. The experiments were conducted using waste materials (composted municipal solid waste), located in two flasks with a capacity of 800 ml, containing (1) only waste materials, (2) waste materials treated by electricity. The results obtained are presented in Tables 5 and 6, and figures 6 and 7.

Table 5

Receiving gases from waste materials
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4
1-- --
2-310-
3-20810
5-40650
6-30563
7-30560
8-35460
9-35562

Table 6

Receiving gases from waste materials subjected to electrical treatment
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4The total volume of gas (cm3)
153---95
272813-302
376176-500
475186-600
572186-450
772186-600
9651814-500

Example 6

The procedure of Example 5 was repeated using (1) only sewage sludge, (2) using sewage sludge, treated with electric shock. The results obtained are presented in Tables 7 and 8 and on figure 8.

Table 7

Receiving gases from sewage sludge
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4The total volume of gas (cm3)
2-20146550
3-141070125
4-19472225
5-22466258
6 -18870200
Table 8

Receiving gases from sewage sludge, processed electric current
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4The total volume of gas (cm3)
265284885
370202Traces200
470188Traces310
570202-330
668224-258

Example 7

Electric current was passed through the waste materials are placed in a vessel with a capacity of 6 litres, fitted with electrodes, the supply of electric potential of 3.5 volts. The results obtained are presented in Table 9 and depicted in figure 9.

Table 9

Receiving gases from m the weed materials, located in a vessel with a capacity of 6 l
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4The total volume of gas (cm3)
175Traces12-100
270510-1020
475715-850
675817-750
870520-600

Example 8

Waste materials in 6-liter vessel equipped with electrodes, were placed in pre-heated to 55°With the incubator. After 4 days on the electrodes applied electric potential of 3.5 volts. The results obtained are presented in Table 10 and depicted in figure 10.

Table 10

Receiving gases from waste materials
Days% H2% CO2% N2% CH4The total volume of gas (cm3)
1 -5--20
2-20-35125
3-35-55200
4
5*-30-20150
72531-7150
86035-Traces250
96831--285
106530--200
*Start of supply of electric current

Similar results were obtained by mixing a relatively small quantity of inoculum from sewage sludge with stall fertilizers and agricultural waste. After the incubation periods, during which it was created anaerobic conditions, we observed formation of methane and carbon dioxide, with little generation of hydrogen. On the Le supply electric potential of 2.0 to 5.0 volts to generate DC power 0,10-0,20 amp methane formation was suppressed, and hydrogen was formed in quantities similar to those shown in Table 10. Similar results were also obtained when using inoculum from the previous experiments described in Example 4.

1. The method of obtaining gas from anaerobic degradable organic material, comprising forming a reaction mixture containing the specified anaerobic degradable organic materials, the application of electric potential to the said reaction mixture and collecting the specified gas, characterized in that to obtain a gas containing an increased amount of hydrogen and lower the amount of methane compared to gases generated spontaneously from these anaerobic degradable organic materials, carry out the intermittent generation of the electric current at intervals determined in accordance with the content of hydrogen and/or methane, detektivami in gas derived from organic material, the value of the electric potential is from 3 to 6 C.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the anaerobically degradable organic material includes anaerobic compostable cellulose materials and/or anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the electric current produced by the creation of an electrical potential between the electrodes, the con is asterousia with organic material.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein part of the hydrogen produced from organic material used in the process of conversion of energy to ensure energy for the generation of electric current.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the carbon dioxide derived from organic material, is separated from the hydrogen produced from organic material as a result of absorption of carbon dioxide under pressure of the liquid, resulting in a secreted hydrogen is collected in the respective manifold means.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the pressurized fluid is a water column height of at least 300 m, with a temperature from 4 to 16°C.

7. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that drossellied pressurized fluid containing carbon dioxide, to carbon dioxide and energy transfer to the engine.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that before throttling pressurized fluid containing carbon dioxide, to her warm.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the throttled liquid is subjected to further cooling, increase its pressure and recycle additional absorption of carbon dioxide.

10. Device for separating carbon dioxide from other gas is shaped substances, obtained by the decomposition of organic material containing tank items to place under the pressure of the liquid, with preferred ability to dissolve carbon dioxide in comparison with the dissolution of her other gaseous substances, nutrient devices made with the possibility of introduction of the mixture consisting of carbon dioxide and other gaseous substances, in the lower part of the tank, collector items, made with the possibility of collecting other undissolved gaseous substances from an intermediate part of the collector means, and means for draining fluid containing carbon dioxide, characterized in that the reservoir elements have the shape of a vertical column containing at least one spiral rib located along the axis of the column, and the top of the spiral ribs are connected with the collector elements, and means for draining fluid containing carbon dioxide and, preferably, carbon dioxide is made in the upper part of the tank elements.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the column has a height of at least 300 meters

12. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that it further includes means for monitoring temperature in reservoir elements.

13. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that it further contains the expander, adapted for making pressurized fluid containing carbon dioxide, means for draining liquid.

14. The device according to item 13, characterized in that it further includes means for collecting carbon dioxide adapted to collect the carbon dioxide coming out of the expander.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that it further comprises heating elements made with the possibility of heating the liquid containing carbon dioxide flowing from the outlet means in the expander, cooling elements and elements to create pressure, respectively, made with the possibility of cooling and pressurization of the fluid collected from the expander, and I chilled and pressurized fluid in the lower part of the tank elements.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: environmental protection; methods and devices for the waste waters sediment heating up for the anaerobic stabilization in the methane-tanks.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the biological purification of the waste waters, in particular to anaerobic stabilization of the sediments in the methane-tanks for the waste waters purification facilities with the productivity of more than 50-100 thousand m3/day at the mesophilic (32-35°C) and the thermophilic (52-55°C) temperature modes. For the sediment heating up and its anaerobic stabilization in the methane-tank the raw sediment is loaded in the methane-tank, the partially stabilized sediment is withdrawn from the methane-tank, heat with the steam in the injector and after that load again in the methane-tank. At that the source steam is divided in the separator into the condensate and the dry steam. The crude sediment is loaded in the methane-tank after its mixing with the partially stabilized sediment and the condensate produced at separation of the source steam. The mixture including the partially stabilized sediment, the crude sediment and the condensate is heated up by the dry steam, which is fed to the inlet of an injector with the possibility of the flow control. The heating device of sediment for anaerobic stabilization in the methane-tank contains the methane-tank, the pipeline of the crude sediment feeding, the injector, the injector intake pipeline and the pressure pipeline, the source steam feeding pipeline, the separator, the condensate pipeline, the dry steam pipeline, the condensate discharge pipeline, and also the shut-off-control equipment. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the methane tank due to provision of the optimal mode of the heating, more thorough mixing of the sediment, minimization of the losses of the heat power and the increased reliability the service life of the used equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the methane tank due to provision of the optimal mode of the heating, more thorough mixing of the sediment, minimization of the losses of the heat power and the increased reliability the service life of the used equipment.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture; bioenergetic installations for processing organic waste materials of the farm-production in the anoxic conditions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of agriculture, in particular, to the installations for processing organic waste materials of the farm-production in then anoxic conditions and may be used for production of the biogas. The bioenergetic installation contains: the methane-tank with the water jacket, the heat insulation, the stirrer, the loading and unloading connecting pipes, the pipe ducts of the biogas feeding and the gas-holder. The installation is supplied with the helio-collector, the electrical water-heater and the Sterling engine in the form of the thermomechanical generator with the biogas burner, which is arranged on the side of the engine bottom and connected to the pipe duct for feeding of the biogas from the gas-holder. In the Sterling engine the heat energy of the biogas burning in the biogas burner is converted into the electric power and used for heating of the biomass fermented in the methane-tank up to the necessary temperature and provision of the continuous operation of the system in the periods of absence of the solar energy-radiation{sunlight}. The invention ensures the stand-alone power supply of the local customers in the rural area with the combined utilization of the solar energy and the power of the biomass.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the stand-alone power supply of the local customers in the rural area with the combined utilization of the solar energy and the power of the biomass.

2 dwg

FIELD: biotechnological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to anaerobic fermentation of manure, energetic biomass, and similar organic substrates. Method envisages providing organic material containing solid and/or liquid fraction and treating this organic material with lime at pressure and temperature between 100 and 220°C, which results in hydrolysis of organic material. Lime is composed of Ca(OH)3 and/or CaO and being added to trap evolving ammonia and to disinfect organic material it also precipitates dissolved orthophosphate.

EFFECT: reduced amount of viable microorganisms.

125 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

Methane tank // 2281254

FIELD: anaerobic devices for anaerobic fermentation of liquid materials from organic agricultural wastes, manure inclusive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed methane tank for biological gas plants includes horizontal cylindrical reservoir divided by central fixed partition into first and second fermentation chambers, agitator which is common for both chambers, electric oil heater and reversible pump. Reservoir is provided with hermetic partition fitted with gate for overflow of part of material from first chamber to free second chamber with no consumption of energy. Reversible self-cleaning agitator has shaft on which worn strip is secured on blades.

EFFECT: continuous production of biological gas; complete fermentation of material; reduced power requirements; low cost; simplified construction.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: fertilizer contains nutritive substances for plants. Organic substances contained in liquid fertilizer composition are mineralized by at least 95% of amount of organic substances in wastes before being fermented in methane tank with resulting production of humus. Method involves feeding into outer chamber of coaxial methane tank liquefied and ground organic substances of wastes and providing sequential anaerobic fermentation thereof; heating and mixing mass under fermentation process with gas-and-liquid mixture; discharging resulting mass for producing fertilizer; withdrawing biogas from outer and inner chambers; introducing biogas contained in heated gas-and-liquid mixture from outer chamber into inner chamber in the form of dissipated jet streams for mixing of fermentable mass therein; providing first phase of anaerobic fermentation of liquefied and ground organic waste substances in outer chamber in acid medium at pH less than 7.0 until complete decomposition of all delivered and settled fermented organic waste substances of different densities is provided by active symbiosis of splitting (hydrolyzing) microorganisms accompanied with destruction thereby of complex compounds into simpler compounds and formation of fatty acids and weak biogas (carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide); introducing the latter into inner chamber for providing second phase of anaerobic fermentation in alkaline medium at pH exceeding 7.2 with following producing of fuel biogas by means of methanogenic bacteria. Apparatus has hermetically sealed reservoir, bottom and cupola with concentric partition having shape similar in plan to that of reservoir and adapted for dividing it into outer and inner chambers, branch pipes for supplying liquefied organic wastes and discharge of fermented sediments, means for mixing and heating fermented wastes and branch pipes for discharge of biogas from outer and inner chambers. Branch pipe for discharge of biogas from outer chamber is connected through gas line with suction pipe of injector, to pressure pipe of which is joined heat exchanger with heater.

EFFECT: improved quality of liquid mineralized organic fertilizer.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and urban-municipal economies.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for application in agriculture and urban-municipal economies for rational use of a urban household waste products and different organic agricultural waste products with production from anaerobic fermentation products of used for the power purposes fuel biogas and the high-quality decontaminated from pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of the weeds mineralized organic fertilizers with a high share of humus and other stimulators of different plants growth and bearing. The method of a serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of fermentable organic waste products is conducted in a methane tank divided by a vertical partition not reaching its bottom into two unequal by volume chambers, in the upper part of the smallest of which there is a protected by a perforated fencing loading-unloading elevator of the waste products, where the first sour phase of the fermentation by a symbiosis of splitting microorganisms at pH less than 7.0 is conducted. Products of organic substance disassimilation of wastes products and vital activities of microorganisms are fed in the second phase of fermentation at pH - 7.2 in the form of methanic microorganisms basically in the greater chamber of the methane-tank with formation of a fuel biogas. Unfermentable substances and different impurities without their sorting unload by the elevator from the methane-tank. The technical result is realization of the serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different state organic household waste products with different impurities without their grounding, sorting and dilution; a capability to separate and remove the unfermented waste products and impurities, the fullest disassimilation with production of the greatest quantity of the decontaminated fertilizer with the greatest share of humus, stimulators of growth and bearing of plants and the greatest outlet of a fuel biogas.

EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of the serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different state organic household waste products, production of the greatest quantity of the decontaminated fertilizer, humus and a fuel biogas.

6 cl, 6 dwg

Methane-tank // 2250878

FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.

SUBSTANCE: the is intended for use in municipal economy and in agriculture for a sequential phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different solid non-graded and non-ground fermentable organic waste materials of cities and settlements, waste products of agricultural enterprises, agricultural farms, bungalows and households with production out of them of the high-quality decontaminated from a pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds, liquid mineralized organic fertilizers with a good share of humus and a combustible biogas used for the power purposes. The methane-tank contains a horizontal basin separated by internal alternately not reaching up to the top and the bottom of the basin cross partitions for the gas sections with the gas collectors and the liquid flowing through communicating chambers with draw-off taps, a loading and an unloading connecting pipes, heaters of fermentable mass and a gas pipeline of a gasholder linked to the gas collectors of gas sections. The basin has a built-in chain-scraper type loading-unloading elevator with a drive, which horizontally located one over another working branches with a perforated fence between them and around of them are inserted from the direction of a loading connecting pipe inside the basin below the level of the fermentable liquid organic mass set in the basin. The gas collector of the first gas section is connected with a gas pipeline of drawing the biogas off from the section into an injector interacting with a discharge pump pumping out of a fermentable mass of the chamber and boosting it back into the chamber through a connected with it injector and a disperser of the gas-liquid mixture formed in the injector. The technical result: improvement of the methane-tank design, provision of an efficient splitting of the solid fermentable organic substances of the waste products and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the methane-tank design and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

4 cl, 5 dwg

Digester // 2242434
The invention relates to the field of sewage and is intended for use in the treatment plants of domestic and industrial wastewater utilities, livestock and poultry farms, in domestic biogas and Bogomolova installations rural areas and suburban areas

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used on livestock and poultry farms for the production of manure, litter, and various vegetable waste combustible biogas for energy purposes and for the preparation of high-quality organic fertilizer

Digester // 2234468
The invention relates to municipal and agricultural farms and mainly intended for use on livestock and poultry farms in equipment biogas and Bogomazova plants when they develop different organic waste combustible biogas and organic fertilizers

FIELD: simultaneous absorption of selected components of acid gas and topping light fractions of hydrocarbons entrapped by liquid flow.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of gas flow and liquid flow to first mixer where they are brought in contact in direct flow and are subjected to turbulent mixing; then multi-phase flow from first mixer is directed to second mixer and after second mixer multi-phase flow is divided into gas phase and liquid phase. Second mixer has housing 102 with inlet hole 122 and outlet hole 123. Housing is provided with at least one movable control member 104 mounted hermetically; control member has central chamber for forming part of first wall connected with inlet side of housing and part of second wall connected with outlet side of housing. These parts of walls are provided with through passages 106A and 107B.

EFFECT: enhanced topping of entrapped hydrocarbons; increased absorption capacity by acid gas.

15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; other industries; spraying heat-mass exchange apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the engineering realization of the heat-mass exchange processes, which take place in the gas-liquid system, such as absorption, chilling, dust-trapping, aeration, and may find application in the chemical industry and its adjacent industries. The body of the apparatus is divided by the partition into the contact and separating zones. Inside the contact zone there are the sprayers and the contact components. The apparatus is supplied with the drum installed in the contact zone with the possibility of rotation. On the drum there are fixed with the possibility of rotation the Т-shaped contact components. The T-shaped contact components are formed by the solid and mesh-type plates. The invention allows to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, and also to improve the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus, that increases efficiency of the heat-mass exchange process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced aerodynamic drag of the apparatus, the improvement of the gas injection into the contact zone of the apparatus and the increased efficiency of the heat- mass exchange process.

3 dwg

FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; designs of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the design of the bubble-type reactors for production of 1.2-dichloroethane by the method of the liquid-phase chlorination of ethylene with the reaction heat removal at boiling of the working medium. As the contact device the reactor uses two layers of the metallic nozzle. The liquid 1.2-dichloroethane is fed from above to the nozzle, into the space between the layers of the nozzle feed the gaseous chlorine with nitrogen, and under the lower layer of the nozzle feed the gaseous ethylene with nitrogen, that allows to reduce the diameter of the reactor in 1.5-2 times due to the increased effectiveness of stirring and formation of the developed contact surface of the phases. At that the heat of the reaction is removed by evaporation of 1.2-dichloroethane in nitrogen. At that the temperature of the liquid is maintained below the boiling temperature. The technical result of the invention is the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity of the process, reduction of the outlet of the by-products (the highest ethane chlorides) and the decreased overall dimensions of the reactor.

1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; metallurgy industry; methods of the wet ash-trapping with the help of Venturi tube.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the wet ash-trapping with the help of the Venturi tube intended for trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers burning the solid fuel, and also may be used for trapping of the cement kiln dust in production of the cement and for the dust trapping in the metallurgical, chemical and other industries, where the ash-and-dust catchers use the Venturi tubes. The purpose of the invention is to increase the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers with the Venturi tubes and burning the solid fuels as well as the reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam to increase the boilers efficiency by sprinkling of the Venturi tube with the flue gases transiting in it, the acoustic injector giving more thin and uniform atomization of the water at the decreased consumption both of the water and the steam of the sprinkler, where the acoustic field is characterized by the strictly determined frequency, intensity and the variable acoustic pressure and the steam is in the narrow temperature interval. The flue gases passing in the Venturi tube are sprinkled by the acoustic injector using the steam with the temperature of 250-350°С and forming in the volume of the tube the acoustic field, which is characterized by the frequency of 20-22, 36-38 or 44-48 kHz, the variable sound pressure of no less than 140 dB and the acoustic field intensity of no less than 0.5 W/cm2. The offered method, unlike the methods applied now, allows to act on the flue gases transiting in the Venturi tube simultaneously by several methods of deposition of the ash: - the acoustic method (coagulation - under action of the oscillations of the certain frequency, intensity and the variable sound pressure); humidification of the ash particles of ash in the steam-water aerosphere of the very finely sprinkled water with the full spectrum of the drops dimensions for all the sizes of the ash particles). This considerably increases the degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and increases the efficiency of the boilers.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of trapping of the fly ash from the flue gases of the boilers at the simultaneous reduction of the specific consumptions of the water and steam and the increased efficiency of the boilers using the solid fuel.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.

4 dwg

FIELD: wet dust collection; chemical, textile, food-processing and light industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrodynamic dust collector has housing with inlet and outlet branch pipes, reservoir filled with liquid and provided with level indicator, phase mixer consisting of inclined blades with partitions and two layers of twin concave plates which are symmetrical relative to axis of apparatus, one central plate and sludge removal unit. Vibrator located in upper layers of liquid is secured to housing by means of elastic perforated membrane; ratio of width "a" of inclined blades to width "b" of first pair of concave plates is equal to a/b=4.0-4.5; ratio of width "b" of first pair of concave plates to width "c" of second pair of concave plates is within optimal range of b/c=1.25-1.5. Vibrator is made in form of section inscribed in sizes or liquid reservoir.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability of dust collection process.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: absorption, desorption, dust and gas separation, drying, mixing and cooling gases.

SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus has housing, cover, bottom, phase supply and discharge branch pipes, vortex contact device consisting of upper base, tangential plates, plate and separator, liquid distributors equipped with injectors and mounted on upper base of contact device. Horizontal disk-type partitions are mounted in height of tangential plates of vortex contact device. Horizontal disk-type partitions and upper base of vortex contact device are provided with circular slots in area of attachment of tangential plates. Circular shoulders are made on external and internal shears of disk-type partitions and on external shear of upper base of vortex contact device. Separator is made in form of truncated taper ferrule; diameter of lower shear of this ferrule is equal to 0.75-0.9 of inner diameter of vortex contact device. Number of vortex contact devices ranges from 1 to 3. Distance between upper base of vortex contact device and lower shear of separator is equal to 0.3-1.0 of inner diameter of vortex contact device.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat and mass exchange of vortex apparatus at high loads in gas and liquid phases.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: separation.

SUBSTANCE: conical ejecting scrubber comprises housing with branch pipes for dusted and cleaned gas, nozzle spraying device, bearing and arresting plates, nozzle interposed between the plates, and device for discharging slime. The bearing plates are flexible, and the nozzle is mounted above the bottom bearing plate and is made of flexible materials in the form of polyethylene balls. The bottom bearing plate is provided with vibrator. The nozzle can be made of hollow balls, whose spherical surfaces are provided with screw groove, or toroidal rings.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability and reduced metal consumption for manufacturing.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises groups of parallel rectangular plates with corrugated bottom. The ribs of the corrugation are oriented along the flow, and the distance between the plates does not exceed 30 mm. Between the plates, rods or pipes are arranged at an angle 90±15° to the vector of flows. The plates are assembled in groups of parallel plates inclined downstream. The uniform distribution of fluid over the plates when fluid flows from one plate group to another group is provided by means of distributing-overflowing devices.

EFFECT: decreased hydraulic drag.

2 cl, 5 dwg

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