Method for preparing argillaceous sands for disintegration
FIELD: mining industry, possible use mainly during extraction of argillaceous placers by open method.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical shrinkage of mass and extraction of sands using digging-transporting equipment. Shrinkage of mass is performed with creation of crowns, and extraction of sands is performed by cutting off aforementioned crowns.
EFFECT: increased recovery of useful components from argillaceous sands of mass, containing large pieces.
4 cl, 8 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry and may find application mainly in the development of alluvial clay deposits in an open way.
To achieve consistently high performance of the process of disintegration of all categories of processed clay Sands is not always possible. This becomes most relevant in our days, when commodity reserves of alluvial deposits with favorable conditions of occurrence are almost exhausted and requires involvement in the development of properties or fields with rebellious Sands with a focus on environmentally friendly technologies. The share of these deposits ranges from 45 to 60%, and in some regions up to 80%.
Therefore becomes increasingly important finding and creating effective ways to improve the disintegration clayey Sands.
There are many ways to increase the efficiency of disintegration clayey Sands.
For example, a known method of increasing disintegration rebellious clayey Sands with the use of cutting plates (so-called universal Navarin) in dredging the barrel, which reduce the loss of valuable components from 7-8% to 2-6% (Development and industrial implementation of highly effective methods of disintegration and enrichment trudnoponimaemyh Sands to enrich the nutrient factory No. 5 and drag ON "YAKUTALMAZ". Study of wear resistance and increased durability and operational reliability of the reconstructed equipment branch of the disintegration of sand processing plant No. 5: human development Report (final)/ Sverdlovsk mining Institute, T.; head Wooderful. - Sverdlovsk, 1988. - 58 S.).
There is also known a method disintegration using high-pressure jets in the drum screens, which reduces the output of the clay pellets in pebble dumps 1.3 times (Bruns S.A., Kuzmich I.A. ON the fracture behavior of ductile and brittle materials by running water // Mining engineering properties of rocks and applied questions of mining mechanics. Edition of 125. - M.: Publishing house of the Institute of mining, 1974 - C-84).
In the case of the application of these methods it is possible to reduce the size of the clay pieces and to increase the area of their surface. However, to weaken the structure of the rocks and to improve their erosion is not possible, because not decrease their moisture content and coherence of the particles.
A known method using a vibrating washing machines of the type IUI-100. MD-88. R-633 and MPA-100, which increase the efficiency of disintegration to 90-96,7% (Trinity CENTURIES Leaching of minerals. - M.: Nedra, 1978. - 254 S.).
However, the effectiveness of this method depends on the physico-mechanical composition entering the enrichment of sand, and it decreases dramatically when developing Myasnikovich (viscous) g is in because of the difficulties of their erosion. While the destruction of large pieces practically does not occur.
Known method for improving the disintegration clayey Sands with the use of chemicals (sulfuric acid, chloride and caustic sodium, soda, ferric chloride), which reduces the loss of valuable components from the products of incomplete disintegration of 4-7% (Potapova T.S., Polyakov A.V., Morozov V.N. and other efficiency development clayey alluvial Siberia and North-East // the Increase of efficiency of development of mineral deposits in Eastern Siberia. - Irkutsk, 1985. - 47 S.). Processing clayey Sands is carried out before the enrichment process in the pre-opening state or in a rock mass with the use of coagulants, for example afloat chlorides of metals (Matveev A.A. and other Effect of chemical reagents on the extraction of diamonds on the drag // Izvestiya vuzov "Mining magazine". No. 1 - 1985. - P.10-12).
However, when using this method on the rock mass cannot evenly loosen the structure of clayey Sands. Due to the low permeability of clay rocks remain untreated plots and accordingly hardly eroding pieces. Processing the pre-opening of clays does not provide flow of the enrichment process. In addition, this method of preparation clayey Sands made the focus of a long-term process, environmentally hazardous and adverse effect on all metal processing equipment, as well as pontoon drag.
The known method of increasing disintegration of the clay using a spark discharge in the liquid (electrohydraulic effect), in order to enhance the disintegration of class less than 5 mm to 85% (Trinity CENTURIES Washing and desliming of minerals. - M.: Nedra, 1988. - 280 S.).
There is a method that uses intensify the effects of ultrasound on clods of clay the size of 20-60 mm, allowing to completely destroy them for 35-75 min (Trinity CENTURIES Washing and desliming of minerals. - M.: Nedra, 1988. - 280).
There is also known a method comprising the use of devices using acoustic oscillations during the flushing breeds sizes up to 70 mm with clay content 55-85%, increase the efficiency of disintegration to 92-98% (Trinity CENTURIES Washing and desliming of minerals. - M.: Nedra, 1988. - 280 S.).
However, all three of the above method can only be used on small clay pieces. Technology preliminary preparation such pieces to enrichment in the development process clayey Sands no. Therefore, all these methods are not out of the laboratory and pilot-scale tests do not provide the threading process and high performance is eljnosti processing equipment.
There is a method of cryogenic processing (drying) clayey sand (Beilin Y.A. New direction in technology for processing alluvial Sands deposits in the North-East // Kolyma. - 1981.- No. 8. - p.3-5).
This method allows you to weaken and destroy the surface layers of separate pieces of clay material. Relatively large pieces require long duration of the process, when you can't provide enrichment. This method has not reached the stage of pilot testing is technically and technologically difficult to implement and does not provide flow of production.
The known method of preparing loamy Sands by pre-wetting (Shorokhov S.M. in Technology and comprehensive mechanization of the development of placer deposits. - M.: Nedra, 1973).
However, with increasing content of clay in the Sands of the effectiveness of this method is sharply reduced due to the reduction of the permeability of rocks. With adequate watering occurs only in the surface layer. The underlying layers viscosity during hydration may even increase.
For the prototype accepted way to prepare clayey Sands, including their mechanical loosening offset by races of half-Ripper Bezborodova pillar. Using a longitudinal annular, spiral, back and post atelinae, longitudinal-transversal loosening (Reference alluvial mining. Edited Vperson and others - M.: Nedra, 1973, p.100-101, prototype). Notch clayey Sands after ripping is done to a depth of 0.7-0.9 Np(where Np- digging depth).
The disadvantage of the prototype is caking clay rocks after loosening and slidenote during subsequent excavation. Humidity loosened in this way rocks decreases slightly, and the size of the pieces of clay, coming to the enrichment remains the same, therefore the subsequent disintegration of the improved enough.
A common feature of the claimed technical solution with the prototype is ripping clayey Sands and their subsequent excavation excavation and transport equipment.
Object of the invention is the most complete extraction of useful components from clayey Sands array containing pieces of large size.
The technical result of the invention is to create clay pieces with weak texture, providing a more intense their destruction when interacting with water in the course of the subsequent disintegration by shania colloidal shells of clay minerals due to more intense weathering and drying in the ridges containing channels (cracks) and providing pain the second contact area of the surface of the pieces with the atmosphere. In addition to this result, the invention achieves a reduction in size clay size pieces more than 200-250 mm and a decrease in the percentage of their output in prepared for the enrichment of the bulk.
This in turn leads to the improvement of their disintegration in the process of further enrichment and, as consequence, increase of extraction of valuable components.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of preparation of clayey Sands to disintegration, including mechanical loosening of the array and the excavation of sand excavation and transport equipment according to the invention, the loosening of the array produced with the formation of ridges, the notch clayey Sands after loosening produced by cutting ridges without penetration of the working body below the base of the ridges. Moreover, the formation of the ridges produced by the two parallel races odnoperogo Ripper offset stroke within 10÷15% of the track width formed anosovym Ripper. Loosening with the formation of ridges carried out with minimal cutting angle, for example between 40 and 50°and mechanical equipment used bulldozer-loosening unit with adjustable tilt stand.
The technical result of the invention is achieved by changes in physical and mechanical properties of clay Sands : open avannah Miloradovich crests, coming in on subsequent disintegration (in the scrubber or drum screen), due to smaller size pieces prepared in the array and therefore more accessible to erosion, but also by changing their texture by reducing the moisture content of the clay by drying them in the sun and partial weathering (colloidal shell of clay minerals dries to ensure their strong bonding)that allows for the entry of such clayey Sands in the water in their washing to intensify their expansion (swelling colloidal shells when their moisture faster, which leads to an increase in the volume of the outer layer of the clay, causing education is uneven shearing stresses that lead to cracking of the outer layer). The yield of the clay pellets in pebble tails is minimized.
In addition, in the process of filing clayey Sands to the receiving hopper drilling unit (DCC-1200 or FCB-700) the invention is achieved by the delivery of more than loose sand. In other words, no twisting of the cutting of clay layers in the "rolls" with the formation of a dense pieces of large dimensions, which cannot be subjected to disintegration. Losses of valuable components from the products of incomplete disintegration can reach almost 100%.
According to the invention in PR is in the process of excavation rock the blade into the ground not zarekaetsa, and cuts only formed Bezborodova combs, clayey Sands in which more loosened and dried.
Loosening of the array with the formation of ridges will increase the fracture and increase warming up in them rocks by increasing the surface area.
Loosening with the formation of ridges with a minimum angle of cut allows you to enhance the fracture and the looseness of clay rocks it in the crests, and not for the entire array at a depth of tilling the soil, and increases the height of the crests.
Notch clayey Sands after ripping through cutting crests supply in bulk most loosened and removed (drained) pieces.
Currently known methods of formation of ridges in agricultural technology, including for planting potatoes. However, in this case using special-purpose hardware that can only run on soft, friable soils. While ridges are formed by Sands rocks outside, with slopes. In the claimed technical solution ridges are formed from the inside. In the known technical solution combs sleep off of loosened rocks and rock fracturing is not increased. In the proposed invention combs will have a maximum, the newly created fracture, which leads to a technical effect.
To prepare the rock for excavation, milling the definition loosening apply various types of working bodies (Modern bulldozers with rippers powerful tractors and experience of their operation in the North: an overview. - M.: Createstream, 1987, issue 2; Zakharchuk B.Z. Bulldozers and rippers. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987; A.S.№№606960, 626164, 706500, 723057, 819282, 840259, 918403, 962479, 964074, 1020525 and others; U.S. patent No. 461805, 4592240, 3857447; Japan No. 51-39711, 53-206, 57-23051, 58-49663; Germany No. 3530594, 3007558; France, No. 2467919 and others). However, in most cases, the main purpose of these inventions is to improve the fracture in the rock mass and the problem of the formation of the ridges is not worth it.
Known methods of preparation of rock loosening, including the prototype (A.S. No. 857371, 699121, 1104216 and others class. E 02 F 5/18, 5/30), also aimed at reducing the strength of the rocks in the forthcoming array and to increase the depth of tillage. Unlike the proposed method, in which, without increasing the depth of the tilling is achieved by the formation of ridges, the shape of which contributes to a qualitative change in the patterns of the pieces of the developed array, namely its weakening erosion, achieved by shania colloidal shells of clay minerals, can, by interaction with water in the process of disintegration faster to collapse.
The resulting shape of the ridges was installed in the observation and photographing. While the mechanism of the influence of the shape of the ridges on the appearance of the weakened structure of the large pieces of the array provided by the applicant in the present application materials.
The invention is illustrated h is regame.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the movement of the Ripper when forming Bezborodova ridge adjacent races.
Figure 2 shows the scheme of movement of the cultivator when forming Bezborodova crest of the longitudinal-cross races.
Figure 3 shows the diagram of the formation of methodologi crest at the first course of the Ripper (getting started).
Figure 4 shows the diagram of the formation of methodologi crest at the adjacent course of the Ripper.
Figure 5 shows a finally formed miloradovic ridge.
Figure 6 shows the settings section Bezborodova ridge formed parallel races Ripper.
Figure 7 shows the parameters section Bezborodova ridge, formed of parallel-cross strokes Ripper.
On Fig shows a picture formed Miloradovich ridges in comparison with surveying the rail.
The method is as follows.
Produce loosening of the array of mechanical equipment with the formation of ridges. The formation of ridges through two parallel races odnoperogo Ripper offset within 10÷15% of the width educated them gauge. Loosening with the formation of ridges is done with minimal cutting angle. After loosening the notch Sands produced by cutting gr the Bnei without penetration of the working body in the array below their base.
Experimentally proved that the quality of washing cemented clay Sands is significantly influenced by the initial size of the pieces entering disintegration, and residual moisture from the rocks. Typically, clay interlayers occupy quite a large area. When the excavation and transportation of sand by a bulldozer to the receiving bin of Prompribor agitation and abrasion of rocks blade. With little clay content (less than 20%) and high humidity Sands (within 20-30%) last served on the concentration plant to a certain extent produzentengalerie during extraction and transportation. The high content of clay in the sand we see the opposite picture. Especially in the low and flooded areas of the landfill. When developing such section, bulldozers, there is even greater original seal Sands with formation of a dense, hard to destroy Nabal. Mechanical loosening of the original Sands allows you to adjust the average size of a piece of rock, and their natural drying gives the opportunity to improve their dezintegriruetsja when washed in a scrubber-Butare.
In the course of research aimed at establishing effective schemes loosening Sands, which provides the lowest output pieces of clay larger than 150 mm, were investigated var is the ants using flow Ripper related races (parallel passages, 1) and the longitudinal-transverse (parallel-cross course, figure 2), as well as continuous loosening with the formation methodologi Nabal and without formation of Nabal (loosening the grid of 0.5×0.5 m does not allow to form methodoloy bulk, because the rolling each successive crest caterpillars).
To assess the efficiency of the Ripper from the technological and economic points of view were used two types of bulldozers (RS-126 - base DEATH 250M and D-355A "KOMATSU").
Millana square ground clearance bulldozers in both cases are almost equal and is for RS-126 0.9 m2and for D-355A - 0,96 m2. In field observations of the work of the rippers in the formation Miloradovich crests not revealed sharp differences in its geometric parameters.
Bezborodova ridges are formed stand Ripper between two adjacent turns of the bulldozer. Formed in the crest of clayey Sands should not subsequently be rolled caterpillar bulldozer. Experimentally proved, that the application of the proposed method loosening allows to reduce the average size of the clay pieces particle size of more than 250 mm 50-60% and reduce the percentage of their output in prepared for the enrichment of the bulk up to 60% compared with the development of sand without preparation.
Below is the procedure for the formation of m is gorazdova ridge, formed by two adjacent races of the Ripper. After loosening one band (figure 3) begins with the formation of a second, adjacent. When reaching the path prepared site bulldozer does not expand, and on the back of the transmission with the speed in 2-2,5 times the speed of the stroke, back. The new section Ripper is shifted forward to the front of the formation so that the inner side of the right track (relative to the stroke of the Ripper) adjacent to the lower edge of the ridge, formed from the previous Zachodni (figure 4). After the bulldozer formed the first crest, the bulldozer is returned to the source path for the formation of the second ridge. The external side of the right track is adjacent to the lower edge of the first ridge, but from the opposite side (figure 5).
The loosening of the square parallel-cross races allows you to increase the volume of the ridge almost two times the cross-sectional area of the ridge when the adjacent races 0.22 m2and when the cross-longitudinal - 0,44 m2). The increase in loose Sands is achieved due to the increased coefficient of loosening due to the applied scheme loosening (6 and 7). When the longitudinal-cross races (or parallel-cross passages) the machine produces twice the loosening of the same super is: first along, then across. Diagram of the formation of Bezborodova ridge cross-stroke is the same as in the previous embodiment. The distance between the parallel passages should be minimal (in our case 0.5 m). This scheme compared with the previous variant leads to an increase in cost of cultivation more than 2.5 times, but it allows you to increase in the subsequent performance of the bulldozer when filing soft Sands to the receiving bin of Prompribor (due to double increased volumes of crest).
It should be noted that the volume of the ridge is affected by the design of the frame rack Ripper. Currently, the bulldozer DZ-126 installed parallelogram suspension frame mounting the tooth on a rigid spacer. This design does not allow you to change the angle of inclination of the rack Ripper. On the bulldozer D-355A installed parallelogram suspension frame mounting tooth with hydraulic cylinder for changing the angle of inclination of the rack. This design allows to conserve the cutting angle at any depth loosening. This is an advantage compared with a rigid spacer allows you to increase the volume of soft sand at the crest to 27%.
In the field studies (Fig) found that for best results in preparing clayey Sands to the disintegration of the need to ensure the following:
- frame replenishing tooth cultivator should be at a height of 0.3-05 m above the roof of the Sands, not to prop up the top methodology comb when forming its height;
the cutting angle of the rocks stand Ripper should be minimal, for example 40-50°that is achieved by controlling the hydraulic cylinder;
- when filling blade Sands should not be Sarasate into the array, but only to cut the formed and dried combs.
Based on the analysis of data obtained through experimentation, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. When comparing the geometric parameters Miloradovich ridges formed in the crumbling Sands of the two types of bulldozers, did not reveal sharp differences in their parameters. However, given the cost of cultivation is more profitable (1.8 to 2.3 times) the use of less powerful bulldozer DZ-126.
2. Pre-ripping the original Sands allows almost twice as to reduce the content in prepared for the enrichment of bulk pieces of clay with a particle size of more than 150 mm, to intensify the process of natural drying 2.5-3.0 times and thereby completely eliminate the output of the clay pellets in pebble dump after enrichment.
3. The transition from scheme loosening Sands adjacent turns of the scheme with parallel-cross moves allows you to increase the volume of the ridges are almost two times.
4. Preliminary preparation Sands developed the first plot bulldozer D-355 (or RS-126) leads to an increase in development costs and rinse Sands on average by 13.7% (and 5.2%, respectively). But this reduces the yield of products of incomplete disintegration in pebble tails to 54%, and in the case of using the method of natural drying of the formed ridges up to 63%.
5. The reduction of output in the blade neysmith in the cage pieces of clay material due to prior preparation Sands provides a significant economic effect.
1. The method of preparation of clayey Sands to disintegration, including mechanical loosening of the array and the excavation of sand excavation and transport equipment, characterized in that the loosening of the array produced with the formation of ridges, and the excavation of sand is carried out by cutting ridges.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the formation of ridges produced by the two parallel races odnoperogo Ripper mix of stroke within 10÷15% of the width of its tracks.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the loosening with the formation of ridges is made with minimal cutting angle, for example, 40-50°.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cutting ridges during extraction of sand produced without penetration of the working body below the base of the ridges.
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mining of mineral deposits in the case of limited vertical ore bodies, for instance kimberlite pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming pit sides having inclinations less than minimal possible ones to provide pit side stability; preparing rock for further excavation by drilling-and-blasting operations; transporting ore and overburden via main incline by wheeled vehicle; forming transfer point plate at the second stage; excavating up to design depth along with forming pit sides having maximal possible inclinations, which provide pit side stability; cutting main incline from transfer point plate, wherein inclination thereof is increased in longitudinal direction; cutting ore pillars of the first stage; forming pit side having high ledges; forming lower ledge along ore body outline; forming temporary incline in one pit part; transporting ore and overburden to transfer point plate by means of caterpillar vehicle; forming temporary incline to provide pit cutting to design depth and cutting ore pillars under temporary incline.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit excavation due to reduced overburden volume within the bounds of deep limited pits.
3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stepping rock up to design outline with leading in the first stage pit edge; transporting ore along main decline to plant and stacking overburden in dump; excavating connection entry between the first stage pit and the second stage pit so that the entry is opened in previously excavated the first stage pit; cutting the second stage pit; transporting ore and overburden from the second order pit via connection entry; depositing overburden from the second order pit in the first stage pit goaf after termination of the first stage pit excavation. Before ore and overburden transportation from second order pit via connection entry overburden excavated from the second order pit is accumulated in outer dump. Overburden from the second order pit is conveyed to day surface along temporary decline system. When the second pit side reaches designed outermost outline temporary declines are killed.
EFFECT: reduced costs of deposit development and decreased hazardous action of mining operations on environment.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of coal, ore and non-ore deposits by open method.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, geological structure of massif is analyzed, position of potential sliding surface is detected, physical and mechanical properties of rocks are determined. Along profile parallel to edge of shelf in its middle portion, frequency of alternation of impulses of natural electromagnetic radiation is measured. On intervals where this frequency exceeds level of background radiation more than 2 times, interval-wise measurement of relation of strength level of signal electric field at two working frequencies is performed. By means of computed logarithmic dependence, depth of location of potential sliding surface is determined. With consideration of change of this depth, structure of massif, technological parameters and physical-mechanical properties of rocks, values of stability reserve coefficients are calculated on basis of ratio of momentums of holding and moving forces within limits of detected dangerous portion. Probability of landslide development is evaluated on basis of minimal values of stability reserve coefficients.
EFFECT: increased precision when predicting stability of quarry sides.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use in deep quarries extracted with utilization of motor and conveyor transport.
SUBSTANCE: method includes transportation of rock mass from excavation faces by dump trucks and loading it through mobile crusher plant, mounted at temporarily shut down section of quarry, and transit ribbon conveyor, located in the mine on end side of quarry, onto ribbon conveyor lift, positioned in mines on end side of quarry. After update of quarry with positioning of mobile crusher plant at temporarily shut down section of quarry side, transit conveyor is disassembled, crusher block from mobile crusher plant is moved and mounted above end section of conveyor lift, in semi-trench driven preliminarily to subjacent safety bench a bunker is assembled with plate feeder for loading crusher block, while block of rocks formed below previous locations of mobile crusher plant and dump truck unload points is extracted with transportation and loading of exploded rock mass from dump trucks and rotary platform of main ramp through bunker with feeder and through crusher block from mobile crusher plant.
EFFECT: no need for moving crusher plant and for additional motor transport unit between crusher plant and conveyor lift.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in opencast mining of hard rocks.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in multirow drilling of the block to be blasted by holes of a permanent diameter, charging of the holes by explosive, connection of the explosive charges by a blasting network and short-delay blasting of them. The quantity of the energy of the charges in the lower part of odd rows is increased, for example, by drilling of parallel drawn together holes, whose charges are not similar is height, or by expansion of the holes in this part. The net of arrangement of charges of the even and odd rows is also increased. The order of blasting is provided by laying of the blasting network, each charge of the even order is blasted after weakening the mass broken by it by blasting of the increased charges of the previous odd row. In this case the quantity of the energy of an elementary charge of holes of each row approaches the quantity of the energy required for blasting destruction of the mass broken by them, thus providing the preset degree of crushing and enhancing of the blast efficiency.
EFFECT: enhanced yield of rock mass from one running meter of the hole, reduced consumption of explosive for breaking due to rational placement of the explosive in the mass.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly open cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loading tanks at lower horizon during tank unloading at upper horizon and lowering empty tanks from upper horizon during loaded tank lifting from lower horizon; providing additional sites for tank loading at lower horizon and corresponding additional sites for tank unloading at upper horizon; laying cable in zigzag manner so that the cable passes along loading and unloading sites and creates pulling branches; connecting tank with aerostat to each pulling branch. Tanks located at upper and lower horizons are fastened to next nearest branch so that distances between loading and unloading sited along the branches are equal one to another. Device for above method realization is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased capacity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: earth-moving equipment, particularly machines for ground cutting, pit excavation for hydraulic structure, large-scale object building, as well as for mineral deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: ditching and transportation rig comprises basic chassis connected with earth-moving module and with transportation-handling devices, which move ground in vertical and horizontal directions. Earth-moving module is made as bucket rotary drum secured by means of vertical and horizontal hinges, as well as control-rods to the basic chassis so that the bucket rotary drum may rotate in vertical and horizontal planes and overhanging length thereof may be changed. Device is provided with continuous-type conveyer unit made as auger system and as telescopic pipe pivotally connected with transportation-handling device, which move ground in horizontal direction. Horizontal auger is located inside bucket rotary drum and is offset with respect to drum axis so that auger axis is parallel to drum axis. The horizontal auger is transversal to inclined auger having lower end installed under outlet end of horizontal auger. Upper end of inclined auger is pivotally fastened to upper telescopic pipe section. Transportation-handling device, which moves ground in horizontal direction, is made as endless band installed on length-adjustable telescopic sliding frame, which may change ground displacement distance by means of tightening rollers. Rollers have pins installed at different heights sliding in telescopic frame grooves. The telescopic frame has flanging. Lower telescopic pipe section is provided with rotary hinge connected to telescopic frame flanging so that rotary hinge may perform longitudinal movement with respect to frame flanging. Transportation-handling device, which provides vertical ground movement is composite and made as continuous-type bucket bands mating each other in transfer points.
EFFECT: increased ability and speed of pit excavation, reduced costs of ground excavation and transportation outside the pit and provision of continuous technological cycle.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of surface mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves transporting rock and unloading thereof under dump front slope; forming advance embankments; increasing advance embankment heights and pouring rock between the embankments. The advance embankments are formed of solid rock and are made as broken line with line sections extending at an acute angle to direction of dump front forming. Gaps between advance embankments are filled with soft rock so that soft rock front is behind from dump front and spaced from it for distance equal to not less than distance between solid and soft rock locations.
EFFECT: increased stability of each stacked refuse layer.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop steep and inclined ore bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and dividing open-pit field into penetration and production horizons; excavating ore and removing capping by bench movement; employing temporarily inactive wall parts; constructing descents and haulage benches, conveying semi-trenches; delivering ore and cut capping to day surface; dividing capping rock in transversal section in hanging and laying wall into inclined layers, wherein angle of temporary inactive wall slope parts of layers to be excavated is different in upper, central and lower zones and the angle is increased in dependence of different speed of horizontal and vertical bench movement in upper and lower horizons; forming temporary (intermediate) dumps, permanent and additional in deposit sides; conveying rock along the descents directed towards the second and the third excavation stage pit contour with the use of cyclic vehicle means and then with the use of continuously acting vehicles, wherein trenches with conveyers are directed so that conveyor lifting means may be extended or cascade system may be created if ore body thickness varies or ore body inclination angle changes. Conveyer lifting means are formed in ore production zone when cyclic acting means reach extreme transportation level, which puts the system out of optimal operation area. Conveyer lifting means path is selected to elongate the conveyer lifting means or to provide their operation along with vertical lifting means to deliver ore to transfer point on day surface. The last lifting means is constructed at high depth so that composite transport level does not project outwards optimal system operation area. At final pit development stage design wall angles are adjusted, the last layers are cut and the wall angle magnitudes are brought to extreme stability-varied final magnitudes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of capping and ore extraction, reduced current stripping ratio, decreased stripping volume in sides during sloping thereof under steep angles and increased operational safety.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, hydraulic building, road-building, agricultural building and so on, particularly to develop block rock or half-rock massifs.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stage-detailed rock zoning into block size, fracture porosity, strength and quality; dividing working zone massif into horizons having different heights or dividing working zone parts into productive blocks; dividing the productive blocks into uniform unit blocks, which are cut in top-down direction by "disassembling" method in accordance with block size so that blocks having the largest dimensions, namely technologically and technically oversized rock pieces in pit face are broken first and then properly sized and fine fractions are removed from rock massif with the use of corresponding working tool set of all-purpose mining rig. The all-purpose mining rig performs direct cutting of properly sized rock pieces from massif, drilling and blasting oversized rock pieces with the use of explosive charge having diameter of 8-84 mm under local shelter or by mechanical breaking or loosening operations. Then rock is removed and loaded on transportation means, moved to internal dump or to temporary bottomhole store.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock massif, pit face and coal strip mine cutting.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg