Method for opencast steep deposit mining
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mining of mineral deposits in the case of limited vertical ore bodies, for instance kimberlite pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming pit sides having inclinations less than minimal possible ones to provide pit side stability; preparing rock for further excavation by drilling-and-blasting operations; transporting ore and overburden via main incline by wheeled vehicle; forming transfer point plate at the second stage; excavating up to design depth along with forming pit sides having maximal possible inclinations, which provide pit side stability; cutting main incline from transfer point plate, wherein inclination thereof is increased in longitudinal direction; cutting ore pillars of the first stage; forming pit side having high ledges; forming lower ledge along ore body outline; forming temporary incline in one pit part; transporting ore and overburden to transfer point plate by means of caterpillar vehicle; forming temporary incline to provide pit cutting to design depth and cutting ore pillars under temporary incline.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit excavation due to reduced overburden volume within the bounds of deep limited pits.
3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the opencast mining of mineral deposits with a vertical drop limited in terms of ore bodies, in particular kimberlite pipes.
The known method of surface mining of steeply dipping kimberlite fields, including mining quarry to project depth phases with offset sides with parameters that are valid on sustainability, leaving the ore pillars on the first development stage (up to the border of the intermediate bottom of the quarry), and at the stage of refinement, the lower boundary of the intermediate bottom of the quarry, the Board build ultra steep ledges under extreme angle maturity and displayout ore. (Patent RF №2180041 E 21 41/26/ Anikiev and others, application No. 2000100403/03, Appl. 06.01.2000, publ. 27.02.2002 bull.№6).
The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of extraction. This is due to the following:
- part of the Board in the area of improvements rebuilt approaches a height of 50 m with an angle of 90°separated horizontal safety berm width of 7 m below the limit angle 75° (example of calculation), which reduces the stability of the Board and reduces the safety of the works;
- the use of wheeled vehicles on the stage of completion is not possible to increase the slope of congresses above 110-120‰ which does not allow to maximize the use of the geometric space and reduces the amount of ore mining and refining ore leads to increased overburden the first stage of testing;
- the rise of rock trucks to low load with the wheel formula 4×4 at the stage of completion at the full height of career, i.e. without transshipment site, leads to the necessity of purchasing an unnecessarily large number of this technique, as well as to premature release of dump trucks working on the first stage.
Closest to the proposed method is the development of career stages in depth with the transport berms, the width of which decreases with depth career, including the first stage of construction of pit slope angle of the slope below the maximum permissible resistance, blasting preparing to rock excavation, transportation of ore and overburden on major transport Congress wheeled transport, the second stage is the formation of ground handling item and revision to the design depth with offset sides with angles of inclination of the maximum allowable resistance. On the lower horizons outside ledges form a triple, increasing the resulting angle of repose (RF Patent No. 2052630, E 21 C 41/26, Fashion design career / Beanotown and other Application No. 94041398/03, Appl. 30.11.1994 publ. 20.01.96 bull. No. 2.)
In the known method below transshipment site form a transport berm with parameters providing bilateral degeneation capacity up to 40 t, i.e. the width of the transport berm 21-22 m with a slope of 70-90‰that it is not possible to maximize the use of the geometric space and reduces the amount of ore mining and refining ore leads to increased overburden the first phase of testing. Building terraces to a height of 45 m at an angle of 80° (example of calculation) and the formation between triple horizontal ledges of the safety berm width of not less than 1/3 of the height of the built-in ledge, one can achieve the angle of the Board in this area not more than 50-55° when the maximum possible value 75-80°. The formation of parallel transport of the berm of the first and second stage with the General areas of contiguity would clearly lead to an underestimation of the slope transport of congresses in the second stage, i.e. to the re-transport. All this reduces the efficiency of extraction.
The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of extraction by reducing the volume of overburden rocks in the path of deep, limited in terms of quarries, while preserving the completeness of the notch.
This objective is achieved in that in the method of opencast mining of steeply dipping deposits phases in depth with the transport berms, the width of which decreases with depth career, including the first stage of construction of pit slope with a slope angle of less than maximum is postimage on sustainability, drilling and blasting preparing to rock excavation, transportation of ore and overburden on major transport Congress wheeled transport, the second stage is the formation of ground handling item and revision to the design depth with offset sides with angles of inclination of the maximum allowable resistance, in which the platform transshipment point pererezajut capital Congress, increasing its longitudinal slope, the Board build a career high ledges, work out the ore pillars left at the first stage, the lower ledge rebuild by contact of the ore body, part of the career construct a temporary exit, transport the ore and overburden to transshipment site tracked vehicles, and for improvements to project depth occiput capital Congress and Refine the ore pillars under a temporary exit.
Moreover, in the second stage, the longitudinal slope of the capital Congress to increase 300-472‰.
And for safe operation of the equipment on the lower ledge of the ultra-high benches of the pit strengthen wire-mesh veil.
Perinorte capital exit enlarged longitudinal slope helps to reduce the length of congresses, thereby reducing the volume of overburden in the career from the transport berms and develop ore reserves left in the first development stage,which increases the efficiency of the proposed method.
The construction of super-high ledges allows you to build a Board career with the minimum number of safety berms angles closest to the maximum allowable physical-mechanical properties of rocks, allowing you to get a career path with the minimum volume of overburden.
The offset of the lower ledge career by contact of the ore body and the construction of the provisional Congress within the boundaries of the ore body eliminates the separation of the Board and reduce the amount of overburden.
Transportation of ore and overburden to transshipment site tracked transport allows you to work on the limited size of the working areas, to transport ore and overburden in congresses with increased longitudinal slope.
Construction capital tsepnogo Congress allows you to develop ore reserves under the provisional Congress, i.e. to ensure the completeness of the extraction of minerals, which increases the efficiency of the proposed method.
The increase of the longitudinal slope of the capital Congress to 300-472‰ allows the second stage of testing using the potential of tracked vehicles, as adopted in the specific example of implementation, the slope of congresses equal to 360‰ allows testing with new technology commercially available at the present time. The magnitude of the longitudinal slope determine the Elena with regard to design parameters operating equipment.
Strengthening ultra-high benches of the pit wire-mesh veil allows to increase the safety of the equipment placed on the lower ledge.
figure 1 - scheme of mining career in the incision;
figure 2 - scheme of mining career in terms of, for example, a particular implementation;
2A - career plan at the end of phase I testing;
2B, in - career plans for phase II testing, where:
1 - circuit of the first stage;
2 - major exit;
3 - ore pillar for the circuit of the first stage;
4 - handling space;
5 - outline of the ore body;
6 - temporary exit;
7 - ore pillar under a temporary exit;
8 - capital osypnoi Congress.
9 - wire-mesh veil;
10 handling piles.
The method is implemented as follows.
Kimberlite pipe work in an open way. Development lead phases in depth. The width of the transport berms decreases with depth career depending on the amount of traffic and dimensions of vehicles.
At the first stage (figure 1) quarry mined to an intermediate bottom in the traditional mining kimberlite quarries technologies, including quarry development work benches, drilling and blasting preparing to rock excavation, loading rock mass on excavators and loaders wheeled dump trucks and transportation is the major exit 2: ore at the warehouse of the customer, and overburden rocks in external dumps. At the entrance of the pit in the ore body work is done, leaving the ore pillar 3 beyond the boundaries of the first stage. The pit rebuild with angles below the maximum allowable resistance.
After reaching the quarry boundaries of the first phase begin the second stage of testing. One of the horizons defined at the design stage and above the level of the ore pillars, arrange transshipment platform 4. With transshipment site 4 make perederenko capital exit 2 to increase its longitudinal slope. The pit rebuild under extremely stable angles, and the height of the outside ledges increase up to 60-100 m Lower outside ledge rebuild by contact of the ore body 5. The opening in the part of the quarry, where the ledge is built up on the contact produced by the system of temporary congresses 6, leaving the ore pillars 7. After working the lower part of the produce of construction of capital tsepnogo exit 8 to the design depth and Refine the ore pillars 7 under temporary exit 6. For the safety of operations under ultra-high ledges on them arrange wire-mesh veil. Transportation of ore and overburden to transshipment site 4 on the second stage of tracked vehicles. On reloading the site 4 horn is th mass overload in wheeled trucks and then deliver on the day surface.
An example of a specific implementation.
There is the option of mining kimberlite pipes "Komsomolskaya".
The tube is mined in an open way. The design depth of the pit is 400 m (S.A. +260 m).
The quarry development to the design depth of lead stages. The final career path build with the maximum allowable resistance parameters.
At the first stage (Figo) produce quarry development to a depth of 390 m (S.A. +270 m), leaving the ore pillar 3 below the horizon +340 m of the pit in the first stage is formed with angles below the maximum allowable. Testing of the first stage are carried out by traditional mining kimberlite fields of technology, including quarry development work benches, drilling and blasting preparing to rock excavation, loading rock mass on excavators and loaders wheeled dump trucks and transportation of ore to the warehouse of the customer, and overburden rocks in external dumps. The height of the working ledges at this stage is 15 m, the height of the outside benches - 45-50 m, the angle of the slope outside ledges - 65-80 degrees. The slope of the capital of congresses is 80-110‰their width decreases with depth from 22 to 15 meters
After working career to the depth of the first phase begin the second stage of testing (figb, 2B). At elevation. +400 m arrange transshipment platform 4. With peregruzochny site 4 make perederenko (reissue) capital exit 2, thus increasing the longitudinal slope with 110‰ 360‰ (20 degrees). At the second stage of the refinement are ledges, a height of 15 m, and the height of the outside ledge of 60-100 m
For the safety of the equipment under ultra-high ledges on it arrange wire-mesh veil 9.
Perinorte capital Congress allows the extraction of ore from the ore pillars 3. When this blasted rock mass is shipped crawler loader crawler dump truck, and then transported to the loading platform 4. On reloading the site of the rock mass is stored in piles 10, of which are then shipped to the wheel dump trucks and transported to the surface.
The bottom outside of the bench mark. +300÷+260 m around the perimeter of the build along the contact of the ore body, in this case, initially undergo a temporary exit 6 in elevation. +300÷+260 m (to the design depth), leaving the ore pillars 7. After working career to the design depth produce the dumping of capital exit 8 in elevation. +300÷+260 m, and mining of pillars 7 under the provisional Congress, and transportation are carried out through osypnoi capital exit 8.
To work within the boundaries of the second stage uses a special crawler vehicles capable of operating on steep slopes: excavation and loading work are tracked preparing the chick CAT-S, bucket capacity of 2.6-3.2 m3and transportation of the rock mass is tracked dumpers, for example Morooka MST-3300VD, the capacity of 15.5 tons
The volume of rock in the quarry development on traditional and proposed technologies listed in the table. As can be seen from the table, the volume of overburden rocks in the pit is reduced by 6.9 million m3when the decrease in the average Stripping ratio with 1,91 to 1.37 m3/so
|Performance testing||Traditional technology||New technology|
|Stage I||Stage II||Total:|
|Ore, thousand m3||total of 5,379||4968||411||total of 5,379|
|Stripping, thousand m3||24696||17400||400||17800|
|Mountain mass, thousand m3||30075||22368||811||23179|
|The Stripping ratio, m3/t||1,91||1,45||0,41||1,37|
|Volume tsepnogo Congress, thousand m3||0,0||of 87.0|
|The remains of ore in the pit, kt||0||986,2||0||0|
1. Method of surface mining steeply dipping deposits phases in depth with the transport berms, the width of which decreases with depth career, including the first stage of construction of pit slope angle of the slope below the maximum permissible resistance, blasting preparing to rock excavation, transportation of ore and overburden on major transport Congress wheeled transport, the second stage is the formation of ground handling item and revision to the design depth with offset sides with angles of inclination, the maximum allowable resistance, characterized in that from the site transshipment point pererezajut capital Congress, increasing its longitudinal slope, run ore columns, left on the first stage, the Board build a career high ledges, the lower ledge rebuild by contact of the ore body, part of the career construct a temporary exit, transport the ore and overburden to the site transshipment point crawler transport, and for improvements to the design depth occiput capital Congress and Refine the ore pillars under a temporary exit.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for the safe operation of equipment ultra-high ledges of the pit strengthen wire-mesh veil.
FIELD: mining, particularly opencast mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stepping rock up to design outline with leading in the first stage pit edge; transporting ore along main decline to plant and stacking overburden in dump; excavating connection entry between the first stage pit and the second stage pit so that the entry is opened in previously excavated the first stage pit; cutting the second stage pit; transporting ore and overburden from the second order pit via connection entry; depositing overburden from the second order pit in the first stage pit goaf after termination of the first stage pit excavation. Before ore and overburden transportation from second order pit via connection entry overburden excavated from the second order pit is accumulated in outer dump. Overburden from the second order pit is conveyed to day surface along temporary decline system. When the second pit side reaches designed outermost outline temporary declines are killed.
EFFECT: reduced costs of deposit development and decreased hazardous action of mining operations on environment.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of coal, ore and non-ore deposits by open method.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, geological structure of massif is analyzed, position of potential sliding surface is detected, physical and mechanical properties of rocks are determined. Along profile parallel to edge of shelf in its middle portion, frequency of alternation of impulses of natural electromagnetic radiation is measured. On intervals where this frequency exceeds level of background radiation more than 2 times, interval-wise measurement of relation of strength level of signal electric field at two working frequencies is performed. By means of computed logarithmic dependence, depth of location of potential sliding surface is determined. With consideration of change of this depth, structure of massif, technological parameters and physical-mechanical properties of rocks, values of stability reserve coefficients are calculated on basis of ratio of momentums of holding and moving forces within limits of detected dangerous portion. Probability of landslide development is evaluated on basis of minimal values of stability reserve coefficients.
EFFECT: increased precision when predicting stability of quarry sides.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use in deep quarries extracted with utilization of motor and conveyor transport.
SUBSTANCE: method includes transportation of rock mass from excavation faces by dump trucks and loading it through mobile crusher plant, mounted at temporarily shut down section of quarry, and transit ribbon conveyor, located in the mine on end side of quarry, onto ribbon conveyor lift, positioned in mines on end side of quarry. After update of quarry with positioning of mobile crusher plant at temporarily shut down section of quarry side, transit conveyor is disassembled, crusher block from mobile crusher plant is moved and mounted above end section of conveyor lift, in semi-trench driven preliminarily to subjacent safety bench a bunker is assembled with plate feeder for loading crusher block, while block of rocks formed below previous locations of mobile crusher plant and dump truck unload points is extracted with transportation and loading of exploded rock mass from dump trucks and rotary platform of main ramp through bunker with feeder and through crusher block from mobile crusher plant.
EFFECT: no need for moving crusher plant and for additional motor transport unit between crusher plant and conveyor lift.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in opencast mining of hard rocks.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in multirow drilling of the block to be blasted by holes of a permanent diameter, charging of the holes by explosive, connection of the explosive charges by a blasting network and short-delay blasting of them. The quantity of the energy of the charges in the lower part of odd rows is increased, for example, by drilling of parallel drawn together holes, whose charges are not similar is height, or by expansion of the holes in this part. The net of arrangement of charges of the even and odd rows is also increased. The order of blasting is provided by laying of the blasting network, each charge of the even order is blasted after weakening the mass broken by it by blasting of the increased charges of the previous odd row. In this case the quantity of the energy of an elementary charge of holes of each row approaches the quantity of the energy required for blasting destruction of the mass broken by them, thus providing the preset degree of crushing and enhancing of the blast efficiency.
EFFECT: enhanced yield of rock mass from one running meter of the hole, reduced consumption of explosive for breaking due to rational placement of the explosive in the mass.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly open cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loading tanks at lower horizon during tank unloading at upper horizon and lowering empty tanks from upper horizon during loaded tank lifting from lower horizon; providing additional sites for tank loading at lower horizon and corresponding additional sites for tank unloading at upper horizon; laying cable in zigzag manner so that the cable passes along loading and unloading sites and creates pulling branches; connecting tank with aerostat to each pulling branch. Tanks located at upper and lower horizons are fastened to next nearest branch so that distances between loading and unloading sited along the branches are equal one to another. Device for above method realization is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased capacity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: earth-moving equipment, particularly machines for ground cutting, pit excavation for hydraulic structure, large-scale object building, as well as for mineral deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: ditching and transportation rig comprises basic chassis connected with earth-moving module and with transportation-handling devices, which move ground in vertical and horizontal directions. Earth-moving module is made as bucket rotary drum secured by means of vertical and horizontal hinges, as well as control-rods to the basic chassis so that the bucket rotary drum may rotate in vertical and horizontal planes and overhanging length thereof may be changed. Device is provided with continuous-type conveyer unit made as auger system and as telescopic pipe pivotally connected with transportation-handling device, which move ground in horizontal direction. Horizontal auger is located inside bucket rotary drum and is offset with respect to drum axis so that auger axis is parallel to drum axis. The horizontal auger is transversal to inclined auger having lower end installed under outlet end of horizontal auger. Upper end of inclined auger is pivotally fastened to upper telescopic pipe section. Transportation-handling device, which moves ground in horizontal direction, is made as endless band installed on length-adjustable telescopic sliding frame, which may change ground displacement distance by means of tightening rollers. Rollers have pins installed at different heights sliding in telescopic frame grooves. The telescopic frame has flanging. Lower telescopic pipe section is provided with rotary hinge connected to telescopic frame flanging so that rotary hinge may perform longitudinal movement with respect to frame flanging. Transportation-handling device, which provides vertical ground movement is composite and made as continuous-type bucket bands mating each other in transfer points.
EFFECT: increased ability and speed of pit excavation, reduced costs of ground excavation and transportation outside the pit and provision of continuous technological cycle.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of surface mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves transporting rock and unloading thereof under dump front slope; forming advance embankments; increasing advance embankment heights and pouring rock between the embankments. The advance embankments are formed of solid rock and are made as broken line with line sections extending at an acute angle to direction of dump front forming. Gaps between advance embankments are filled with soft rock so that soft rock front is behind from dump front and spaced from it for distance equal to not less than distance between solid and soft rock locations.
EFFECT: increased stability of each stacked refuse layer.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop steep and inclined ore bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and dividing open-pit field into penetration and production horizons; excavating ore and removing capping by bench movement; employing temporarily inactive wall parts; constructing descents and haulage benches, conveying semi-trenches; delivering ore and cut capping to day surface; dividing capping rock in transversal section in hanging and laying wall into inclined layers, wherein angle of temporary inactive wall slope parts of layers to be excavated is different in upper, central and lower zones and the angle is increased in dependence of different speed of horizontal and vertical bench movement in upper and lower horizons; forming temporary (intermediate) dumps, permanent and additional in deposit sides; conveying rock along the descents directed towards the second and the third excavation stage pit contour with the use of cyclic vehicle means and then with the use of continuously acting vehicles, wherein trenches with conveyers are directed so that conveyor lifting means may be extended or cascade system may be created if ore body thickness varies or ore body inclination angle changes. Conveyer lifting means are formed in ore production zone when cyclic acting means reach extreme transportation level, which puts the system out of optimal operation area. Conveyer lifting means path is selected to elongate the conveyer lifting means or to provide their operation along with vertical lifting means to deliver ore to transfer point on day surface. The last lifting means is constructed at high depth so that composite transport level does not project outwards optimal system operation area. At final pit development stage design wall angles are adjusted, the last layers are cut and the wall angle magnitudes are brought to extreme stability-varied final magnitudes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of capping and ore extraction, reduced current stripping ratio, decreased stripping volume in sides during sloping thereof under steep angles and increased operational safety.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, hydraulic building, road-building, agricultural building and so on, particularly to develop block rock or half-rock massifs.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stage-detailed rock zoning into block size, fracture porosity, strength and quality; dividing working zone massif into horizons having different heights or dividing working zone parts into productive blocks; dividing the productive blocks into uniform unit blocks, which are cut in top-down direction by "disassembling" method in accordance with block size so that blocks having the largest dimensions, namely technologically and technically oversized rock pieces in pit face are broken first and then properly sized and fine fractions are removed from rock massif with the use of corresponding working tool set of all-purpose mining rig. The all-purpose mining rig performs direct cutting of properly sized rock pieces from massif, drilling and blasting oversized rock pieces with the use of explosive charge having diameter of 8-84 mm under local shelter or by mechanical breaking or loosening operations. Then rock is removed and loaded on transportation means, moved to internal dump or to temporary bottomhole store.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock massif, pit face and coal strip mine cutting.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground or surface mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating deposit up to design depth by opened method; cutting ore located under pit bottom in top-down direction by opencast-underground mining method, which is changed for underground-opencast mining method with opened excavated space and with ore movement via ore pass located in deposit center. During opencast-underground mining ore is developed within the limits of rock contour and then ore is cut along with forming platforms and faces having angles of inclination of not more than extreme ore shifting angles. During underground-opencast mining radial blind drifts are created in prepared sublevels and blind drifts are connected with working horizons by cross headings. Ore is cut from the blind drifts by blasting thereof so that inclined platforms for ore delivery to ore pass are created. Angles α of platform inclinations obey the following condition: φ≤α≤γ, where φ is angle of natural rock debris slope, γ is maximal angle of ore face shifting.
EFFECT: possibility to cut ore deposit located below design pit bottom mark up to lower level of explored reserves and increased working safety.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg