Device for adiabatic radio frequency flip of spin of polarized neutrons

FIELD: engineering of devices for controlling flows of particles, possible use for flipping spin of polarized neutrons.

SUBSTANCE: device contains one coil, creating alternating magnetic field, perpendicular to flight of neutrons, second coil, creating constant magnetic field, strength of which changes linearly along working area, parallel to flight of neutrons, and made in form of solenoid. First coil is composed of two symmetrically positioned one-layer coils, each one of which is made in form of one-layer spiral, opposite segments of which are bent at direct angle to spiral plane, and coils are mounted so that these segments are facing each other. Each one-layer coil is placed inside hermetic container made of dielectric material and repeating the shape of coil. Containers have apertures and air ducts for communication with air environment. Neutron duct is moved into space formed by two one-layer coils. Construction of device makes it possible to exclude presence of constant magnetic field, direction of which is perpendicular to neutrons flight direction, and creates magnetic field parallel to magnetizing field of neutron duct, resulting in prevention of depolarization of flow of polarized neutrons (intensiveness of the flow of polarized neutrons does not decrease).

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

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The device relates to the field of experimental physics and is designed to flip, spin polarized neutrons for research using neutron beams.

The known device (flippers) to flip the spin polarized neutrons, described in [1] (the Way of nonadiabatic spin rotation neutrons. Publication number 1358640, the registration number of the application 1724299/25). A method and apparatus that implement it, are used to provide neutron spin rotation by an arbitrary angle relative to the direction of the magnetic field. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the area of the section of magnetic fields of different directions create using superconducting screen small thickness. Passing through the screen, the neutrons do not have time to change the direction of spin, since the rate of precession of the spin significantly less than the rate of change of the magnetic field direction in the coordinate system of the moving neutron. The disadvantage of such devices is the need to maintain the screen in the superconducting state (to ensure that the temperature of the screen is less than 20 degrees Kelvin) using bulky and very expensive cryogenic installations.

There are devices that use radio frequency resonance method for nonadiabatic coup spin polarized neutrons [2], operating rooms at the Oh temperature. The disadvantage of such devices is the coup spin polarized neutrons in a narrow region of the velocity (wavelength) neutrons.

The famous (and now widely used) device frequency (RF) of the adiabatic neutron spin flippers, providing effective coup neutron spin in a wide range of wavelengths. These devices (with power supply) create a certain span of neutrons (span) two kinds of magnetic fields orthogonal to each other: first - alternating (oscillating) the field H1, the tension of which varies along the span of the base according to the law, is close to Gaussian, and the second constant field H0the tension in this same area is changing linearly.

Such devices are described in [3] and [4].

Closest to the claimed device is a device for adiabatic RF coup spin polarized neutrons, described in [5]: VN Slusar, VA Princelings, A.N. Pies, Preprint PNPI, N1164 (1986), 16.

The device comprises a single coil, made in the form of a solenoid that is located on the beam so that the axis of the solenoid coincides with the direction of flight of neutrons. To the winding of the solenoid connects the alternator to create the necessary oscillating magnetic field 1which direction is parallel to the direction of flight of neutrons.

Another coil device is a Helmholtz coils located on the outer sides of the solenoid. To the outputs of the coils is connected to the source of DC power, providing the required tension of a constant magnetic field H0which direction is perpendicular to the direction of flight of neutrons.

The device operates as follows. If H1no, but there is only a field H0(the alternator is off), polarized neutrons fly without changing back. In the presence of H1(the alternator included) spin polarized neutrons is changed to the opposite. The device is designed to operate at normal atmospheric pressure.

All of the known device for adiabatic RF coup spin polarized neutrons, as well as the prototype, usually located in the immediate vicinity of the target, because the farther from them is the device, the greater the likelihood of loss of polarized neutrons (depolarization).

The problem of reducing the loss of intensity of polarized neutrons along the entire route (from the transducer to the target) very relevant. In many physical systems, the distance from the radiation is of the motor to the target is tens of meters. To reduce losses polarized neutron flux at the present time widely used the guide (rectangular boxes)are made from a special mirror that reflects neutrons, and not allowing the neutrons to exit the box. A prerequisite for the efficient operation of the neutron guide is creating a constant magnetic field along the path of flight of neutrons (bias field Hp), coinciding in direction with the polarization that you want to spend. In this case, the mirror reflection from the walls of the neutron guide have only neutrons with the necessary spin. The presence of the constant magnetic field, in a direction not coincident with the field of the bias, leads to the reduction of polarization [6].

Therefore, when placing the device prototype in the physical installation guide will drastically decrease the intensity of polarized neutrons with the necessary spin (depolarization) due to the presence of a constant field H0perpendicular to the direction of flight of neutrons.

The guide is located in the evacuated volume (to reduce losses in the intensity of the neutron flux), the vacuum is not high - about 1 mm Hg Device to flip the spin of neutrons inside neutron guide in the same evacuated volume. When placing the disorder of the prototype in volume with low vacuum there are also two problems.

The first is that to provide the necessary tension oscillating field H1on the findings of the first coil (solenoid) must submit a voltage of the order of several kilovolts at a frequency of about 100 kHz, and in most cases, a corona discharge occurs between the terminals and the coils of the solenoid (the discharge occurs due to the fact that the volume still contains remnants of the gas molecules which are capable of ionization, and the path length of ionized particles are orders of magnitude larger than at normal atmospheric pressure). The above fact leads to a sharp decrease in the reliability of the device in volume with low vacuum (and in most cases unusable device).

The second problem is the difficulty of removal of thermal power allocated to the winding of the solenoid. This power of hundreds of watts, and due to the lack of convection of the gas inside a vacuum volume is overheating the windings, which in turn dramatically reduces the reliability of the device.

Thus, the combination of these factors when using the device prototype in natronomonas systems (used to reduce the intensity of polarized neutrons) leads to technical contradictions, which reduces the degree of polarization of neutrons is s and deteriorating the reliability of the device.

Development task of this device is the resolution of these technical difficulties, namely a decrease in the degree of depolarization of polarized neutrons in the path of them in the guide and enhance the reliability of the device.

The solution of this problem is due to the fact that in comparison with the known device for adiabatic resonance coup spin polarized neutron containing the first coil that generates an alternating magnetic field, and a second coil located outside the first coil and generating a constant magnetic field, what is new is that the first coil generates an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the span of the neutrons, and composed of two spaced symmetrically single-layer coils in the form of a spiral, the opposite segments which are bent at right angles to the plane of the helix, and these segments of the coil is installed opposite each other, each single-layer coil is placed in a sealed container of a dielectric material, made in the form of a coil, and the containers have holes and ducts to provide communication with the air environment, and the first coil is placed inside the second coil, made in the form of a solenoid, and it creates a constant magnetic field parallel to the direction of flight of neutrons, etc is what the whole device is placed in the evacuated volume.

The totality of the claimed features allows you to resolve technical contradictions inherent to the known device. The authors obvious way to solve the problem of creating orthogonal magnetic fields that need to flip the spin of the neutron. But the design features of the coils is such that excluded a constant magnetic field whose direction is perpendicular to the direction of flight of neutrons.

A sketch of the proposed device is shown in figure 1. Figure 2 - photograph of the main components of the unit (7 generator RF current in coil 1). Figure 3 - photo of the first coil to create an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of flight of neutrons.

In accordance with the claims and the proposed figures of the claimed device comprises: a coil 1, designed to produce an alternating magnetic field H1perpendicular to the span of neutrons (physically coil 1 consists of two identical single-layer coils, each of which is made in the form of a spiral, the opposite segments which are bent at right angles to the plane of the spiral, and the turns of the coil segments 1 are parallel to the direction of flight of neutrons); coil 2 (solenoid), creating the necessary constant magnetic field H0parallel to the span of neutrons; eroticne containers 3 of a dielectric material, in sub coil 1; ducts 4, made in containers 3 for communication with the external space of the tube 5, is made in the container 3 for output to an external space of the conclusions of the coil 1.

The coil 1, which creates an alternating magnetic field H1perpendicular to the span of the neutrons, is located inside the coil 2, which creates a constant magnetic field H0parallel to the span of neutrons.

The dimensions of the coil 1 are performed in accordance with the size of the neutron guide, which will be located inside the coil 1.

Figure 1 shows also the vector of the magnetic field generated by the device (with power supply): H1- the vector of intensity alternating magnetic field, H0the intensity vector of a constant magnetic field (linear change of H0along the span of the database is ensured by the fact that the solenoid has a large number of turns in the beginning of the span of the base and a small one at the end of it), Npthe magnetic field intensity vector, which podmaniczky the neutron guide along its length to ensure minimum loss of intensity of the polarized neutron beam (Hpgenerated by external devices that are unrelated to the proposed device).

The proposed device is as follows.

In the space formed by the coils 1, is inserted into the neutron guide 6. As indicated above, to flip the spin of the neutrons need to create two orthogonal each other's magnetic field. Coil 1 in the inventive device (which creates an alternating magnetic field H1) is connected to the alternator. But unlike the prototype of this coil due to the fact that it consists of two identical single-layer coils, each of which is made in the form of a spiral, the opposite segments which are bent at right angles to the plane of the helix, will create an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the span of the neutrons. While the coil 2 located outside the coil 1, is connected to the constant current source and generates a constant magnetic field H0parallel to the span of the neutrons, in contrast to the prototype.

The coup neutron spin is provided by the power coil 1. When the power is turned on, is the adiabatic coup neutron spin when it is off the coup back there.

This ensures the orthogonality of the magnetic fields, but a constant magnetic field H0parallel to the magnetizing field Hpneutron guide, which excludes the possibility of depolarization of the polarized flux of neutrons.

Coil 1 are practically at atmospheric pressure (path length of ionizer the existing particles in these conditions of extreme small), therefore excludes the possibility of the occurrence of corona discharge between the findings and the turns of the coil 1. Blow air through the container 3 by means of the ducts 4 allows to take into outer space heat coils 1.

The container 3 is made of a dielectric material, so as not to escape and not to distort the magnetic field generated by the coils 1.

Thus, in the inventive device (in comparison with the known) there is a constant magnetic field perpendicular to the field vector of the bias Npneutron guide and does not reduce the intensity of polarized neutrons (no depolarization).

The proposed device was designed for use on a neutron beam reactor FRM Munich Technical University.

Functional testing of the device was carried out on neutron beam reactor WRM the St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina).

The main purpose of the tests was the practical effectiveness of the coup spin polarized neutrons across the aperture of the beam (90×220 mm2in connection with the use of extraordinary coils 1.

The tests were performed at a frequency of the oscillating field 81 kHz, a peak value of the current in the coils 1-4 .5 ampere (peak value of the voltage on the findings of the cat the EC was equal to 1400 volts) and direct current in the solenoid 2 - 0.95 amps. The tests were carried out on a neutron beam with a wavelength of 2.13 Angstrom.

Throughout the section (aperture) beam efficiency coup spin polarized neutrons is not worse than 0.995, indicating a high efficiency of the device. Similar efficiency coup guaranteed for neutrons with a longer wavelength.

LITERATURE.

1. Tsulaia M.I. Way nonadiabatic spin rotation neutrons. Patent SU. Publication number 1358640, 1994, registration number of the application 1724299/25, 1971, the main index of the IPC G 21 K 1/093.

2. Ramsey N. Molecular beams. M, LIH, 1960, 411 S.

3. A.N. Bazhenov, V.M. Lobashev, A.N. Pirozhkov, V.N. Slusar, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 332 (1993) 535.

4. S.V. Grigoriev, A.I. Okorokov, V.V. Runov, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 384 (1997) 453-455.

5. V.N. Slusar, VA Princelings, A.N. Pies: Preprint PNPI N1164 (1986), 16 - prototype.

6. YG Abov, A.D. Gulko, P.A., Krupchitskii. Polarized slow neutrons. M: Atomizdat, 1966.

Device for adiabatic RF coup spin polarized neutron containing the first coil that generates an alternating magnetic field, and a second coil that generates a constant magnetic field, characterized in that the first coil generates an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the span of the neutrons, and composed of two spaced symmetrically single-layer coils, each of which is made is in the form of a single-layer spiral, opposite segments which are bent at right angles to the plane of the helix, and these segments of the coil is installed opposite each other, each single-layer coil is placed in a sealed container of a dielectric material, made in the form of a coil, and the containers have air ducts to provide communication with the air environment, the first coil is placed inside the second coil, made in the form of a solenoid, and it creates a constant magnetic field parallel to the span of neutrons.



 

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