Hydrocarbon conversion catalyst, catalyst preparation process, and hydrocarbon conversion process

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion processes and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to selectively upgrading paraffin feedstock via isomerization. Catalyst comprises support and sulfated oxide or hydroxide of at least one of the elements of group IVB deposited thereon; a first component selected from group consisting of consisting of lutetium, ytterbium, thulium, erbium, holmium, and combinations thereof; and a second component comprising at least one platinum-group metal component. Catalyst preparation process comprises sulfating oxide or hydroxide of at least one of the elements of group IVB to form sulfated support; depositing the first component onto prepared support; and further depositing the second component. Invention also relates to hydrocarbon conversion process in presence of above-defined catalyst.

EFFECT: improved catalyst characteristics and stability in naphta isomerization process to increase content of isoparaffins.

13 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to an improved catalytic composite and the method of converting hydrocarbons, in particular intended for the selective improvement of quality paraffin feedstock by isomerization.

This work was supported by U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, Cooperative Agreement Number 70NANB9H3035. The U.S. government has undisputed rights to the present invention.

Prior art

Widely used in the world practice the rejection of the use of anti-knock additive to gasoline lead-based and increase of requirements to quality of fuels for high-performance internal combustion engines encourages refiners to use the new and modified methods of increasing the octane number and the anti-knock properties of commercial gasoline. The refiners have a variety of opportunities to improve the quality of gasoline, including hard catalytic reforming process, effective FCC (catalytic cracking in pesudomonas layer) gasoline octane isomerization of light oil and the use of oxygen-containing compounds. The use of such key options as stiffening reformer and effective FCC gasoline octane which results in an increased content in gasoline aromatic hydrocarbons at the expense of low-octane heavy paraffinic hydrocarbons.

Before refiners also is the problem of delivery of gasoline with a changed composition that meets modern requirements of automotive exhausts. Gasoline with a changed composition differs from traditional product low vapor pressure, a lower final boiling point, a high content of oxygen-containing compounds and low content of olefins, benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons. Usually benzene content limit of 1% and below, and for the American gasoline with treason formula amount is limited to 0.8%. Apparently, the amount of gasoline aromatic hydrocarbons should be reduced, especially in the case of lowering the temperature of the end of the pickup (which is usually characterized as 90% temperature distillation), and the high-boiling part of the gasoline to be fixed, usually represents an aromatic concentrate. Because the program to reduce the use of high-octane additives lead-based aromatics is the principal source of improved gasoline octanol, a significant decrease in the content of benzene/aromatics and high-boiling part creates the problems associated with petroleum refining. These problems can be solved with the use of technologies such as the isomerization of light oil to increase octane h the SLA, isomerization of butane with the purpose of obtaining raw materials for alkylation, as well as the additional production of light olefins as feedstock for alkylation and the production of oxygen-containing compounds using FCC and dehydration. The solution of such problems may be increased border boiling between light and heavy oil, which leads to an increase in the relative amount of oil supplied to the isomerization unit. Consequently, in the economy of oil all play a big role technical characteristics of the catalysts for isomerization of light oil.

In US-A-2939896 B1 describes the isomerization of paraffin hydrocarbons using a catalyst containing platinum, halogen and sulfate of aluminum, magnesium and/or zirconium deposited on activated alumina. However, in this patent are not disclosed additional metal components of the catalyst. In US-A-5036035 B1 describes a catalyst containing a sulfated oxide or hydroxide of zirconium and platinum group metal and the use of such catalyst in the isomerization. In the cited patent indicates that the recovery of platinum group metal is not favorable.

In US-A-4918041 B1, US-A-4956519 B1 and in the application for the European patent 0666109 A1 discloses used for isomerization sulfate the integration of the catalyst, containing the oxide or hydroxide of a group of metal of group III or group IV; the oxide or hydroxide of the metals V, VI or VII of the groups; and the oxide or hydroxide of a metal of group VIII; ′109 discloses a component selected from a number of VIII group metals and combinations of metals.

In US-A-3915845 B1 disclosed a method of application and the catalyst comprising a platinum group metal, a metal of group IVA, halogen and lanthanide when the atomic ratio to the platinum group metal in the range of 0.1 to 1.25. In US-A-5493067 B1 indicates that the ISO and olefins is subjected to alkylation in the result of contact with such solid supercilious as sulfated zirconium oxide, optionally containing an additional metal containing added heteroalicyclic or polyoxoanion.

In US-A-5310868 B1 and US-A-5214017 B1 describes catalytic compositions containing sulfated and calcined mixtures of (1) the media containing the oxide or hydroxide of element IV-A group, (2) an oxide or hydroxide of metal VI, VII or VIII group, (3) an oxide or hydroxide of a metal I-B, II-B, III-A, III-B, IV-A, V-A group and (4) a metal from the group of lanthanides.

In US-A-5212136 B1 discloses solid supercolony the catalyst used in the alkylation processes containing sulfated and calcined mixtures of carrier-based oxide or hydroxide of element IV-A group of oxide is whether hydroxide of molybdenum, as well as oxide or hydroxide of a metal I-B, II-B, III-A, III-B, V-A or VI-A group other than molybdenum or a metal from the group of lanthanides.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of the present invention is to develop an improved catalyst and method for the implementation of the conversion reactions of hydrocarbons. Another objective of the present invention is to develop improved technologies for modernization of turning oil into gasoline. A more specific object of the invention is to develop a high-octane component of gasoline. The basis of the present invention is the discovery that the catalyst containing ytterbium and platinum, has improved performance and stability in the isomerization of light oil to increase content isoparaffins.

A General embodiment of the present invention relates to a catalyst containing sulfated carrier oxide or hydroxide of a metal of group IVB (IUPAC 4), preferably oxide or hydroxide of zirconium, at least, the first component representing the group element of the lanthanide or yttrium, and at least a second component which is a metal of the platinum group. The first component preferably consists of one element from the group of lanthanide or yttrium, and the second component preferably SOS is the Oita one platinum group metal. The first component preferably is a ytterbium, and the second component is platinum. Consider the catalyst optionally contains an inorganic oxide binder, preferably alumina.

Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of preparation of the catalyst by sulfation of the oxide or hydroxide of a metal of group IVB, the introduction of the first component, representing lanthanide, yttrium or a mixture thereof, and the second component representing a platinum group metal and, preferably, binding of the catalyst with a refractory inorganic oxide.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to the conversion of hydrocarbons using the catalyst of the invention. In accordance with another embodiment, the present invention covers the isomerization isomerizing hydrocarbons using the catalyst of the invention. Such hydrocarbons preferably include light oil (light solvent), which is subjected to isomerization to increase the content isoparaffinic and increase the octane number by getting mixed gasoline raw materials.

These embodiments will become clearer from the detailed description of the invention.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 depicts a graph of the conversion of pentane, irarenai in percent, from the ionic radius of 8 coordination of a number of catalysts for the changing nature of the first component of the catalyst.

Figure 2 depicts a plot of conversion of cyclohexane in the presence of various catalysts on the temperature. Comparison of the catalysts of the present invention with known catalysts.

Detailed description of the invention

The material of the catalyst carrier of the present invention includes an oxide or hydroxide of a metal of group IVB (IUPAC 4), see Cotton and Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Willey & Sons (Fifth Edition, 1988). It is preferable to select a metal of zirconium and titanium, and most preferred is zirconium. The preferred oxide or hydroxide of zirconium in the ignition transfer in crystalline form. Without any specific limitations on the scope of the invention it is assumed that the introduction of sulfate in the material of the medium leads to the formation of a mixture Brenstedovskikh and Lisowski centers. A component representing an element of the series of lanthanides, is introduced into the composite in any suitable way. Component, which is a metal of the platinum group, add in the catalytic composite in any known manner, providing the catalyst of the invention, for example by impregnation. The catalyst may be optionally associated with a refractory inorganic oxide. The nose is tel, metal components and an optional binder can be entered in any order, providing the catalyst used for the isomerization of hydrocarbons.

Raw material for catalyst carrier of the invention may be a hydroxide of a metal of group IVB (IUPAC 4). For example, suitable for this purpose, the zirconium hydroxide can be supplied MEI of Flemington, New Jersey. On the other hand, the hydroxide can be prepared by hydrolysis of metal derivatives containing oxyanion, for example ZrOCI2, ZrO(NO3)2, ZrO(OH)NO3, ZrOSO4, TiOCI2etc. it Should be noted that commercial ZrO(OH)2contains appreciable, about 1 wt.%, the number of HF. Can also be used such alkoxides of zirconium, as the acetate Zirconia and propilot zirconium. The hydrolysis can be carried out using such gidrolizuemye agent as ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium sulfate, (NH4)2HPO4and other known similar compounds. In turn, oceniony metal component can be prepared from available materials, for example by processing ZrOCO3nitric acid. Purchased or obtained by hydrolysis hydroxide, preferably dried at a temperature of 100-300°c to remove volatile compounds.

Sulfated media get is by treating the appropriate sulfatrim agent with formation of a solid strong acid. Liquid acid, the strength of which is greater than the force of sulfuric acid, called "superacids". Known from the literature liquid supercolony include substituted proton acid, for example triftormetilfosfinov F2SO4, triperoxonane acid and a proton acid, activated by Lewis acids (HF plus BF3). Although the definition of force liquid superacids is a relatively simple operation, how-ever accurate measurement of the strength of the solid strong acid is a difficult task due to less set by the nature of the surface States of solids compared to fully salvationarmy molecules in the liquid. Accordingly, there is no General correlation between the liquid and solid superacids strong acids, i.e. if the liquid supercyclone catalyzes the reaction, it does not guarantee automatic selection of the appropriate solid strong acid for the implementation of the considered reaction. In this regard, as used in the description of the term "solid strong acid" refers to acids stronger than such sulfoxylate resin as Amberlyst®-15. In addition, since in the literature there are different views on whether some of these solid acids "superacids", in the present description uses the above-defined term "the solid strong acid". Another variant of the definition of solid strong acid refers to a solid substance with interacting proton and Lisovskii acid centers. Thus, the solid strong acid may be a combination of Brenstedovskikh (proton) and Lisowski acid components. Other cases that meet these criteria include situations where Prestados and Lisovskii acid components cannot be easily identified or cannot be established their presence in the form of individual species.

Sulfate ion is introduced into the catalytic composite, for example, by treatment with sulfuric acid having a concentration of 0.01 to 10 N, preferably 0.1 to 5 N. as alternative sources can be used such compounds as hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans or sulfur dioxide can form during annealing of sulfate ions. Ammonium sulfate is the preferred agent for providing the sulfate ions and the formation of solid strong acid catalyst. The final catalyst generally contains sulfur in a quantity of 0.5-5 wt.%, preferably, 1-2,5 wt.%. Sulfated composite is dried, and then preferably calcined at a temperature of 500-700°With, especially when after sulfation enter the platinum group metal.

Friends is an essential component of the catalyst of the present invention is the first component, including one or more elements from the series of lanthanides, yttrium, or mixtures thereof. The metals of the series of lanthanides include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. The preferred elements of the series of lanthanides are lutetium, ytterbium, thulium, erbium, holmium, terbium, and mixtures thereof. The most preferred component of the present catalyst is ytterbium and particularly preferably, the first component consisted mainly of ytterbium. In General, the first component may be present in the catalytic composite in any catalytically available form, for example in the form of the elemental metal such derived as the oxide, hydroxide, halide, oxychlorine, carbonate or nitrate, or in chemical combination with one or more other ingredients of the catalyst. The first component preferably is an oxide, intermetallic with platinum, sulfate or he may be in the zirconium matrix. Usually these materials are subjected to calcination at 600-700°in consequence of which they pass into the oxide form. Without limiting the scope of the invention, it is assumed that the best results are achieved when the first component of the composite is present in a form in which it is almost in the camping lanthanide or yttrium component are in a higher oxidation state, than the elemental state, for example in the form of oxide, oxychloride or halide or mixtures thereof, and to achieve this state are described below under oxidation and reduction, which are preferably used for the preparation of the catalytic composite. Lanthanide element or yttrium component may be introduced into the catalyst in a catalytically effective amount, generally from 0.01 to 10 wt.% lanthanide or yttrium, or mixtures, based on the elemental composition of the catalyst. The best results are usually obtained when 0.5 to 5 wt.% lanthanide or yttrium in the calculation of the elemental composition. The preferred atomic ratio between the number of lanthanide or yttrium and the amount of the platinum group metals in the catalyst is at least 1:1, preferably 2:1 or more, and especially preferably 5:1 or more.

The first component is introduced into the catalytic composite in any known suitable manner, such as by coprecipitation, coextrusions with porous media or impregnation of the porous carrier, which is carried out before, after or during the introduction of sulfate, although in this case the gain is not necessarily equal results. In order to simplify the operation lanthanide element or yttrium preferably simultaneously with sulfate. Most preferably the last to enter the component-based platinum group metal. The procedure for the introduction of an element of a series of lanthanide or yttrium and platinum group metal is not critical.

One way of applying the first component is a carrier impregnated with a solution (preferably aqueous) of degradable derived element or elements of some lanthanide or yttrium. The term "degradable" means that during the heating of the lanthanide element or derived yttrium turn into a lanthanide or yttrium element or oxide with the release of by-products. Examples of biodegradable derivatives of lanthanides can be such a suitable complexes or derivatives of lanthanides as nitrates, halides, sulfates, acetates, organic alkyl derivatives, hydroxides and similar compounds. The carrier may be impregnated with the first component prior to, simultaneously with or after the introduction of component-based platinum group metals, it is not necessarily obtaining equivalent results.

The second component, a platinum group metal, is an essential ingredient of the catalyst. The second component contains at least one metal selected from platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium or osmium, platinum is the preferred metal, and particularly preferably a metal of the platinum group consisted mainly of platinum. M is a metallic platinum group component may be present in the final catalytic composite in the form of such a derivative as the oxide, sulfide, halide, oxygendemand, etc. in the form of chemical combination with one or more other ingredients of the composite or metal. The metal component of the platinum group, preferably is present in an amount of 0.01-2 wt.%, in the calculation of the elemental composition. The best results are obtained in the case when almost all of the platinum group metal is in the elemental state.

The second component, the metal component of the group of platinum, is applied to the composite using the same methods described above for the introduction of the first component. Examples of degradable compounds of the platinum group metals can serve chloroplatinate acid, chloroplatinic ammonium bronetankovaya acid, dinitrodiphenylamine, tetranitromethane sodium, rhodium trichloride, chlorine examinati, carbonylchloride rhodium, hexanitrate sodium, globaldata acid, palladium chloride, palladium nitrate, hydroxide diamondblade, chloride tetraamminepalladium, hexachloroiridate (IV) acid, hexachloroiridate (III) acid, hexachloroiridate (III) ammonium, aquaecology (IV) ammonium, ruthenium tetrachloride, hexachlororuthenate, chloride hexaammineruthenium, osmium trichloride and ammonium chloride-OS. The second component, the component group of platinum, is applied to the carrier is about, after or simultaneously with the introduction of the sulfate and/or the first component, although it is not necessarily equal results. Preferably the platinum group component is deposited on the media after or simultaneously with sulfate and/or the first component.

In addition to the above first and second components under consideration, the catalyst may optionally contain a third component selected from iron, cobalt, Nickel, ruthenium or mixtures thereof. The preferred metal is iron, which may be present in the system in an amount of 0.1-5 wt.% in the calculation of the elemental composition. The third component, such as iron, may help to use a smaller amount of the first component, for example ytterbium required to obtain the optimal composition. The third component can be applied to the composite using the same methods described above with respect to the first and second components. In the case where the third component is an iron, suitable derivatives may include iron nitrate, iron halides, iron sulfate and other soluble compounds of iron.

The above-described catalytic composite can be used in the form of a powder or molded in any desired form, for example pills, cakes, extrudates, powders, granules, spheres, etc., p is item obtained form can have any dimensions. Giving the composite concrete forms can be well-known ways. In some cases, to obtain various forms of composite preferably be mixed with the binder. However, it should be noted that the catalyst can be obtained and successfully be used without a binder. When using the binder amount is usually 0.1 to 50 wt.%, preferably 5-20 wt.% from the quantity of the finished catalyst. According to known data, for this purpose any suitable refractory inorganic oxide binder. Suitable binder materials of the present invention are one or more substances selected from silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide-aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide and mixtures thereof. The preferred binder material is an oxide of aluminum, and is especially useful to use this and/or preferably gamma-alumina. Examples used binders, without specific restrictions can serve as alumina, silica, aluminosilicate, and mixtures thereof. Typically, composite and optional binder are mixed together with such peptizyme substance as HCl, HNO3, CON, etc. with the formation of a homogeneous mixture, which is formed into the desired shape using well known methods. Such with the person molding include extrusion, the spray drying, curving in oil, stirring conical auger, etc. Extrusion tools include screw extruders and extrusion presses. The amount of water when using it, which should add to the mixture, determined by the molding method. So, in the case of the extrusion of the mixture used in paste form, whereas in the case of spray drying or addition in oil should be used with sufficient water to form a suspension. The obtained particles are calcined at a temperature of 260-650°C for 0.5 to 2 hours.

The catalytic composites of the present invention, immediately after their synthesis or after calcination, can be used as catalysts for processes of hydrocarbon conversion. The annealing is required in order to obtain zirconium oxide from its hydroxide. Processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons is well known in the art and they include cracking, hydrocracking, alkylation of both aromatics, and isoparaffins, isomerization, polymerization, reforming, dewaxing, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, transalkylation, dealkylation, hydration, dehydration, Hydrotreating, gidrogenizirovanii, hydrodesulphurization unit, mahanirvana, the disclosure of the cycle and the processes of conversion of synthetic gas. Special conditions of reaction and the type of the raw material, which can be used in such processes are described in U.S. Patent No. 4310440 B1 and 4440871 B1, the contents of which are referenced in this document. The preferred process of hydrocarbon conversion is the isomerization of paraffins.

In the isomerization of paraffins used traditional oil raw materials, wikipaedia in gasoline temperature interval containing paraffins, naphthenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, and a small amount of olefins. Suitable for use primary sources include straight-run petroleum fractions, natural gas, synthetic oil fractions, gasoline, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking gasoline, partially reformed oil or refined after extraction of aromatics. Such raw materials have a boiling range included in the full boiling range crude oil, or within 0-230°C. Typically, this raw material is a light oil (light solvent-naphtha) with an initial boiling point 10-65°and a final boiling point 75-110°; preferred final boiling point has a value lower 95°C.

The main components of the preferred raw materials are alkanes and cycloalkanes molecules containing 4-7 carbon atoms (C4-C7), especially C5-C6and small amounts of aromatic and olefinic uglev the hydrocarbons. Typically, the concentration of C7and heavier components is less than 20 wt.% in the calculation of the mass of raw material. Although there are no specific limitations as to the total content of the cyclic hydrocarbon feedstock typically contains 2-40 wt.% cyclic hydrocarbons including naphthenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Although oil feedstock contains significantly less aromatic hydrocarbons than alkanes and cycloalkanes, their number can be 2-20 wt.%, usually 5-10 wt.% from the total mass of raw materials. The major aromatic component of the preferred raw material is usually benzene, optionally together with small amounts of toluene and high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, wikipaedia in the above temperature ranges.

The contacts in the zone of the isomerization can be carried out using a catalyst system with a fixed bed, moving bed, fluidized bed or by conducting the process in a periodic mode. System with a fixed bed of catalyst is preferred. The reactants may be contacted with a layer of catalyst particles in a flow of up, down, or in the radial direction. During contact with the catalyst particles of the reagents may be in the liquid phase, a mixed phase liquid-vapor or vapor phase, with excellent results the ATA can be achieved when carrying out the process of the present invention predominantly in the liquid phase. The isomerization zone may be located in a single reactor or in two or more separate reactors, between which there are sufficient funds to ensure the maintenance of the desired temperature isomerization at the entrance to each of the zones. The preferred option is the use of two or more successive reactors, thus ensuring that improved isomerization in the control of temperature in each reactor and the partial replacement of the catalyst without stopping the process.

The isomerization conditions in an isomerization zone include reactor temperatures in the range of 40-250°C. it is Preferable to use a lower reaction temperature, which favors the formation of equilibrium systems with high concentration of high-octane highly branched of isoalkanes and minimizes cracking of the feedstock with the formation of lighter hydrocarbons. The pressure used in the reactor, usually lie in the range from 100 kPa to 10 MPa absolute, preferably from 0.3 to 4 MPa. Average hourly feed rate of the liquid of 0.2-25 h-1, preferably 0.5 to 15 h-1.

In the area of isomerization of paraffinic feedstock is mixed with hydrogen in a molar ratio of hydrogen:hydrocarbon raw material of 0.01-20, preferably 0.05 to 5. The hydrogen may be injected into the process from an external source Il is be recycled into raw material after separation from the reaction effluent. Hydrogen may contain light hydrocarbons and a small amount of inert gases such as nitrogen and argon. From hydrogen, supplied from an external source, you should remove the water, preferably using known absorption system. According to a preferred embodiment, the molar ratio between hydrogen and hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas is equal to or less than 0.05, which eliminates the need for recirculation of hydrogen from waste gases.

As a result of contact with the catalyst, at least a portion of the paraffinic feedstock is transformed into the desired high-octane, isoparaffin products. The advantage of the catalyst of the present invention lies in its high activity and improved stability. In the case where the first component is chosen ytterbium, the catalyst of the present invention has an additional advantage in increased activity in the reaction disclosure cycle.

Usually the isomerization zone includes a separation section, which, ideally, contains one or more columns fractional distillation with additional devices, which carry out the separation of the lighter components from the product, enriched with ISO. In accordance with an optional option in a distillation column can realize the taken branch isoparaffin concentrate from the concentrate of cyclic hydrocarbons, the latter is recycled to the zone of the reaction disclosure cycle.

Part or the entire product, enriched with ISO and/or isoparaffinic concentrate, preferably compounding with finished gasoline together with other gasoline components produced during oil refining, including, without specific limitation, one or more substances selected from butane, butenes, pentane, heavy gasoline, catalytic reformed, isomerate, alkylate, polymer, aromatic extract, heavy aromatic hydrocarbons, gasoline, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, thermal cracking, thermal reforming, steam pyrolysis and coking, such oxygen-containing compounds as methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, alcohol trebuemuyu, secondary butyl alcohol, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethylcelluloses ether, methyltertiary ether and higher alcohols and ethers, and, in addition, add a small amount of additives to improve the stability and homogeneity of the gas, removing the problems related to corrosion and weather, keep the engine clean and improve road quality of the car.

The following examples are given to illustrate specific embodiments of the present invention. However, these examples neogranichena the scope of the invention, installed in the claims. There are many other possible options that may be proposed by the person skilled in the art, and all these options are covered by the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Catalyst samples are presented in Table 1, were prepared on the basis of zirconium hydroxide, which was obtained by deposition of nitrate Zirconia with ammonium hydroxide at 65°C. the zirconium Hydroxide was dried at 120°and crushed to a particle size of 40-60 mesh. Prepared a number of separate portions of zirconium hydroxide. Prepared solutions of ammonium sulfate or a metal salt (component 1), which was added to samples of zirconium hydroxide. The materials obtained were subjected to intermittent stirring and then dried by rotation in air at 80-100°C. thereafter, the impregnated samples were dried in a muffle furnace at 150°C for two hours in an atmosphere of air. Prepared solutions of ammonium sulfate or a metal salt (component 2, which differs from component 1) was added to the dried material. The samples briefly stirred and dried rotation. After that, the samples were progulivali at 600-700°C for 5 hours. The solid material is impregnated with the prepared solutions chloroplatinic acid. The samples were subjected to a final calcination in air at 525° C for 2 hours. The following Table 1 index of "And" means that the catalysts were obtained when the contents of the modifier 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt.%; "In" means that the catalysts were obtained when the contents of sulfate 6, 7, and 8 wt.% and "C" means that the catalysts were obtained when the content of platinum 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 and 1 wt.%.

TABLE 1
ModifierThe content of the modifierFePtSO4
CEA00,47
DyAnd00.47
EgAnd00,47
EuAnd00,47
GdAnd00,47
ButAnd00,47
LaAnd00,47
LuAnd00,47
NdAnd00,47
PrAnd00,4/td> 7
SmAnd00,47
TbAnd00,47
TmAnd00,47
YAnd00,47
Yb0,300,37
Yb0,400,47
Yb0,500,57
Yb100,47
Yb10In
Yb1,80In
Yb200,47
Yb2,70In
Yb300,3757
Yb300,47
Yb3,50In
Yb400,4 7
Ce110,47
Ce11,50,47
Yb11,50,47
Yb120,47

EXAMPLE 2

According to the method described in example 1 was prepared catalysts containing 2 wt.% modifier, 0.4 wt.% platinum and 7 wt.% sulphate. Approximately 95 mg of each sample was loaded into the test set-up with a large number of individual reactors. The catalyst was pre-treated in air at 450°C for 2-6 hours and restored at 200°C in an atmosphere of H2for 0.5-2 hours. Then at 150°C, a pressure of about 1 ATM through the samples missed a mixture of 8% pentane hydrogen with WHSV (hourly average volumetric rate) 2.5 h-1(in the calculation only in pentane). The reaction products were analyzed using on-line chromatograph and the results are presented in figure 1, and testing eterniagames catalyst duplicated. Figure 1 presents a plot of the conversion of pentane in the percentage of the value of the ionic radii of the lanthanides with the coordination number of 8 or yttrium, which are used to modify the catalyst presented is a shining platinum, printed on sulfated Zirconia. Ionic radii are taken from the book Huheey, J.E.Inorganic. Chemistry-Principles of Structure and Reactivity, nd Ed.; Harper & Row: New York, 1978. As can be seen from the above graph, the maximum conversion is achieved when the value of the ionic radius 112 picometres (ytterbium). When ionic radii above 115 picometres was observed rapid decline in activity.

EXAMPLE 3

The catalysts were prepared according to the method described in Example 1, with the first catalyst (catalyst 1 in figure 2) contained 3 wt.% ytterbium, 0,375-0.4 wt.% platinum and 7 wt.% sulfate; the second catalyst (catalyst 2 in figure 2) contained 1 wt.% ytterbium, 0,375-0.4 wt.% platinum, 1 wt.% iron and 6 wt.% sulfate, and the third catalyst (catalyst 3 in figure 2) contained 0.5 wt.% manganese, 1 wt.% iron, the 0.375-0.4 wt.% platinum and 7 wt.% sulphate. In addition, he received two of the comparative catalyst, the first of which contained platinum on sulfated zirconium oxide (catalyst 4 in figure 2), and the second comparative catalyst contains platinum, iron, and manganese on sulfated zirconium oxide (catalyst 5 in figure 2). Approximately 10,5 g each of the samples were loaded into the test set-up with a number of individual reactors. The catalyst was pre-treated in air at 450°C for 2-6 hours and then restored at 200°C in an atmosphere of H2for the tion of 0.5-2 hours. Hydrogen and the flow of raw materials containing 36 wt.% n-pentane, 52 wt.% n-hexane, 10 wt.% cyclohexane and 2 wt.% n-heptane was passed over the catalyst at 135°C, 150°S. 163°and 176°at a pressure of about 450 lb/in2and WHSV 2 h-1. The molar ratio between hydrogen and hydrocarbon was 1.3. The reaction products were analyzed using on-line chromatograph and determined the percent conversion of cyclohexane at different temperatures. The results are presented in figure 2, from which it follows that a significant activity in the reaction of disclosure cycle show platinum and ytterbium on sulfated zirconium oxide.

1. The catalyst for the conversion of hydrocarbons containing media, including the applied sulfated oxide or hydroxide of at least one element of group IVB (IUPAC 4) of the Periodic table; a first component selected from the group consisting of lutetium, ytterbium, thulium, erbium, holmium and mixtures thereof, and a second component containing at least one metal of the platinum group.

2. The catalyst according to claim 1, in which the first component is 0.01-10 wt.% from the amount of catalyst, and the second component is 0.01-2 wt.% from the amount of catalyst in the calculation of its elemental composition.

3. The catalyst according to claim 1, in which an element of group IVB (IUPAC 4) represents C is Rani.

4. The catalyst according to claims 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that it contains 0.5-5 wt.% sulfur calculated on an elemental composition.

5. The catalyst according to claims 1, 2 or 3, wherein the first component represents one lanthanide element, and the second element represents one metal selected from platinum group metals.

6. The catalyst according to claim 1, 2 or 3 additionally comprising a third component selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, Nickel, rhenium, and mixtures thereof.

7. The catalyst according to claim 6, in which the third component is an iron in an amount of 0.1-5 wt.%, and the second component is platinum.

8. The catalyst according to claim 2 or 3, in which the lanthanide component is a ytterbium, lutetium, thulium, and mixtures thereof.

9. The method of producing catalyst intended for the conversion of hydrocarbons containing sulfated media, comprising at least one compound selected from oxides and hydroxides of elements of group IVB (IUPAC 4) of the Periodic table, a first component selected from the group consisting of lutetium, ytterbium, thulium, erbium, holmium and mixtures thereof, and a second component selected from platinum group metals and mixtures thereof, and such method is the sulfation of oxide or hydroxide of at least one element of group IVB (IUPAC 4) of the Periodic table with the formation of self the targeted media; drawing on sulfated carrier of the first component and the subsequent drawing of the second component with the formation of a specified catalyst.

10. A method of converting hydrocarbons by contacting the feedstock with a solid acid catalyst comprising a carrier containing a sulfated oxide or hydroxide of at least one element of group IV (IUPAC 4) of the Periodic table, a first component selected from the group consisting of lutetium, ytterbium, thulium, erbium, holmium and mixtures thereof, and a second component selected from platinum group metals and mixtures thereof, with the formation of the products of the conversion.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the paraffin feedstock is subjected to isomerization with the purpose of obtaining a product with a high content isoparaffins, as a result of contact paraffinic feedstock with a solid acid catalyst in the isomerization zone, in which are supported isomerization conditions including a temperature in the range of 40-250°C, a pressure in the range from 100 kPa to 10 MPa and average hourly feed rate of the liquid of 0.2-25 h-1with subsequent regeneration, the product is enriched with ISO.

12. The method according to claim 10 or 11, in which the isomerization catalyst further includes a refractory inorganic oxide binder component.

13. The method according to item 12, which further use, for less than the least part enriched in ISO product for blending with gasoline.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of manufacture of the deposited polymetallic catalytic agents.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of manufacture of the oxidation catalytic agents based on any solid carriers by deposition on them of the metals solid solutions. The catalytic agents may be used in the various fields of the catalysis, for example, for realization of the photocatalytic, electrocatalytic, catalytic and other reactions. The invention presents the description of the method of manufacture of the deposited polymetallic catalytic agents by deposition of the metals on ceramics, plastics materials, metals, composite materials, oxides of the transition metals, the carbonic material, which includes the sequential stages of deposition of the previous layers carrying the cationic and anionic parts and for recovery. In the capacity of the previous layer carrying the cationic part use the substances of the following composition: [М(NH3)xАyz, where M - Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Ir, Pt, Au; А - ОН, Н20, C1, Br, I, NO, NO2; В - OH, F, Cl, Br, I, NO2, NO3, SO4; and as the previous layer carrying the anionic part use the substance of the following composition: Еx2[M'Dy2Cz2], where М' - Ti, Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg; С - ОН, Н20, F, SCN, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2; D - ОН, Н20, F, SCN, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2; Е - Н, Li, Na, К, Rb, Cs, NH4; or as the previous layer carrying the cationic part use the substances having the following composition: [М(NH3)xАyz and/or [М1(NH3)x1Аy1z1, where M AND M1 - Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Ag, CD, Ir, Pt, Au; А - ОН, Н20, C1, Br, I, NO, NO2; В - OH, F, Cl, Br, I, NO2, NO3, SO4; and as the previous layer carrying the anionic part use the substances having the following composition: Еx2[M'Dy2Cz2] and/or Еx3[M'1Dy3Cz3], where М' and М'1 - Ti, Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg; С - ОН, Н20, F, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2; D - ОН, Н20, F, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2; Е - Н, Li, Na, К, Rb, Cs, NH4; or as the previous layer carrying both the cationic part and then anionic part use the substance having the following composition: [М(NH3)xАy]x1[M'Dy1Cz1]z, where: M - Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Ir, Pt, Au; А - ОН, Н20, C1, Br, I, NO, NO2; М' - Ti, Cr, Со, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, 0s, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg; С - ОН, Н20, F, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2; D - ОН, Н20, F, Cl, Br, I, NO, NO2. The technical result of the invention is the high activity of the produced catalytic agents.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the high activity of the produced catalytic agents.

14 cl, 3 tbl, 97 ex

FIELD: petrochemical processes and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides rhenium oxide catalyst on anion-containing gamma-alumina-based support: 0.1-10.0% Re2O3 and 0.2-4.0% fluorine based on the weight of alumina. Catalyst is prepared by impregnating alumina, including 0.2-4.0 wt % fluorine, with rhenium compound solution, drying resulting mass, and subjecting it to heat treatment in oxidative and/or inert medium at 600-900°C. Propylene synthesis process including metathesis of C2-C4-olefinic hydrocarbon blend or ethylene alone is also described.

EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and simplified technology.

7 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of primary amine by the hydrogenation reaction of nitriles. Method involves carrying out the conversion reaction in reaction mixture that contains: (a) at least one nitrile; (b) hydrogen; (c) ammonia, if necessary, and (d) at least one cobalt or nickel catalyst modified ex situ by adsorption of alkaline metal carbonate or alkaline metal hydrocarbonate that comprises alkaline metal carbonate or hydrocarbonate taken in the amount from 2 to 12 wt.-%. Also, invention relates to a catalyst used in the method by cl. 1 and representing modified cobalt or nickel catalyst prepared by adsorption of alkaline metal carbonate or alkaline metal hydrocarbonate taken in the amount from 2 to 12 wt.-% on usual cobalt or nickel catalyst.

EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.

24 cl, 6 tbl, 48 ex

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of synthetic gas via catalytic hydrocarbon conversion in presence of oxygen-containing gases and/or water steam as well as to catalysts suitable for this process. Invention provides catalyst, which is complex composite constituted by supported precious element, or supported mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element, wherein support is a metallic carrier made from metallic chromium and/or chromium/aluminum alloy coated with chromium and aluminum oxides or coated with oxides of chromium, aluminum, or mixtures thereof. Catalyst preparation procedure and synthetic gas production process are also described.

EFFECT: increased conversion of hydrocarbons, selectivity regarding synthetic gas, and heat resistance of catalyst at lack of carbonization thereof.

4 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides gasoline fraction reforming catalyst containing 0.1-0.5% platinum, 0.1-0.4% rhenium, halogen (chorine, 0.7-1.5%, or chorine and fluorine, 0.05-0.1%), and carrier: surface compound of dehydrated aluminum monosulfatozirconate of general formula Al2O3·[ZrO(SO4)]x with weight stoichiometric coefficient x = 0.45·10-2 - 9.7·10-2 and real density 3.3±0.01 g/cm3. Catalyst preparation process comprises preparation of carrier by mixing (i) aluminum hydroxide, from which iron and sodium impurities were washed out (to 0.02%) and which has pseudoboehemite structure, with (ii) aqueous solution of monosulfatozirconic acid HZrO(SO4)OH containing organic components (formic, acetic, oxalic, and citric acids) followed by drying, molding, and calcination. Carrier is treated in two steps: first at temperature no higher than and then at temperature not below 70°C.

EFFECT: enabled production of reforming gasolines with octane number not below 97 points (research method) with yield not less than 86% and increased activity and selectivity of catalyst.

4 cl, 2 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.

EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.

12 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: methods of preparation of catalysts for reforming of gasoline fractions in oil producing and petrochemical industries for production of high-octane motor fuels, aromatic hydrocarbons and commercial hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes vacuum treatment of carrier, recirculation through aqueous solution of hydrochloric and acetic acids under vacuum, recirculation of impregnating solution; solutions of chloro-platinous and rhenium acids are introduced into impregnating solution at constant rate, after which solution is subjected to drying and calcination; treatment of carrier with impregnating solution is carried out at three stages: at first and second stages, temperature of circulating impregnating solution does not exceed 30°C and at third stage its temperature is not below 70°C.

EFFECT: enhanced activity, selectivity and stability of catalyst; reduced usage of metals; reduction of wastes and losses of platinum and rhenium.

10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: oil refining; preparation of catalysts for refining of oil fractions; preparation of catalysts for benzene hydroisomerization process.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mixing of components: zeolite component-mordenite with binder-aluminum hydroxide, plastification by means of peptizing by acid solution, granulation, application of platinum and reduction of catalyst; components are mixed at mass ratio of from 1:9 to 2:3 in terms of calcined mordenite and aluminum hydroxide; after application of platinum, heat treatment is carried out at two stages at temperature of 100-110°C at first stage and not above 250-300°C at second stage; reduction of catalyst is performed at temperature not below 500°C. Used as aluminum hydroxide is pseudo-boehmite of Catapal A grade. Used as zeolite component is high-modulus mordenite at silicate modulus M=20-30 at its content in catalyst of 20-30%. Used as zeolite component is low-modulus mordenite at silicate modulus M=10 at its content in catalyst not exceeding 10%.

EFFECT: enhanced selectivity of catalyst; considerable reduction of power requirements.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: catalytic chemistry; method of afterburning of organic admixtures and waste gases; chemical and petrochemical industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for cleaning waste gases from styrene, toluene, isopropyl benzene, formaldehyde and oxidation products of higher fatty acids. Proposed method includes evacuation and impregnation of globular aluminosilicate zeolite-containing carrier; used as carrier is highly thermostable cracking catalyst to 100-% absorption by aqua solution of H2PtCl6 or PdCl2 at concentration of platinum or palladium of 0.4-0.8 g/l and volume ratio of impregnating solution to carrier of (0.6-0.08):1.0 of followed by sulfidizing with hydrogen sulfide and drying of catalyst. Proposed method makes it possible to clean waste gases from organic admixtures by 99.5-100%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology, catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a catalyst for dehydrogenation of (C2-C5)-hydrocarbons that comprises aluminum, chrome oxides, compound of modifying metal, alkaline and/or alkaline-earth metal. Catalyst comprises additionally silicon and/or boron compounds and as a modifying agent the proposed catalyst comprises at least one compound chosen from the following group: zirconium, titanium, iron, gallium, cobalt, molybdenum, manganese, tin. The catalyst is formed in the process of thermal treatment of aluminum compound of the formula Al2O3. n H2O wherein n = 0.3-1.5 and in common with compounds of abovementioned elements and shows the following composition, wt.-% (as measure for oxide): chrome oxide as measured for Cr2O3, 12-23; compound of a modifying metal from the group: Zr, Ti, Ga, Co, Sn, Mo and Mn, 0.1-1.5; silicon and/or boron compound, 0.1-10.0; alkaline and/or alkaline-earth metal compound, 0.5-3.5, and aluminum oxide, the balance. Catalyst shows the specific surface value 50-150 m2/g, the pore volume value 0.15-0.4 cm3/g and particles size 40-200 mcm. Also, invention describes a method for preparing this catalyst. Invention provides preparing the catalyst showing the enhanced strength and catalytic activity.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of catalyst.

12 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: title process resulting in production of aromatic polyamino compounds is carried out on heating in organic solvent (lower alcohols) medium in presence of supported palladium-containing catalyst, in particular, high-porosity (porosity 80-96%) cellular catalyst consisting of α-alumina-based support with active sulfated zirconium dioxide substrate and palladium as active component in amount 0.16-0.75 wt %.

EFFECT: simplified process, eliminated catalyst/hydrogenation catalysate separation stage, prevented destruction of catalyst, prolonged lifetime of catalyst, and increased purity of desired product.

1 tbl

FIELD: petroleum processing catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides gasoline fraction reforming catalyst containing 0.1-0.5% platinum, 0.1-0.4% rhenium, halogen (chorine, 0.7-1.5%, or chorine and fluorine, 0.05-0.1%), and carrier: surface compound of dehydrated aluminum monosulfatozirconate of general formula Al2O3·[ZrO(SO4)]x with weight stoichiometric coefficient x = 0.45·10-2 - 9.7·10-2 and real density 3.3±0.01 g/cm3. Catalyst preparation process comprises preparation of carrier by mixing (i) aluminum hydroxide, from which iron and sodium impurities were washed out (to 0.02%) and which has pseudoboehemite structure, with (ii) aqueous solution of monosulfatozirconic acid HZrO(SO4)OH containing organic components (formic, acetic, oxalic, and citric acids) followed by drying, molding, and calcination. Carrier is treated in two steps: first at temperature no higher than and then at temperature not below 70°C.

EFFECT: enabled production of reforming gasolines with octane number not below 97 points (research method) with yield not less than 86% and increased activity and selectivity of catalyst.

4 cl, 2 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: gas treatment catalyst.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of sulfur-containing emission gases according to Claus method and can find use in enterprises of gas, petroleum, and chemical industries as well as of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy. Task of invention was to provide a catalyst with elevated strength and elevated activity simultaneously in three Claus process reactions: oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur dioxide; oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur dioxide in presence of oxygen; and carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis. The task is solved with the aid of sulfur-removing catalyst including titanium oxide, vanadium oxide, calcium sulfate and modifying metal compound. The latter is at least one of metal compounds selected from alkali metal (Me = K, Na, Cs or mixture thereof) oxides take at following proportions, wt %: V2O5 5.5-10.0, CaSO4 10.0-20.0, Me2O 0.1-2.0, provided that weight ratio Me2O/V2O5 = 0.01-0.36. Catalyst contains pores 10-40 nm in size in amount 50-70%. Preparation of catalyst comprises preparation of catalyst mass, extrusion, drying, and calcinations at temperature not higher than 400°C.

EFFECT: simplified catalyst preparation procedure, which is wasteless, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst for oxidation of ethylene into ethylene oxide, which catalyst contains no rhenium and no transition metals and comprises up to 30% silver on solid support and promoter combination mainly consisted of (i) component containing alkali metal on amount from 700 to 3000 ppm of the mass of catalyst and (ii) component containing sulfur in amount from 40 to 100% by weight of amount required to form alkali metal sulfate and, optionally, a fluorine-containing component in amount from 10 to 300 ppm of the mass of catalyst. Ethylene oxide is produced via reaction of ethylene with molecular oxygen in presence of above-defined catalyst.

EFFECT: increased selectivity of catalyst.

9 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to catalyst based on synthetic mesoporous crystalline materials and provides hydrocarbon conversion catalyst composed of: group VIII metal/SO42-/ZrO2-EOx, where E represents element of the group III or IV of Mendeleev's periodic table, x = 1.5 or 2, content of SO42- is 0.1 to 10% by weight, ZrO2/EOx molar ratio is 1:(0.1-1.0), which has porous crystalline structure with specific surface 300-800 m2/g and summary pore volume 0.3-0.8 cm3/g. Preparation method comprises precipitation of zirconium compounds, in particular zirconium hydroxide or zirconyl, under hydrothermal conditions in presence of surfactant to form mesoporous phase, which is stabilized with stabilizing agents: group III and IV elements. When stabilization is achieved, if necessary, acidity is adjusted and group VIII metal is added.

EFFECT: increased specific surface area and heat resistance at simplified technology.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly processes for production of isoalkanes via gas-phase skeletal isomerization of linear alkanes in presence of catalyst. Invention provides catalyst for production of hexane isomers through skeletal isomerization of n-hexane, which catalyst contains sulfurized zirconium-aluminum dioxide supplemented by platinum and has concentration of Lewis acid sites on its surface 220-250 μmole/g. Catalyst is prepared by precipitation of combined zirconium-aluminum hydroxide from zirconium and aluminum nitrates followed by deposition of sulfate and calcination in air flow before further treatment with platinum salts. Hexane isomer production process in presence of above-defined cat is also described.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic methods of isomerizing n-paraffins and provides catalyst constituted by catalytic complex of general formula MexOy*aAn-*bCnXmH2n+2-m, where Me represents group III and IV metal, x=1-2, y=2-3, An- oxygen-containing acid anion, a=0.01-0.2, b=0.01-0.1; CnXmH2n+2-m is polyhalogenated hydrocarbon wherein X is halogen selected from a series including F, Cl, Br, I, or any combination thereof, n=1-10, m=1-22, dispersed on porous carrier with average pore radius at least 500 nm and containing hydrogenation component. Method of preparing this catalyst is also disclosed wherein above-indicated catalytic complex is synthesized from polyhalogenated hydrocarbon CnXmH2n+2-m wherein X, n, and m are defined above, group III and IV metal oxide, and oxygen-containing acid anion, and dispersed on porous carrier with average pore radius at least 500 nm, hydrogenation component being introduced either preliminarily into carrier or together with catalytic complex. Process of isomerizing n-paraffins utilizing above-defined catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: lowered isomerization process temperature and pressure and increased productivity of catalyst.

17 cl, 3 tbl, 25 ex

FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic methods of isomerizing n-butane into isobutane and provides catalyst constituted by catalytic complex of general formula MexOy*aAn-*bCnXmH2n+2-m, where Me represents group III and IV metal, x=1-2, y=2-3, An- oxygen-containing acid anion, a=0.01-0.2, b=0.01-0.1; CnXmH2n+2-m is polyhalogenated hydrocarbon wherein X is halogen selected from a series including F, Cl, Br, I, or any combination thereof, n=1-10, m=1-22, dispersed on porous carrier with average pore radius at least 500 nm and containing hydrogenation component. Method of preparing this catalyst is also disclosed wherein above-indicated catalytic complex is synthesized from polyhalogenated hydrocarbon CnXmH2n+2-m wherein X, n, and m are defined above, group III and IV metal oxide, and oxygen-containing acid anion, and dispersed on porous carrier with average pore radius at least 500 nm, hydrogenation component being introduced either preliminarily into carrier or together with catalytic complex. Process of isomerizing n-butane into isobutane utilizing above-defined catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: lowered butane isomerization process temperature and pressure and increased productivity of catalyst.

13 cl, 1 tbl, 24 ex

The invention relates to the field of purification of various gaseous emissions from industrial production and recycling of industrial waste and can be used in chemical, energy and other industries

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of synthetic gas via catalytic hydrocarbon conversion in presence of oxygen-containing gases and/or water steam as well as to catalysts suitable for this process. Invention provides catalyst, which is complex composite constituted by supported precious element, or supported mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element, wherein support is a metallic carrier made from metallic chromium and/or chromium/aluminum alloy coated with chromium and aluminum oxides or coated with oxides of chromium, aluminum, or mixtures thereof. Catalyst preparation procedure and synthetic gas production process are also described.

EFFECT: increased conversion of hydrocarbons, selectivity regarding synthetic gas, and heat resistance of catalyst at lack of carbonization thereof.

4 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex

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