Wire thinning method and apparatus with use of rolling theory

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in different branches of machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of thinning wire of metals or alloys by drawing and successively bending it at winding wire around pivots mounted one near another and rotating around their axes; straightening wire after each bending operation; controlling wire diameter by regulating number of wire bending and unbending operations. Pivots may have the same diameter and gradually decreasing diameter and they are mounted in such a way that to provide rolling friction in struts. Apparatus for thinning wire of metals and alloys includes pivots mounted with possibility of rotation around their axes; struts for rewinding wire. Apparatus also includes struts made of hard materials and designed for mounting pivots with possibility of rolling friction.

EFFECT: wire thinning without use of high-cost diamond, hard-alloy drawing dies and different lubricating materials due to using theory of rolling instead of friction theory.

5 cl, 9 dwg

 

The method can be used in various industries (metallurgical, electronic, lighting, Electromechanical, cable and other), where for production purposes it is necessary to make the wire of various diameters, including where conventional drawing equipment is not available and where the new, proposed in the present description may be established without the use of expensive diamond and carbide dies. The method is based on the current understanding of plastic deformation of materials using theory of dislocations.

The method of drawing wire from metals known since the bronze age [1] and used without significant changes to the present time. It is based on the principle of friction: the section of wire is formed by the hole size used for these purposes, drawing boards (filereg) when pulling wires through them larger diameter than the diameter of the hole itself.

The method has the following main disadvantages:

1. For the manufacture of wires used some of the most solid and at the same time the most expensive materials - carbide and diamond drawing dies (dies), which is associated with substantial economic costs on the technological process.

2. To manufacture these nozzles spent exhaust gas is UMNO amount of time and money. The inner channel (hole) in filiere through which extends subject to the thinning of the wire, has a fairly complex profile - input channel, lubricants, operating and calibrating zone, reverse cone and the output area, the ratio of the shape and size which substantially affects the quality of the technological process and the final product [2, 3]. Therefore, in addition to time to the manufacture of nozzles, including operations such as polishing, centering, drilling and polishing of the inner channel, is inserted into a frame, fixing spent a large amount of work on a thorough quality control.

3. Despite the hardness, in the process of wire drawing, the size and shape of the channels of nozzles is gradually eroding. If necessary to strictly maintain a constant diameter output wire used dies from time to time be re-processed for use for further wire slightly larger in diameter, and for receiving a wire of the same (old) diameter made new dies.

4. During wire drawing to reduce the coefficient of friction used lubricants, the composition and properties of which are usually different for materials of varying degrees of refractoriness. If fusible material m which may be used various oils, for drawing wires of such refractory materials such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc. are usually used graphite grease.

5. In most cases, after the manufacture of wire of finite diameter of this grease must be removed from the surface, so as not to spoil the quality indicators produced from it products.

6. In the process of wire drawing at high temperatures included in its composition graphite by diffusion is introduced into the crystal lattice, and when the final product is also operated at sufficiently high temperatures (as, for example, tungsten spiral filament lamps and electronics) usually formed of carbide inclusions, leading to increased fragility and premature product failure.

Above, in the older way of drawing, the disadvantages in most cases eliminated when using detected when carrying out this study a new method.

7. There is also known a method and apparatus for the continuous stretching (lengthening) wire products [14]. The device comprises an exhaust conical drums rigidly mounted on a common shaft which is rotated by the actuator, bypass pulley and mechanism for moving coils wires on inclined surfaces along the axis of the drums with special upravlyaushymoscow. The basic physical principle of the method and device is intended for continuous elongation (according to the authors - pulling) wires in the process of winding that at constant specific volume of the material leads to their refinement. For the implementation of the pulling wire is positioned between the conical drums so that the rewinding occurs between the plot of the first drum with a smaller radius of curvature on another drum with a large radius, and in the process of winding to provide the necessary efforts special slows down the device. Use the movement of the coils along the axis of the drum, necessary to maintain in an automatic mode, a constant ratio of the diameters of the coils in the process of winding, which primarily depends on the effort of pulling. To increase the effort of pulling the coils of wire above mechanism is moved along the inclined surfaces of the drums so that the rewinding is from the section with the smaller diameter of one wheel to the plot with a large diameter of the other. Force pull can be smoothly adjusted by the ratio of the diameters of the turns by sliding in one direction or another.

The method has the following disadvantages:

1. The device for its implementation characterizes the great structural complexity.

2. In the process, with continuous shifting of coils of wire on inclined surfaces of both drums they attrited, this changes and the ratio of the diameters of the coils, which can lead to a gradual change of the cross-section wires.

3. With this continuous shifting of coils on inclined surfaces of the drums is one-sided abrasion and wires themselves.

The technical result, which directed the claimed invention is the development of a new alternative way of refinement wires, which eliminates the need for expensive diamond and carbide nozzles and various lubricants, and instead applied the principle of friction would have used the principle of the wheel, the principle of rolling.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the way of refinement wires of metals and alloys, including wire drawing, with its successive bending by winding at the adjacent rotating around their axes cores and straightening of the wire after each bend, the wire diameter regulate the quantity of flexion and extension around cores of the same or gradually decreasing diameters, with the cores being installed with the provision of rolling friction in the racks.

The device d is I the refinement wires of metals and alloys, containing cores, with the possibility of rotation around their axes, and a stand for rewinding the wire, fitted with racks for installation of the cores, the cores are installed in enclosures with provision of rolling friction and is made of solid materials.

In the particular case of execution devices use cores made of hardened steel.

In the second special case for regulation of the diameter of the wire rack has consistently set the cores of the same diameter or gradually decreasing diameters.

In another particular case, to prevent the loss of rounded cross-section of the wire when it is thinning and turning it into an oval cores installed in the racks relative to each other at angles, the value of which is the smaller, the more accurate must be maintained throughout the cross section of the finished wire.

New views on the possibility of using non-traditional method of refinement wires arose in connection with the analysis of erroneous ideas about the mechanism commonly known in the electronic equipment, lighting and other production process of winding coils, springs and other similar semi-finished products and products. In particular, when describing processes circling tungsten filaments on the core for electronics and lighting, the experts proceeded from the erroneous view is that that when bent around a core axial line of the wire remains the same, its outer layers are stretched and the inner compressed [3]. So, when circling threads with a diameter of 45 micrometers core diameter of 80 micrometers on this previously existing geometric model counting the lengths of the arcs shows the following results. The external remote from the core, the layers must be stretched to 36%, and the inner adjacent surface of the core to shrink by up to 36% [3]. A simple comparison of this model with the physico-mechanical properties of the wire confirms its Ineligibility. Neither the first nor the second result is impossible. First, tensile tungsten wires on discontinuous machines the most high their relative elongation at fracture does not exceed 3% [2], therefore, the elongation of 36% would lead at least to the appearance of the surface of the deep transverse cracks, which according to the results of scanning electron microscopic studies of the spirals never observed (see figure 1) [4]. Secondly, the more and the inner adjacent to the core layers may not be compressed by 36%since the compression ratio of the metals is negligible and for most of them does not exceed the value (3-8)×10-7[2]. Thus, in the previous model experts proceeded from the view of elastic deformation technology is BA, and not from the view of modern dislocation of deformation theory [5].

The contradiction is simply explained with the use of modern ideas about taking place during plastic deformation reactions between screw and edge components of linear structural defects in the crystal lattice dislocations. Dislocation is an incomplete shift from one part of a crystal relative to another portion thereof for a particular plane, called the plane of sliding. The screenshots of the computer model (see figa, b, C, d) presents the individual steps of sliding the edge dislocation. The dynamics of this and other processes related to this job description, are presented in the attached laser media. In the relay process of free movement along the slip plane dislocation emerges on the opposite edge with the formation of elementary steps of plastic deformation. On figa, b shows, as a result of stresses (represented by arrows in the first screenshot) when the motion of dislocations such a crystal is deformed. The total movement of many defects along their slip planes will lead to plastic deformation of the entire crystal. An edge dislocation is an extra half-plane (Fig 3b), how would sklenenou at the top cha is th crystal above the plane of the slide.

Figure 4 presents: atomistic model of the selected volume of the defect-free crystal (a) and simplified models of the crystal with the presence of pure screw (b) and mixed (b) dislocations. Figures 4B and presented in a simplified form, in order not to complicate the perception of excessive atoms and planes. Shown in figure 2 relay moving edge dislocation is implemented very rarely with weak and simple shear deformations. In the complex deformation (torsion, bending) are formed mixed dislocation.

Pure screw dislocation is a complete shift of the front plane of the selected volume of the crystal on one interatomic distance, but incomplete shift inside this volume, therefore, the screw dislocation model can serve as a threaded screw plane around some lines marked in the crystal by the dotted line. The model is a mixed dislocation is a pending shift in the selected volume of the crystal in both directions (both on the front and inside the volume). If the front of the crystal from above to carry out work in shift one interatomic distance, at some distance there will be an extra half-plane. Her appearance on the surface of the crystal is to simulate the regional component and is denoted by some fatty Lin is her perpendicular to this surface. At the same time incomplete shift inside the selected volume in the upper part, as before, will be a purely helical component, the surface of which also simulates the bold line perpendicular to the top surface. It is seen that pure screw and clean the regional components of the same mixed dislocation lines orthogonal to each other.

After these simple structural explanation simply eliminates the aforementioned contradiction between erroneous geometric model circling and physico-mechanical properties nalivaeva on the core thread.

There is no need to talk about contradicting theory and practical observations unimaginably large mechanical compression of the inner (adjacent to the core) layers of wire. In the whole volume of the wire, starting from the contact of its surface with the core and to the outer layers during its winding on the core in accordance with FIVB, formed purely helical components. Each of the screw component makes no macroscopic changes in the volume of threads, but perpendicular to it each boundary component with the resulting extra half-plane makes a change in the elongation of the outer surface of the thread on one interatomic distance. In the process of bending the threads wok is ug core such screw components of dislocations are formed at different height volumes thread. Each such formation of helical components is accompanied by the formation of extra half-plane. Therefore, the total elongation of the outer surface of the thread to be equal to the parameter of the unit cell multiplied by the number of generated within the volume of the wire extra half-planes.

Here may doubt the next order. If the above specific example, it is impossible to stretch the outer layers of the wire 36%, in accordance with the new dislocation model in the absence of compression of the inner layers of wire elongation its outer layers would have to be 36%and twice the size. All is fair when you consider that in the last sentence the word "stretching" replaced by "lengthening". The word "stretching" touched in the previous model elastic increase of interatomic distances in unimaginably large values. The word "extension" in our model applies the increase of the external length of the wire in relation to the internal by converting each screw components within the volume of the wire in the regional component with an extra half-plane. In the figure 5 below: General view of part of a coil (a), a dislocation model of the parts of the coils wound spirals before (b) and after annealing at fixing form (b), and electron microscopic RA is trowa photograph spiral bulbs after prolonged operation (g). The section of wire (figure 5, b) are of the same disposition with gradually increasing with distance from the inner surface of the thread number. This corresponds to the many claims of theory of dislocations [5-7]. When describing the mechanism of deformation of the bend in the number of publications on theory of dislocations [5-8] indeed confirmed the formation of clusters from the same dislocations, however, mention that they are formed by reactions convert screw components in the regional, missing, apparently because of their obviousness. Because from a practical point of view this is important, we felt it necessary to particularly emphasize this.

After high temperature annealing scattered by the volume of threads of the same dislocation rebuilt with the formation of resistant to external stresses polygonal dislocation walls (figure 5). The process of polygonization [8] yet long before the advent of theory of dislocations was used by technologists electronic and electrical industries to consolidate the shape wound on the core of the spiral electrodes of the vacuum tube and bodies glow of incandescent lamps [3].

The data of figures 5B and does not allow for calculation of elongation of the outer layers of yarn towards the inside. This opportunity is available shows electron microscopic images of the JV is morals after its long life lamps (high). Visible on the bitmap images of spirals cut previously rounded thread is formed due to the specificity of the processes of evaporation monocrystalline extremely textured yarns in the result justified in [9] a new kinetic concepts evaporation. The structure of recrystallized threads is such that the close-Packed crystallographic plane (110) of simbani their surface. Partial evaporation of atoms located in different structural and energy provisions, significantly depend on the number of elementary connections with the surface. In close-Packed attanagalla planes (110) the number of such relations is the greatest, therefore, during operation of the lamps they gradually become bare and the evaporation of the thread is slowing sharply. It's easy to guess that these on FIGU polygonal walls are under the kinks attanagalla crystallographic planes on high and this provides a key for further estimates. Such fractures on the outer surface worked spirals when the ratio of the diameters of the thread and the core 7, so the angle of misorientation of the polygonsin this case, is of 128.6° 7 walls, respectively. For the dependent from the angle of misorientationpolygons distance is between dislocations in the wall D theory [4] gives the expression:

where b is the burgers vector of the dislocation, is equal to the tungsten setting unit cell a=3,16×10-10m

Since each edge dislocation extends the external surface of the thread on one interatomic distance, counting through the thread diameter and the distance between dislocations in the wall of the amount of such dislocations, it is possible to assess how lengthens the outer surface of one such polygonal wall. For angle misorientation of 128.6° (7 polygonal walls), such estimates provide for a total elongation of the outer surface of the spiral in relation to the internal 283 micrometer.

Compare the above estimates of the dislocation model with geometric estimates for the lengths of arcs, provided that the internal compression adjacent to the core layer of the wire is missing. For the diameter of the core 80 μm circumference of its cross section and the length of the inner (adjacent to the core) part of the loop is the value of the 80×3,14=251,2 μm, and the length of the outer part of the spiral - value (80+45+45)×3,14=533,8 μm. Therefore, the obtained hence the elongation of the outer part of the coil is an amount equal to 533,8-251,2=282,6 μm, which is accurate to tenths of microns coincides with the above estimates for the angle of misorientation of 128.6°.

Thus, estimates for the dislocation model and the geometric model which indicate the satisfactory coincidence, and thereby fully confirm new dislocation model circling [10].

As an intermediate conclusion check received by the dislocation model circling the result. When walking around the threads around the inner core layers, in principle, can not be compressed by tens of percent. External with respect to the core is not "stretched" by tens of percent, and "extended" due to the fact that formed at different distances from the surface of the core, the depth of the threads of the screw components of the dislocations form accompanying boundary components with extraplanetary, each of which gives the elongation of the outer surface of the filament with respect to the inner one interatomic distance.

The result of this work purely by chance, we raised the question becomes whether all their previous positions in reverse hyperextension pre-twisted around the core filaments. The deformation of the extension is the inverse of the sign precedes her bending deformation, so the newly formed during extension screw and edge components would have to have opposite signs compared to the previously generated defects. Their mutual annihilation after successive operations of flexion and extension would lead to a zero result - string after reverse razgobaribala would fully recover its original length. Theoretical calculation is impossible, therefore, much simpler and easier to verify these doubts direct experiments. Below are some simple experiments on the threads of various metals, showing that a zero result is always missing when successive operations of flexion and extension thread always lengthened. When the constancy of the specific density of the material this extension should lead to a decrease in the diameter of the filaments, subject to such simple types of deformation. Direct experimental measurements confirm this result.

EXPERIMENT 1. Wire made of tin solder initial diameter of 1.5 mm and an initial length 27 cm fully revivals on steel core with a diameter of 1.8 mm After the first coiling and straightening her length was increased to 29 see After the next 5 coils and extension to 37.4 see Thus, after 6 consecutive operations coils and vypryamlenii its elongation was: ε=(37,4-27)/27=38,5%. The final diameter and calculated, taking into account the constancy of the specific gravity, and experimentally measured) was 1 mm, the Relative reduction of diameter for 6 consecutive operations thus amounted to Δd/d=(1,5-1,0)/1,5=33%.

EXPERIMENT 2. The same wire of the same diameter of the initial length of 25 cm was completely tied in to the pH three times smaller in diameter - 0.6 mm After the second coiling and straightening the final wire length was 35 cm and its diameter of 0.97 mm Thus, when the winding on the core three times smaller diameter similar to the first experiment, the thinning of the diameter is reached already no for 6 consecutive operations, and only 2.

EXPERIMENT 3. Copper wire entry diameter of 1 mm and an initial length of 300 mm was completely revivals on the core diameter of 4 mm After the third winding and straightening wire collapsed due to the critical degree of deformation, having a length of 320 mm and a diameter of 0.9 mm, an elongation at this amounted to 6.7%, and the relative thinning of the diameter - 10%.

EXPERIMENT 4. Wire of the same diameter of 1 mm and the same initial length fully coiled around a core of smaller diameter 2 mm After two operations cheat and raspylenii wire collapsed due to the critical degree of deformation, having a length 316 mm and the final diameter of 0.9 mm elongation was 5.3%, and the relative thinning of the diameter - 10%

EXPERIMENT 5. Copper wire initial diameter of 0.6 mm and an initial length of 300 mm was completely coiled around the core diameter of 4 mm After 6 consecutive namachivanii and raspylenii length of the wire increased to 321 mm, and the diameter is reduced to 0.5 mm. Thus, elongation of the wire PR is such experimental conditions was 7%, and the relative reduction of the diameter of 16.7%.

EXPERIMENT 6. Copper wire of the same diameter of 0.6 mm and the same initial length of 300 mm was completely coiled around a core of smaller diameter 2 mm After 4 operations twisting and straightening wire was destroyed during the final length 327 mm and a diameter of 0.5 mm, Thus, the elongation under these conditions amounted to 9%, and the relative reduction of the diameter of 16.7%.

EXPERIMENT 7. Copper wire of the same diameter of 0.6 mm and the same initial length of 300 mm was completely tied to a thinner core diameter of 0.6 mm After 2 successive operations of its length is increased to 321 mm and the diameter is reduced to 0.5 mm, the elongation of the wire was 10%, and the relative reduction of the diameter is 7%.

EXPERIMENT 8. Copper wire initial diameter of 0.4 mm and the same initial length of 300 mm was tied completely to the core diameter of 4 mm After three operations, the wire is lengthened up to 306 mm, elongation was 5.7%, and the diameter when measuring with calipers practically has not changed. To the complete destruction of the experiment was not possible due to very small degrees of extension.

EXPERIMENT 9. Copper wire initial diameter of 0.4 mm and the same initial length of 300 mm was tied completely to the core diameter of 0.6 mm After the first operation of its length is increased is about 316 mm, after the second - to 350 mm, and after the third - up to 405 mm, after which the wire was destroyed. Thus, after three operations elongation amounted to 35.3%, and the relative reduction of the diameter - 25%.

Calculated from the condition of constancy of the volume of the filaments before and after navipane and measured diameters coincide with satisfactory accuracy.

From the analysis of the experimental results, it follows that the relative elongation of the wires under the described operations cheat on the core and subsequent straightening increases with increasing degree of deformation of the bend (when reducing the diameter of the core), while the diameter of the wire becomes smaller, the smaller the diameter of the core.

Thus, from the comparison of the legacy of a geometric model and a new dislocation model circling tungsten filaments randomly floated a new simplified model of the drawn wires of metals and alloys for their refinement.

In the preliminary bending and subsequent straightening of the fibres does not fully annihilation formed initially and after such operations defects of opposite sign. If such annihilation not have occurred, after the extension of pre-screwed on the core wire length previous estimates would amount to twice as large compared to n, the initial length. The experiment does not confirm this assumption. He does not confirm and complete mutual annihilation, after which the wire after successive flexion and extension would be to restore the original length. It is obvious that in this case there is only partial annihilation of the resulting dislocations of opposite sign, since the wire is extended, and its diameter is reduced after each successive operations on some, but quite tangible value.

The dislocation model of such refinement wires is confirmed also by the fact (see above experiments), which when bent wire on the core of reduced diameter, the number of operations coils and extension to achieve the same result is significantly reduced. This directly follows from the analysis of the formula 1 to calculate the distance between dislocations in a polygonal wall. The smaller the diameter of the core, the greater the angle of misorientation of the polygons, and the smaller is the distance between the individual dislocations in polygonal wall. In this regard sharply for each specific diameter of the threads increases the number of dislocations in the polygonal walls, which is directly related to the resulting elongation of the wire when using the new method of refinement.

Technological scheme is as following considered in the present work, a brief research on the development of new non-traditional way of refinement wires is fairly simple in execution. In the proposed method, the core does not move along its axis, and himself, staying at the same place, revolves around it by using two racks and mounted them in ball bearings in a single (or multiple) bending wire around it, followed by straightening it again in a straight thread. There is no need to apply abrasion resistant superhard materials such as carbide or diamond, because the principle of rolling minimized the effects of friction in the wire and in contact with it while rolling materials. There is also no need to use lubricants that when the effect of rolling (instead of friction) are unnecessary.

Atomistic mechanisms of internal processes in refining the wires of the new method are as follows and are illustrated by the above figure 4B, and screenshots of the computer current model sequential processes when bent strands around the core with subsequent straightening (figa, b, C and d).

Itself acting in the dynamics computer model presented in the companion laser media. As figb, here (figure 6) on the wire surface marked only plane that most clearly help to understand the essence of the process. On the surface provolo and prior to its contact with the rotating core in blue marked atomic plane, perpendicular to its axis. Before contact with the core number and mutual distance is not changed, and this means that any change in length of the wire is not observed. Working in the dynamics computer model this part of the wire is indicated by the area A. In the short moment of the beginning of deformation bending the wire around the core in a small area In the described above model representations (see figb,) leads to the formation of screw dislocations at different distances from the surface of the core with the accompanying half-planes indicated by red lines. The color difference components of the figures can be observed when using the supplied laser drive.

After completion of process of deformation of the bend in the envelope surface of the core wire of the same inherent and blue color planes continue to move around the core mixed with the newly formed new half-planes, marked in red, with no significant changes. On a working computer model of this process is marked by the area S. further straightening of the wire at its exit from the zone in the zone D begins a short reverse in sign of plastic deformation with the formation of the opposite screw and edge component of the dislocation. The resultant is protivopolojnye sign boundary components completed the previously formed in zone a, as a result, for in the zone E is the elongation of the filament and its refinement.

The formation of helical components of dislocations shown in screenshot 6 is symbolized by the spiral, located at different heights of the wire. For the convenience of monitoring reverse spiral wound wire in the area where the bend, the core in current computer models are made transparent.

After the preparation of an application on the Internet, we met a "Pointer to physical effects in invention" [11], which in section 2 Warp subsection 2.1.5 is a summary of the Poynting effect, namely, that when tightening the wires, "they not only twisted, but also elastically elongate and increase in volume... the diameter of the wires by tightening the reduced...". As a practical application of the effect is indicated by A.S. 566456, where the dismantling of forging connections to facilitate removing the bearings from the shaft, the last pre-rolled. They show quite a small amount of elastic elongation and radial compression wires.

Unlike described in [11] for small values of elastic elongation and radial compression wires, in our case, as can be seen from the above experimental results, when using the bending deformation with the consequences is the missing extension thread the effects of plastic elongation and thinning wires are large enough and reach tens of percent depending on the level of plasticity of the investigated materials, the number of operations "bend - straightening", as well as on the ratio of the diameters of the wire and core.

This difference results, in our opinion, due to the following circumstance. When deformation of the bend formed after the formation of the screw dislocation extra half-plane of an edge dislocation "shoots" in the direction of the outer surface of the filament and thereby ensures its elongation in comparison with its inner surface adjacent to the core. In moments of such extension of the half-plane are formed on the opposite side and "complete" previously formed half-plane, which provides a significant lengthening of the filament and reduce its cross-section. When deformation of the torsion geometry distribution of the resulting screw and edge component of the dislocation with respect to the surface of the filaments, apparently, is different, and that gives ultimately insignificant elongation and slight decrease of the cross section of the threads. Therefore, the method of the torsion cannot be used for efficient wire drawing order of refinement.

It is this difference allows the use of the interconversion reaction screw and edge components at multiple times after ovately operations "curve-smoothing" to quite effective and simple in execution of refinement wires using the principle of rolling instead of friction.

A device for implementing a new way of refinement threads, screenshots computer model in which the action is presented on figa, b, C, g, different from those used to date devices, the two main distinctive features.

First, it eliminates the necessity of applying numerous expensive dies with thinning holes for wire drawing and making other related equipment.

Secondly, previously used the principle of friction is replaced by the principle of rolling elements, which extend in refining the wire consistently around rotating around its own axis cores with the same or sequentially thinning diameters with further reverse hyperextension in the direct thread.

The main element of the device are isolated from each other rack-mounted in their bearings, and rotating steel cores, with which the pulling wire serial operations of folding and straightening.

Model system consists of four vertical posts. Two of them are coil, through which the wire rewinding subject to refinement. On each of them three such coils. In the other two racks with ball bearings Gori is antolino are steel cores around which wire is wound in the process of winding. Such cores on the model 5. This models are often used in industrial machines multiple lugs. In the metallurgical industry, manufacture of wire of refractory metals, for example, used machine six-lug [3].

The current computer model of the installation and how to work in a dynamic process of refinement threads are shown in the attached laser media. The number of racks is dictated by the fact that in any ranges of diameters required to carry out the process of refinement threads. If necessary to carry out the thinning of the wires in a wider range of diameters, the number of such racks should increase. At the same time a process of refinement possible to control and when using cores of different diameters. You should pay attention to the fact that in a parallel arrangement of cores possible the gradual loss of yarns of circular cross section into an oval. To resolve this (undesirable in some cases) phenomenon is advisable cores positioned in the space cross pattern at a certain angle to each other, the smaller, the more accurate must be supported by a cylindrical surface thinning of the wire.

Technological features implemented is tvline new way. Any deformation of polycrystalline materials leads to the emergence and development of internal overvoltages. They are caused by the formation of elastic dislocation clusters, in which the voltage avalanche grow towards the head dislocation, locked in front of the obstacle (usually a wide-angle grain boundary). Next figa, b, C, d presents screenshots of individual moments of a computer model of the formation and growth of cracks before insurmountable obstacle when the continuous increase of the current external voltage.

In the local area head dislocation in front of the obstacle overvoltage increase in the number of times individual dislocations is elastic dislocation accumulation. If these surges from time to time not to reduce special techniques, further deformation leads to the destruction of the samples due to the growth in the field of head dislocation of macroscopic cracks and destruction of the wire. The above experimental studies show that the wire starts to break off when winding on the core in those cases, when using the cores of very small diameters. Further, with increasing deformation of internal stresses, as with commonly used at the present time the method of drawing through dies, wire or annealed, is because subjected to other methods, which include a method for processing pulses of electric current.

The mechanism of reduction of internal stresses in electro-processing is not associated with the heating of the material and is illustrated in figure 9. When applying to the wire current pulse density up to 104-105A/mm2with pulse duration of a few tens of microseconds and a relatively large time intervals between pulses (tenths or hundredths of a second) due to the heat capacity of the material does not have time to warm up, as evidenced by many pyrometric and thermocouple studies. When this voltage decreases due to the fact that the current pulses produced during the material mechanical shock electrodynamic nature, similar to those observed in ultrasonic processing.

Without additional processing of the current pulses curves elastic aftereffect pre-deformed wires, developing a subsequent opposite deformation gradually increase over time until saturation (curve 1). Each time when connecting to the sample at a certain stage of deformation aftereffect of electropulse treatment is racing deformation, the greater, the higher the amplitude of the high current density (curves 2, 3, 4 for current amplitudes of 1.5×103, 6×10 and 2×104A/mm2respectively). With further increases in the amplitude of the current pulses up to 105-106A/mm2the slew rate of the corresponding curves of the elastic aftereffect is further increased. These jumps deformation shows a dramatic acceleration processes reduce internal stresses in the formed after pre-deformation samples elastic dislocation clusters. The effects of ultrasonic and electro-processing was tested on the example of tungsten wires [12, 13] and can significantly reduce (in tens of thousands of times more rapidly than with conventional stress relaxation) level surge after a critical degree of deformation.

Literature

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14. SU 710737 A, 21 B F 9/00, 25.01.1980. Device for the continuous extrusion products.

1. The way of refinement wires of metals and alloys, including wire drawing, with its successive bending by winding at the adjacent rotating around their axes cores and straightening of the wire after each bend, characterized in that the diameter of provolo and regulate the quantity of flexion and extension around cores of the same or gradually decreasing diameters, while the core set with the provision of rolling friction in the racks.

2. Device for thinning wires of metals and alloys containing cores, with the possibility of rotation around their axes, and a stand for rewinding the wire, characterized in that it is equipped with racks for installation of the cores, the cores are installed in enclosures with provision of rolling friction and is made of solid materials.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that use cores made of hardened steel.

4. The device according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that to control the diameter of wires in enclosures has consistently set the cores of the same diameter or gradually decreasing diameters.

5. Device according to any one of claim 2 to 4, characterized in that to prevent the loss of rounded cross-section of the wire when it is thinning and turning it into an oval cores installed in the racks relative to each other at angles, the value of which is the smaller, the more accurate must be maintained throughout the cross section of the finished wire.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: plastic metal working.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for straightening annealed wire, diameter up to 3 mm. proposed device contains hollow cylinder secured in rotator and provided with axial holes in base to pull wire through. Device for forced moving off wire from axis of rotation of hollow cylinder is arranged in cylinder space. Cylinder space is partially filled with abrasive powder. Device for forced moving off of wire from axis of rotation of hollow cylinder is made in form of weight which can be mounted for movement on wire. Weight can be made in form of bushing with diameter of axial hole exceeding sum of diameter of wire and reduced diameter of wire and reduced diameters of two largest particles of abrasive powder. Cylinder space can be filled with abrasive powder at least by 30% of its volume.

EFFECT: reduced wire pulling force and provision of cleaning of wire from oxide film and surface contaminants.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy, namely production of reinforcement steel for reinforcing concrete structures.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making reinforcement steel by cold deformation in two roller draw plates with crosses axes of their rollers; at deforming blank in gap between rollers of first draw plate forming periodical dents; at deforming blank in gap between rollers of second draw plate imparting to blank appearance of ready product and simultaneously forming periodical dents on it. According to invention deforming is realized through gaps formed by rollers with cylindrical working surfaces at elongation factor of first draw plate no more than 1.2 and at elongation factor of second draw plate no more than 1.6. At working of blank deformation is uniformly distributed in surface layers of blank along its perimeter providing homogenous structure while structure of central layers of blank remains the same, that is hot rolled structure.

EFFECT: improved plastic properties of steel.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: systems for making wire by slitting belt material.

SUBSTANCE: line includes uncoiling apparatus, belt accumulator, multi-row disc shears for slitting, unit for working wire ribs, wire accumulator, drawing plate unit, coiling apparatus. Line also includes two multi-row apparatuses for twisting wire relative to its axis in different directions. One of such apparatus is mounted in front of unit for working wire ribs, other such apparatus is mounted behind said unit. Unit for working wire ribs has securely mounted sets of coaxial abrasive discs with end working surfaces mutually spaced by gap being less than diagonal of cross section of wire and one set arranged at other side relative to wire in interval between stationary sets with possibility of cross motion. Each set of abrasive discs has rotation drive and drawing drum mounted along the same axis with possibility of engaging with wire passing through gap between abrasive discs.

EFFECT: reduced tension effort, lowered degree of wire tearing off.

2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy; production of reinforcing bar steel.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for production of reinforcing bar steel by cold deformation method. Proposed plant includes two roller drawing dies; axes of their rollers intersect and working surface is provided with periodic profile ragging. Rollers have cylindrical surface and clearance between rollers is so selected that cogging in first drawing die is carried out at drawing coefficient not exceeding 1.12 and in second drawing die not exceeding 1.16. Provision is made for conducting cold deformation at which deformed zones are smoothly distributed in surface layers over entire perimeter of reinforcing bar steel keeping the structure of central layers non-deformed and hot rolled, thus making it possible to obtain steel with equilibrium structure possessing high ductility.

EFFECT: enhanced ductility of steel.

4 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: wire production by drawing.

SUBSTANCE: drawing bench includes draw plates and traction drums having in their shafts pinions driven by common motor. According to invention controlled clutches are mounted in shafts. Drums are arranged in common housing along path in the form of flat helix in center of which gear wheel is mounted. Said gear wheel is joined with all pinions at relation of tooth number of pinion of each previous and next drum equal to normalized drawing factor in draw plate of next drum. Drums are made with possibility of adjusting their diameter due to rotation mounting in shaft of each drum screw with left-hand and right-hand threads. Two cone sleeves mounted on said thread have central openings respectively with left-hand and right-hand threads. Said sleeves have cone surfaces turned one to other. Working surface of drum is formed by means of telescopic cleats secured to shaft and arranged between two flanges. Inner surfaces of said cleats have two inclined portions with guides engaged with reciprocal grooves in cone surfaces of both sleeves.

EFFECT: lowered mass and size, simplified design and tuning of drawing bench.

5 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly manufacture of different types of tubes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes draw plate holder in the form of rod with through cavity for mounting draw plate; source of radial ultrasonic oscillations secured to draw plate holder and embracing draw plate. Apparatus is also provided with second source of radial ultrasonic oscillations secured to outer surface of draw plate holder and with second draw plate mounted in cavity of draw plate holder on the same axis as first draw plate. Length of draw plate holder consists of 0.2 -0.45 of length of longitudinal ultrasound wave inside its material. Draw plate holder includes two mutually joined cone portions. Length of source of ultrasonic oscillations consists of 14 - 40% of draw plate holder length. Both draw plates are mounted in such a way that distance between their centers consists of 0.057 - 0.154 of length of longitudinal ultrasound wave in material of holder. Working surface of each source of ultrasonic oscillations has conicity degree corresponding to conicity of outer surface of draw plate holder and it is normalized by means of given mathematical relation. Invention lowers risk of tube rupture due to stabilized drawing effort at stable mode of drawing that is achieved in the result of providing resonance frequency band of apparatus and lowered number of frequency errors for each source of ultrasonic oscillations.

EFFECT: increased yield of apparatus.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

Drawing bench // 2270071

FIELD: drawing processes and equipment, namely manufacture of hardware for making wire by drawing.

SUBSTANCE: drawing bench includes housing; arranged in it traction drum with reversing drive; two driven reversing unwinding-winding units with bobbins and draw plate holder. According to invention axes of unwinding-winding units are parallel to axis of traction drum and they are shifted relative to it for providing possibility for crossing by angle 60 - 120° wire branch climbing on drum and wire branch descending from it. Draw plate holder is in the form of tie rod with two rows of seats crossing in pairs by angle 60 - 120° in its cross section. In said seats along their axes draw plates are placed. Tie rod is mounted with possibility of moving on guides in parallel to drum axis and it is provided with means for fixing it in working positions corresponding to alternating matching of axes of draw plates with climbing wire branch. Between said seats in each row there are parallel to seat through openings for descending wire branch.

EFFECT: improved design providing combined in one unit function of draw plate holder and mechanism for automatically changing draw plates.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of jewelry articles, possibly in jewelry industry at making small springs of rod type locks of gold alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming wire of gold alloy by deforming during several stages at intermediate annealing procedures between said stages; at last stage of wire forming deforming alloy by drawing it at total reduction degree 65 - 85%; then winding spring of formed wire. In preferable variant of invention last stage of drawing is realized during eight passes at total reduction degree 77.8%. The most effective method of forming springs is realized at using gold of purity degree 585.

EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing effectiveness, improved quality of articles due to their enhanced elastic properties.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: wire production by drawing, possibly designs of drawing benches.

SUBSTANCE: pulling drum of drawing bench rotatably mounted in axle and having mechanism for automatically clamping wire end has on one end portion of cylindrical surface of drum annular bead and on other end portion of drum it has annular stepped shoulder. Clamping mechanism includes pair of rings successively mounted on step of shoulder. Inner ring is mounted with possibility of motion along step of shoulder and it is provided with drive unit for rotating it relative to outer ring rigidly mounted in direction opposite relative to rotation direction of drum. Said rings are spring-loaded for providing their mutual contact along end inclined protrusions and recesses. At axial movement of inner ring caused by its rotation it is formed annular clamping space between flat end surface of inner ring and end surface of shoulder.

EFFECT: improved design not needing fixation of drum in predetermined angular position for introducing wire into clamping space, possibility for clamping/unclamping wire at rotation of drum.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: metal working.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of production of wire from coiled material includes butt welding of ends of coils, longitudinal cutting by multirow shears into strips of approximately square section, drawing to render wire round section and sizing of wire to required diameter and winding of ready wire onto multirow spooling machine. According to invention, drawing is carried out periodically by shifting wire drawing die unit opposite to direction of wire feeding and alternatively moving the unit backwards. Winding of ready wire is done between wire drawing operations. Invention decreases breakage and nonuniform winding of wire by multirow spooling machine being simultaneously used as pulling member at drawing.

EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged range of rolling technologies at production of wire.

9 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of drawn products.

SUBSTANCE: drawing machine includes frame and pulling unit for drawing elongated material through drawing tool. Pulling unit includes at least one pulling carriage with drive device. The last includes at least two drives in the form of linear motors having power supplied primary and secondary parts. Frame of machine includes guide passing in drawing direction for respective pulling carriage being part of drives in the form of linear motors. Said guide includes first upper part and second lower part; both parts of guide are arranged obliquely in machine frame and they are turned one to other. Respective carriages move in interval between parts of guide turned one to other. Parts of guide may be arranged in frame along diagonal, X-like or star-like. In variant of invention drawing machine includes movable parts of guide joined by means of carriage with connection members mutually shifted on adjacent carriages.

EFFECT: improved design due to enhanced compactness and flexible motion of carriages.

18 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: drawing processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: pulling unit includes at least one carriage with drive device. Pulling unit is modular one; it has at least one module of guide mounted by direct joining at least with one next module of guide into continuous guide. Pulling unit also includes at least module of fixing member for arresting drawing die. Drive device includes at least separately controlled set of linear electric motors for individually moving of respective carriage along guide being part of linear electric motor. Drawing line with similar modular guides whose working surface is part of linear electric motor is also offered. Drawing line has computing control unit.

EFFECT: flexible process of moving carriages, compact design of pulling unit.

12 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of articles in condition of resonance oscillations of structural particles of material.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing metal and acting upon it by means of mechanical ultrasound frequency oscillations in order to achieve resonance. According to invention at extrusion or at rolling action by means of ultrasound frequency oscillations is realized at frequency values corresponding or proportional to natural frequency of oscillation of dispersed metal particles in order to provide density of article 0.92 -0.99 and more. At plastic working, at drawing or cutting action by means of ultrasound frequency oscillations is realized at frequency values corresponding or proportional to natural oscillation frequency of grain or domain of metal. At crystallization action by means of ultrasound frequency oscillation is realized at frequency values corresponding or proportional to natural frequency of crystallized grains of metal. During extrusion and rolling process of metal preparation comprises steps of washing out, breaking, metering; during crystallization process of metal preparation comprises steps of melting and casting metal to ingot mold or casting mold.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of articles, lowered cost, improved efficiency of production process.

2 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: manufacture of semi-finished round cross-section products by drawing.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of drawing blank through row of drawing dies arranged successively and simultaneously rotating one or several drawing dies; selecting relation of revolution number of drawing dies and translation motion speed of blank according to condition of heating blank to preset temperature; rotating next drawing die before deforming blank in non-rotating drawing die after which pulling effort is applied or before applying pulling effort; then drawing blank through non-rotating drawing die. Preset temperature value corresponds to temperature of hot or warm drawing of blank. Temperature may exceed recrystallization temperature of drawn material or it may correspond to temperature of heating drawn material for quenching or to aging temperature of drawn material. After heating for quenching material may be subjected to chilling by supplying cooling agent or by drawing through cooled drawing die.

EFFECT: possibility for combining operations of heat treatment and deformation of metal, enlarged manufacturing possibilities of drawing process.

9 cl, 4 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: drawing processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: pulling unit of drawing bench is engaged with drawing die and it includes pulling carriages with drive devices for their separate motion and in addition it includes carriage for preliminary drawing or unit combining carriage for preliminary drawing and pulling carriage. Drive devices include separately controlled and driven by electric current sets of linear electric motors for autonomous motion of respective pulling carriage. Driving efforts of set of electric motors are normalized. Novelty is possibility of simultaneous engagement with drawn metal of two or more pulling carriages. Continuous and intermittent-operation rolling mills are provided with such pulling unit. Intermittent-operation rolling mill has pulling carriage that may be latched in drawing system.

EFFECT: possibility for drawing at high speed, flexible control of manufacturing process.

12 cl, 23 dwg

Drawing machine // 2254948

FIELD: equipment for multiple multi-strand drawing of wire.

SUBSTANCE: drawing machine includes die holders whose number is equal to that of successive drawing operations and number of drawing dies equal to that of drawing strands; pulling apparatuses arranged between drawing die holders and rotation drive unit. Drawing dies are mounted with possibility of rotation they are combined to kinematic groups through gearing. One drawing die of group is joined with rotation drive unit. Gear wheel of gearing includes set of alternating working discs with peripheral teeth and intermediate discs; unit for compressing set of discs. Diameter of intermediate disc of one gear wheel of each pair of gear wheels exceeds diameter of working disc. Diameter of intermediate disc of other gear wheel is less than said diameter. Heat insulation gaskets are periodically placed between discs of disc set. Gearing is multi-step one; number of working discs of set is reduced for next steps as they are spaced from rotation drive unit.

EFFECT: lowered friction at multi-strand drawing, increased useful life period of drawing dies, reduced degree of wire tearing.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy, machine engineering, namely processes for making articles with metallic coating.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily applying uniform metallic coating at least upon outer surface of blank; after application of coating plastically deforming coated blank by rolling or drawing till predetermined thickness value. Thickness of applied coating exceeds predetermined value in proportion to elongation factor of coated blank; proportionality factor is equal to relation of perimeters of cross section of article and blank.

EFFECT: possibility for making articles with geometry parameter, namely thickness and surface area of coating equal to predetermined ones.

FIELD: metal working.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of production of wire from coiled material includes butt welding of ends of coils, longitudinal cutting by multirow shears into strips of approximately square section, drawing to render wire round section and sizing of wire to required diameter and winding of ready wire onto multirow spooling machine. According to invention, drawing is carried out periodically by shifting wire drawing die unit opposite to direction of wire feeding and alternatively moving the unit backwards. Winding of ready wire is done between wire drawing operations. Invention decreases breakage and nonuniform winding of wire by multirow spooling machine being simultaneously used as pulling member at drawing.

EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged range of rolling technologies at production of wire.

9 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: wire production by drawing, possibly designs of drawing benches.

SUBSTANCE: pulling drum of drawing bench rotatably mounted in axle and having mechanism for automatically clamping wire end has on one end portion of cylindrical surface of drum annular bead and on other end portion of drum it has annular stepped shoulder. Clamping mechanism includes pair of rings successively mounted on step of shoulder. Inner ring is mounted with possibility of motion along step of shoulder and it is provided with drive unit for rotating it relative to outer ring rigidly mounted in direction opposite relative to rotation direction of drum. Said rings are spring-loaded for providing their mutual contact along end inclined protrusions and recesses. At axial movement of inner ring caused by its rotation it is formed annular clamping space between flat end surface of inner ring and end surface of shoulder.

EFFECT: improved design not needing fixation of drum in predetermined angular position for introducing wire into clamping space, possibility for clamping/unclamping wire at rotation of drum.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of jewelry articles, possibly in jewelry industry at making small springs of rod type locks of gold alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming wire of gold alloy by deforming during several stages at intermediate annealing procedures between said stages; at last stage of wire forming deforming alloy by drawing it at total reduction degree 65 - 85%; then winding spring of formed wire. In preferable variant of invention last stage of drawing is realized during eight passes at total reduction degree 77.8%. The most effective method of forming springs is realized at using gold of purity degree 585.

EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing effectiveness, improved quality of articles due to their enhanced elastic properties.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in different branches of machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of thinning wire of metals or alloys by drawing and successively bending it at winding wire around pivots mounted one near another and rotating around their axes; straightening wire after each bending operation; controlling wire diameter by regulating number of wire bending and unbending operations. Pivots may have the same diameter and gradually decreasing diameter and they are mounted in such a way that to provide rolling friction in struts. Apparatus for thinning wire of metals and alloys includes pivots mounted with possibility of rotation around their axes; struts for rewinding wire. Apparatus also includes struts made of hard materials and designed for mounting pivots with possibility of rolling friction.

EFFECT: wire thinning without use of high-cost diamond, hard-alloy drawing dies and different lubricating materials due to using theory of rolling instead of friction theory.

5 cl, 9 dwg

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