Method for shock-wave processing of meat

FIELD: meat processing for meat tendering and controlling of bacteria therein.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing meat to shock wave spreading through non-compressible fluid; to do that, placing meat so that it adheres to first surface of drum-shaped diaphragm having acoustic resistance approximating that of non-compressible fluid, which adheres to second surface of drum-shaped diaphragm separating meat from non-compressible fluid; restricting displacement of meat when exposing it to shock wave penetrating through non-compressible fluid, then through drum-shaped diaphragm into meat; using shock wave generation chamber for keeping therein of non-compressible fluid having first acoustic resistance; using wave shock generation chamber in non-compressible fluid within said chamber; using drum-shaped diaphragm adhering to said chamber. Drum-shaped diaphragm has one surface adapted for contacting with non-compressible fluid when apparatus is in operating state. Drum-shaped diaphragm has opposite surface adapted for contacting with meat when apparatus is in operating position. Drum-shaped diaphragm has acoustic resistance approximating first acoustic resistance. Also, means for restricting excessive displacement of meat when the latter is exposed to shock wave is employed for performing said method.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and wider operational capabilities of method through employment thereof for meat tendering and bacteria controlling.

18 cl, 5 dwg

 

Cross-reference to the application corresponding to the document

This application claims vygodopriobretatelya from provisional application U.S. No. 60/251881 08 December 2000, 60/251880 08 December 2000, 60/292513 from may 23, 2001, the Contents of these prior applications are fully incorporated herein by reference.

The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to the processing of meat for tenderization and/or kill bacteria in the meat due to the fact that the meat is exposed to a plasma shock waves or pulses generated by the capacitor discharge between two electrodes.

The level of technology

Meat can be tenderization and at least partial sterilization using shock waves, e.g. acoustic pulses or pulse pressure from explosions of chemical explosives or capacitor discharge between two electrodes, for example according to U.S. patent No. 5273766; 5328403; 6120818 and 6168814 B1 - John Long, and also 6224476 B1 - Long et al. The shock wave comes from the explosion at the speed of sound or slightly greater rate in the case of shock waves considerable force; and, similarly audible sound echo from the walls, will be reflected from the surface of the reflecting shock wave.

The condition for the reflection of the shock wave is that the speed of sound, Esmeraldas is depending on the environment, in which the wave is changed at the junction of two different environments. Wave compression should be in the water with an approximate speed of 1500 m/s - faster than the speed of its passage in the air; and the same wave takes place in stainless steel with a speed of 5800 m/s - nearly four times faster than in water. This difference is the speed of sound is close to the difference of the velocity of the shock waves, which are essentially sound waves in a strong compression; and the mechanism of their distribution is the same as the sound, but they represent pulses with steep front and cut, and usually have a much higher sound volume or increase compression (sometimes referred to as "versata")than most of the sounds.

The collision sound or shock waves in the water with the steel surface wave for the most part is reflected from the surface due to the difference of the speed (sometimes referred to as "mismatch of acoustic impedance"), and thus only a small part of the wave enters the steel. In some of the above-mentioned patents reflection of shock waves from a thick steel surface used to increase the strength of the shock pulse. Pulse shock waves from the explosion brief, but still has a noticeable duration; and when the pulse is reflected from steel, it passes through itself, increasing the strength of the impulse of the shock wave.

In the preferred implementation the AI according to the patent '766 and '403 (Long) meat is placed in plastic bags, at the bottom of which has a hemispherical steel shell; the shell was filled with water and the explosion created at the geometric center. A shock wave went out and was only meat around the same time, struck him with approximately the same versities or force of a shock wave passing through the packaging film and meat twice due to reflection from the steel shell. (Meat and packing bags, with acoustic or mechanical impedance similar to water resistance, shock pulse largely do not reflect).

It is a known implementation works very well for tenderization and at least partial sterilization of meat laid along or in contact with the inner wall of the shell, but has some drawbacks. An important fact is that this implementation is essentially the operation of individual production series, and its equipment is expensive. Hemisphere stainless steel with a diameter of four feet and a thickness of two inches in budget, and equipment necessary to move the safety shields for blasting, devices, replacement of water and other, difficult and expensive. Packaging and remove the meat is slow, and other mandatory delays due to safety; for example, workers should not load hemisphere during the stop of the explosive.

Another disadvantage is that the water knocked up from a hemispherical shell explosion, and it needs to be replenished. In the case of chemical explosives: it is preferable to drain the remaining water and replace it with fresh, non-chemical by-products of the explosion, although this water does not contact directly with the meat. This draining and refilling takes time and consumes a lot of water.

In addition, the force of the explosion in the specified implementation is not balanced. A geyser of gas explosion, water vapour and spray the top of the hemisphere responsible for the emergence of a significant impact, which pushes the hemisphere down, and the force of the recoil should be compensated by large springs, dampers, etc. and this additional equipment is expensive and wears out too quickly. To absorb the force of the geyser need a special explosion-proof dome above the shell according to U.S. patent No. 5841056.

Placing the meat in a protective plastic bags also causes additional problems, and therefore its use is preferable to resolve.

Placing the meat close to the surface, reflecting the shock wave, or adjacent to it, is the cause of some of the difficulties referred to above are known realizations, and this arrangement has limitations that reduce the comfort of any significant improvement. The width of the layer of meat, which can be centerservice, limited to the duration of the shock pulse, as if all the meat should be exposed to twice the strength, the thickness of the shock pulse must be at least two times greater than the thickness of the meat, that the power of the pulse is doubled across the thickness of the meat. If the pulse is very short, the cut will take place in the layer of meat in the time of reflection of his front from steel and impact double impact forces will be subject to only the nearest to become part of the meat; the rest will be exposed to two playthroughs newdotnet shock wave. The width of the shock pulse meters is approximately 1500 m/s, divided by the pulse duration in seconds.

Limiting the thickness of the meat means that the size of the hemisphere must be increased so that each batch of processed meat would be large enough and the overall processing speed is not too slow. But the increase in the diameter of the hemisphere means that the shock pulse will be weaker, since the pressure of the spherical wave weakens approximately as a function of the cube of the radius (which corresponds to the distance from the source(s) of explosion).

If meat is to move inward approximately 29% of the radius of the hemisphere (exactly: 1,000 - minus 0,707), the force of the shock wave single pass will be exactly equal to twice the force on the inner the second surface of the hemisphere, even if the energy of the explosion will not increase. (Shock wave will pass out through the meat, and then reflected from the steel surface, go back towards the inside through the meat).

But then there is the difficulty of keeping meat from offset its explosion. This problem is solved in the mentioned U.S. patent 6168814 B1 due to the fact that the capacity of doing "acoustically transparent", resulting in a shock wave passes through capacity without significant deflection direction and without delay the passage.

There are several ways to perform capacity acoustically transparent. The preferred method is the implementation capacity of a material having acoustic impedance", approximately equal to the resistance of the liquid in which it is immersed. If the values of resistance of the material container and the liquid is almost the same, the shock wave will have almost the same speed in both materials. In accordance with the principle of Huygens wave it will not be refracted. And it will not be reflected from the boundary of the transition between the fluid and the material of the container.

If the liquid is preferred to use water, the container can be made of material in which the propagation velocity of sound is similar to its speed in the water. Such materials are available. For example, in the unfilled rubber mixture speed of sound, t is like 3% higher than in water, and some species are more durable plastics for its acoustic impedance is quite close to the water, and therefore very suitable for use in containers for meat. One suitable and well-known material, approved for use with food products, is TYGON - plasticized vinyl polymer; other materials are polyethylene and polypropylene. Other plastics can in the usual manner to test for acoustic transparency and longevity in the explosion.

But this will not eliminate all problems of previous realizations, such as the need for processing by the parties, the corresponding slowness and sophisticated equipment. To provide either continuous processing, semi-continuous or intermittent treatment, or to provide improved processing production series in later implementation: capacity replaced by the pipeline (for example, the tube of material TYGON), in which meat products pumped or transported, in the case of hamburgers or the like (i.e., in the form of a suspension), or deliver the flow of water in case the pieces of meat, for example, pieces of chicken meat after boning or wrapped in plastic beef. The advantages of solid pipe from having an appropriate resistance value plastics, essentially missing is her shock wave, obvious for transportation of food products; this pipe is also more transparent for shock waves than the grid or frame. Material TYGON and other relevant types of plastics in the form of pipes industry produces.

According to U.S. patent No. 6168814 B1 plastic pipe or stationary holder of meat surrounded by a hollow and approximately cylindrical reflector with a shock wave, and therefore, the shock waves are reflected inside. Even if the geometric shape is not so accurate in order rightly to direct the reflection of the shock wave, the reflector serves as a reverberation chamber in which many echoes of the shock wave gives impetus quasi-hydrostatic compression.

The invention

Although the implementation of the prior art according to patent Long, including mentioned above, work very well, according to this invention are provided with further improvements, including less expensive equipment, increased efficiency and effectiveness. These improvements led to some changes, each of which gives some degree of improvement, and which in combination with each other provide a very significant improvement. Among these changes, which can be used separately or in combination: (1) changes in the geometry of the camera con is estomago discharge; (2) the replacement of the tubular chamber containing meat, "drum", which is the meat and which is located at the upper end of the chamber condenser discharge; (3) ensuring the carrying meat structure, which essentially keeps the meat in position on the drum during the capacitor discharge, and at least part of which, alternatively, moves together with the meat in several stages of its movement; (4) simplified rotary charging device periodic circular feeder for delivery of meat in a location above the camera condenser discharge, and for transportation of processed meat to the location of the discharge; (5) more effective enforcement of underpressure or negative wave compression; and (6) the provision of certain improvements tenderization, according to which meat, especially boneless chicken breast, processed shock wave in combination with other operations.

Brief description of drawings

The features and advantages of this invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment, along with some of the disclosed variants and alternatives considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, on which:

Figure 1 is a partial horizontal cross section of the preferred embodiment of this innovation is about invention, camera condenser discharge, the camera processing of meat, meat carrier structure and a corresponding device; Figure 2 is an enlarged image section of the camera condenser discharge, with a preferred size;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged partial image section of the camera for meat and part of the cell capacitor discharge;

Fig. 4 is a horizontal section of the conveyor system in accordance with this invention in the form of a rotary boot device periodic circular feed, which has four positions: the first position of the intake of meat, the second position of the processing of meat and third output state of meat; and

Fig. 5 is a cross-section on the line 5-5 indicated in Fig. 4.

Detailed description of the preferred embodiment, with options

Fig. 1 of the preferred embodiment according to this invention depicts the device 10 in the processing of meat, containing two main chambers: the lower chamber 12 of the capacitor discharge or detonation; and directly above it, the camera 14 processing of food products.

The camera 12 of the condenser discharge, filled with water, brine, or other incompressible fluid medium, consists of a parabolic bowl 120 at the bottom and essentially circular-cylindrical upper part 122, which may be slightly tapered, and the inclination of the parties to the Noosa relative to the geometric axis, not exceeding 15 degrees, preferably less than 8 degrees, and most preferably 0 degrees, i.e. the upper portion 122 is preferably essentially circular-cylindrical; and assume that the round-cylindrical shape does not have to be perfect circular-cylindrical.

Two electrodes 124 are parabolic bowl 120 horizontally and executed with the opportunity to provide a discharge amount 12-19 kJ. Geometric line electrodes passes through the focus of the parabola. When generating an electrical pulse shock wave coming spherical of the parabolic focus.

During propagation of the shock wave each point in the expanding front shock has size (compressed), and direction. Therefore, each point on the expanding sphere can be considered as the leading point of the vector passing through the center of the parabolic focus. Therefore, the rays reflected from the parabolic surface of the bowl 120, will be reflected in the direction parallel to the axis of the parabola. They will follow through the opening leading into the chamber 14 processing of food products. Any rays that intersect with the sides of the upper part 122, for example, because of a possible narrowing of less than 15 degrees intersect at an angle less than 15 degrees and you lose a small amount of energy.

"The drum 16, as described below, which makes the camera 12 of the condenser discharge from the chamber 14 processing of food products. In: meat is placed on the drum 16 and create an electrical impulse, in which the shock wave passes from the chamber 12 through the drum 16, and passes into the meat; makes his tenderization and destroys a large percentage of bacteria that can be in it.

Circular-cylindrical chamber 12 blasting provides a more uniform pressure on the drum 16; when the opening of the drum 16 becomes the main diameter parabolic bowl.

The first series of tests was conducted to determine the optimal distance from the arc of the drum 16, you need to create maximum compression. Good results were obtained with the parabolic part of the camera 12 blasting diameter of about 20.3 cm but without narrowing the upper part 122, and therefore the upper portion 122 also has a diameter of about 20.3 cm, with a distance of about 29,2 cm from the focus, in which an arc is formed, to the drum 16.

But when did the height of the camera 12 from the focus to the shorter drum within 10-20 cm, were obtained even better results. In the second series of tests, with the distance within 10-20 cm and especially 14.6 cm, it was found that both the chicken and beef were given a uniform tenderization using only some of the full capacity of the condenser discharge. Therefore, it is desirable that the height of the upper portion 122 of the chamber 12 was less than the second radius. Although the upper part is preferably circular-cylindrical, it may have some above-mentioned deviation, while still providing excellent results. Thus, the angle can vary from 8 degrees in a big way and 8 degrees down; preferably 2 degrees in a big way and 2 degrees down; without significant reduction in effectiveness, but preferably is 0 degrees. In each case, the standard equipment must be tested to determine the optimal height of the camera.

According to the illustrated implementation: full power device of the capacitor discharge is 16 kJ. In tests of optimal capacity for processing chicken breast after boning was about 12.8 kJ. Optimal capacity for processing beef was about 11.5 kJ. Applying too much power can damage the meat. Therefore, in each case, the level of the applied power should be determined using standard tests.

The experiments tenderization meat products using shock waves high compression ratio in the range of 30,000 to 50,000 psi showed that tenderization occurs when a shock wave passes through meat from different directions, encountering meat products. In this case, the process of tenderization about Westside due to violations of the fibers of the meat in the shift of the fibers of the meat. But when meat products subjected to compression positive shock, sharply released from the compression effect, the effect of tenderization two to three times larger than the effect of shear. In this case, meat products is expanding dramatically, passing through zero compression and, by reason of impulse, in a state of tension. This phenomenon violates creates the stiffness of the fabric and gives the softened products and from the lower grades of meat.

To create this phenomenon state extension, you must create an environment that will enable the abrupt discharge of the compression wave. The shock wave created in the selected environment, preferably in water, will be reflected positively in a collision with an object in this environment, if the object is more dense (higher mechanical impedance)than the environment in which it was formed. In this case, the impact will be reflected back through the incoming wave, and this will create an increased pressure in the wave. But if the object has a lower mechanical impedance, the wave will unload, thus creating refracted (negative or strain) wave in the product. If a positive shock to cross the water and reach the air interface, the wave will unload, creating a water wave stretching. But the wave will not propagate in water, since the water may not be subjected to standard test bar is Yu. This will result in cavitation in the water. But if the meat is positive shock wave compression, and the meat is in the air interphase, it will be able to withstand the tension, and the tension goes through the meat, breaking down the fibers.

As described above, a positive shock wave will pass through any material in the environment in which the wave is generated and which has the same environment mechanical impedance, and will be reflected as a positive wave from any material in the environment, mechanical impedance which is higher than the resistance of the medium in which the wave was formed. Mechanical impedance in the materials used in this system is normally regulated by the density of the materials. Meat and water, and most plastics have similar or essentially corresponding values of the mechanical impedance. Therefore, when a shock wave passes through the meat and then hits the steel, it is reflected and is thus positive wave.

But if the wave passes through the meat and then hits the air, the pressure wave is discharged to the barrier surface, and then the wave is reflected back through already he drew his meat in the form of unloading waves, or, in other words, in the form of so-called negative waves or waves of RA is regenia. In constructions in which the shock wave passes through the meat, then Bouncing off the steel, and where due to the geometry of the explosion, the water is removed from the surface of the meat: wave therefore faces a mixture of gases and water droplets and is discharged in the opposite direction as negative waves. This geometry gives the tenderization by 50-100% greater than in the absence of waves.

In experiments with drum design: cube of meat (beef) was placed on the drum, and around the meat was placed different amounts of water. In the case when only the top of the meat cube was not in the water, the negative wave was coming back through the meat, and the results were similar to the results mentioned above accomplishments of the prior art. When the water only covered half of the meat cube, the effect of tenderization increased. When the meat cube was only a small amount of water (for better grip), the effect of tenderization was significantly higher. In this latter case, the coupling occurs only on one side of a six-sided cube. After passage of the shock wave through the meat she faced air interphase boundary on five sides of the meat cube. In this case, there was an improvement in tenderization, at least 50% better than in the experiments according to the realizations of the prior art with PR is the application of chemical explosives. Because the meat is not perfect acoustic matching with water, so little effort was pushing the meat up. (If the meat was perfect acoustic agreement with the water, the effect of tenderization not occurred). The preferred design uses macalousso preferably with a smooth surface over the meat to keep the meat or reject the meat back on the drum, or on the output conveyor.

Experiments were carried out with chicken Breasts, using a drum design. In one experiment, chicken Breasts were stacked on top of each other in the form of "lincolnway stacks" in a cube with sides of 12.5 see In this experiment, the upper breast were tenderizor to a greater extent than those who were either at the bottom or in the center of the stacked cube. Presumably because of the voids between the chicken Breasts negative wave is weakened at the reflection of her back. This experiment was repeated with Breasts, sealed in stockinette. In this case, all Breasts were tenderizor shopping acceptable norms. This example indicates that in the case of chickens, i.e. chicken breast, chunks of chicken meat, it is desirable to compress to eliminate voids in the pile. This can be done by using a sheet of material Tygon, which is placed over the chicken and which compresses them, and the air remains above the sheet of Matera is Ala Tygon.

Way "Hydrodyne Process, including the implementation of the prior art and implementation according to this invention, violates the bundles of muscle fibers, thereby increasing the open area for exposure to enzymes in the meat, and these enzymes increase the softness of the meat. (Tenderization with aging is due to the action of the enzyme on various meat fibers). In addition, many enzymes reach the cells. They also are released when cells are broken shock wave. Therefore, a much larger number of enzymes appears more space for impact, and the resulting shutter speed is accelerated. This phenomenon, apparently, in the case of chicken meat is even stronger than with beef.

Chicken breast, andersonia a very successful experiment with the use of stockinet chickens, were welded and tested one day after processing. Delay cooking chickens on one or two days after treatment will not create difficulties in the sales and even more will increase the softness. Accordingly, another feature of this invention lies in the extract of meat or chicken at least twenty-four hours and preferably two days after treatment method "Hydrodyne Process.

For realization of this phenomenon in the chamber 14 processing of food products: meat should be laid flat on the drum 16. Because it is then difficult to do, depending on its cut, and especially in the case of boneless chicken Breasts, it is possible that it would be desirable to provide a very shallow layer of water over the drum 16, so as to eliminate any air interface between the incoming shock wave and the bottom surface of meat lying on the drum 16. But in the case of processing beef this layer of water is not needed if only the meat is not pre-Packed in plastic wrap, to prevent contact between water this shallow layer and the meat. Moreover, in practice it was found that small layer of water is usually not needed, because the drum 16 is sufficiently flexible and elastic, and so any cavity of air between the lower surface of the meat and the drum is at rest filled due to the deformation of the drum, pushed up incompressible fluid medium in the chamber 12 of the capacitor discharge during the discharge.

Flesh is air. A positive shock wave passes through the liquid in the chamber 12 of the capacitor discharge through the drum 16, which are acoustically approximate fluid, and then through the meat. With the passage of the wave through the meat, and upon reaching the air it is in the air, creating a wave of rapid unloading or stretching in the meat; and since the meat can absorb the extension wave, wave rasprostranie is camping in meat, thereby increasing the effect of tenderization.

As indicated above, one of the changes envisaged by the present invention and providing superior results in comparison with results known realizations, involves changing the geometry of the camera condenser discharge. Thus, in accordance with the preferred implementation of this invention and in accordance with the above explanations: camera 12 discharge has a relatively short upper portion 122 over a parabolic section 120. Preferably circular-cylindrical upper portion 122 also preferably has a height not greater than its radius, and more preferably less than its radius. If the radius is 10 cm, the height of the partition 122 is only 9.5 see of Course, the device size can be scaled accordingly. Other sizes can be chosen on the basis of normal experimentation. This choice is based on the distance from the arc, which provides the optimal effect of tenderization meat. At this distance the cylinder 122 ends.

The surface perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder 122 is essentially flat. On this flat surface is placed a flexible plastic sheet that corresponds to the "drum" 16. Plastic is used because of its flexibility and elasticity, to match its mechanical floor is th resistance of water (which is filled with a parabolic Cup and cone), and it is preferable because of its ability to withstand repeated shock waves and distortion caused by an incompressible fluid medium under it, pushed up shock waves. Material Tygon more flexible variant of the polyvinyl chloride has proved to be acceptable as an option polyurethane lesser hardness. Unfilled rubber compound is preferable because of greater durability. In respect of their eligibility can normally experience other plastics and elastomers.

Thickness in the range of 0.5-0.95 cm for drum 16 has been tested and found satisfactory. It is preferable for the sheet unfilled rubber of a thickness of about 0.6 see This drum is usually held in place and seal retaining ring stainless steel, which is screwed to the camera 12 blasting. This ring, as a variant, can also be held up for a short distance to provide a thin rim, the perimeter around the drum, to hold the optimal shallow liquid layer on the surface of the drum. As indicated above, the camera blasting filled with water or other incompressible fluid medium to the bottom surface of the flexible sheet or drum is not in contact with the water.

Processed meat is placed on the drum 16, and it has to acoustically connect with Baraba the om. If you need to contact with the drum surface of the meat was rough, the drum can provide a specified small amount of water or other appropriate fluid, in order to improve the adhesion of fixed specified rim. Burgers, easily moldable, will provide an acoustically appropriate surface, and therefore do not require water interfacial boundary. In addition, as noted above, the small layer of water or liquids are usually not needed, as the drum 16 is sufficiently flexible and elastic, and therefore under the influence of the capacitor discharge in the chamber 12 moves up incompressible fluid under the drum 16 will "shape" the drum Assembly to the uneven bottom surfaces of the meat, thereby providing an acoustic connection between the bottom surface of the meat and the drum 16.

It should be noted that in this described configuration to water or other incompressible fluid environment around the electrodes 124 and a cylindrical upper portion 122 of the camera 12 blasting never come into contact with food, i.e. the water is fully contained system. In past experiments tenderization meat using powerful explosives meat was surrounded by the same water, which was explosive. Therefore, the meat must be kept in the vacuum reservoir is assosim packages. Due to the use of packages way more expensive, and also undesirable increases the risk of malfunction. When using the drum 16 of the camera 12 blasting any packages not required.

Meat can be introduced into the drum 16 by using more or less conventional conveyor system and to submit it to the drum vtalkivaniya meat meat, located on the conveyor system. The belt can be aimed up flanges (not illustrated)to prevent slipping of the meat on the surface of the conveyor; these flanges are preferably separated from each other by an interval equal to the diameter of the drum, while processed meat or chicken are placed between these flanges. Another conventional conveyor system will move the meat from the drum into the discharge area. Conveyors can be moved continuously or, preferably, intermittently.

As described above, since the meat is not perfect agreement with the water from the point of view of acoustic or mechanical impedance at which the shock wave is transmitted through the drum 16 and then into the meat, so a small force moves the meat up. In this case it is necessary to provide a corresponding surface of Maslouski to reject the meat back on the drum surface.

But found that the effort, prodiga the total meat up sometimes too large and therefore causes surface damage to the meat, causing it difficult to sell or can be sold only at a reduced price. Although the meat fibers, apparently, from the point of view of acoustic or mechanical impedance match with water, but the fabric, creating rigidity, do not match; and it is these tissues violates energy shock waves to make the meat soft. As a result of this tougher meats, i.e. varieties with a high content of tissues, acoustically not consistent with the water, moving upward with considerable force from the drum 16 when treated. One example: loose meat on the drum was tilted up to the ceiling in the room with a height of 9 meters

Providing metal pieces on the meat when it is on the drum, prevents the formation of the desired negative shock wave. Therefore, constraints must have a mechanical impedance that approximately matches the mechanical impedance of water. One solution to this problem lies in the fact that provide the holder of meat in the form of a rotating wheel containing inflated toroid, i.e. ring-shaped device that touches the drum. Used in some tests the toroid was a common chamber of the tire, preferably of n is moralnego rubber and inflated with air; the rubber has a mechanical impedance corresponding to the water. You can use different rubbers, including vulkanisierung pure unfilled rubber or polyurethane rubber. To determine the feasibility of their application you can test and other rubbers.

The wall thickness of the rubber should not exceed approximately 0.95 cm and preferably should be as thin as possible consistent with ensuring sufficient durability. The thickness of more than 0.95 cm should not be used because the increased thickness in an undesirable extent, will reduce the negative shock wave. Inner chamber used in the initial tests, had a wall thickness of about 0.32, see

Instead of the specified camera tyres you can use other designs, for example, a cushion of foam or rubber, for example, a roller made of foamed polyurethane, coated or not. But this foam construction, comprising a harder material than the inflated toroid or the like, as described above, will give less than desirable, a negative shock wave.

In the case of the holder of meat, such as boneless chickens or beef, served on the drum feed conveyor on which they seize and hold in place inflated holder of meat, and at this point the meat of the article is elaut" discharge from electrodes 124, allowing the shock wave to pass through the water over the electrodes, through the drum 16 and through the meat. When the shock wave reaches inflated holder of meat, it passes through its walls and to the air. Wave then returns through the wall of the chamber and meat in the form of waves, breaking the greater number of tough connective tissue of the meat, which add rigidity to the meat, thereby providing andersoune meat.

When passing a positive shock waves through the meat, and for the reason that the hard connective tissue (muscle-fiber cloth) from the point of view of acoustic resistance or mechanical impedance does not match the water or meat fibers, meat moves upward, causing the instantaneous deformation of the inflated holder of meat. But the air pressure in the holder of the meat and its elasticity quickly returns meat in the drum. It moves up and back takes about 30 MS.

To the meat fell from the drum when moving up or falling down, it is desirable to provide side guides. If the meat had to touch the side rails to send shock waves through the meat, the side guides will need to be manufactured from a material having a mechanical impedance, approximately corresponding to the water; otherwise, the reflected wave from the side healthy lifestyles who who is positive, thus cancel the desired negative wave returning from the top. Accordingly, the side guides are preferably made of a plastic having appropriate water mechanical impedance, such as Tygon, polyethylene, polyurethane, polypropylene or unfilled rubber mixture. Appropriate plastics can be tested in the usual way. According to one implementation uses sheets of material Tygon approximate thickness of 0.64 cm, mounted in a metal rectangular frame around the perimeter of each sheet.

The need to use the side rails can be excluded due to the use of the holder of the meat of the appropriate form. So, instead of the camera tyres round cross-section can be used cushion rectangular cross-section, or converted to the meat surface with a cross-section of a concave configuration; and the opposite edge of the rotary holder of meat to keep the meat in place.

Above mentioned that the meat can be entered on the drum more or less conventional conveyor system and to push the meat into the drum meat, located on the conveyor system. But this system does not provide the necessary reliability. For example, chicken Breasts sometimes pile up and go sideways, making it difficult to regulate the thickness of the pile on the drum. PR is the application roller or pressure chamber of the tire in accordance with the above description solves this problem due to the positive rotation of the driven wheel, running at a peripheral speed in contact with the meat surface corresponding to the speed of the conveyor belts. Downward force from the holder of meat equal to about 3 psi, will transport the pile of meat on the drum surface, although, of course, you can use higher values of pressure and even lower values of pressure with a slightly lower efficiency. As mentioned above, the wheel is installed on the holder of meat, is driven and controlled in accordance with the desired number of revolutions per minute

Instead described above, the driven wheel can be extended to the holder of the meat in the direction of movement of the meat, for example, according inflated the conveyor belt.

In accordance with the preferred implementation of this invention, illustrated in Fig. 1, 3 and 4: cavity 14 for processing of meat is limited by the ring 140 fixation of meat, which forms the side wall of the chamber 14 meat processing; and a second drum 142, which forms the roof of the chamber 14 processing of meat; and the drum 142 and the ring 140 fixation of meat have a mechanical resistance is approximately equal to the water, for example, Tygon, polyurethane, polyethylene, polypropylene or unfilled rubber mixture. In particular, the upper drum 142, which is part of a vertically reciprocating postupdate Inoi Maslouski 144, preferably made of the same material as the lower drum 16, and is of similar size.

Fixing meat ring 140 preferably made of polyurethane. Wall thickness and shape of the carrying meat ring 140 not have significant importance, except that its thickness should be appropriate to withstand the efforts to which it is exposed during processing of meat; wall thickness of about 1.5 cm for polyurethane was appropriate in the initial tests.

According to figures 1 and 5: air niche or cavity 146 is located above the upper drum 142. Over the air cavity 146 may also be one or more rubber or foam layers 148 according to Figure 5, although these layers of foam 148 are not mandatory, and therefore are not preferred. Air niche or cavity 146 in this implementation is essential for the above reasons, i.e. after the passage of the shock wave through the meat and the upper drum 142, it reaches the air, and then returns through the upper drum 142 and meat in the form of waves.

Although instead of air cavity 146 you can use the foam gasket, this foam gasket will contain additional solid material, which will create less negative shock wave, as mentioned above.

elutella height of the air cavity 146 in the described implementation - about 2 cm, although this dimension is not critical, but functionally height should be minimally sufficient to create an effective negative wave, and, as a maximum, to avoid unnecessary stretching of the drums 16 and 142. Other dimensions can be defined in the usual tests.

According to the simple view of the implement according to Figure 1: meat is placed in the chamber 14 processing of food products, and pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder moves down in the depicted position, in which the upper drum 142 only for meat, or the meat is slightly compressed between the upper drum 142 and the lower drum 16. The electrodes 124 and then work with the formation of a shock wave that passes up through the chamber 12 explosives, as mentioned above, then through the lower drum 16 through the meat, and then through the upper drum 142, where the shock wave reaches the air in the air cavity 146 and returns in the form of waves. When the shock wave initially meets the meat, it moves the meat up, and followed by the lower drum 16. The movement is limited by the height of the air cavity 146.

More preferable described above, the device is part of the rotary circular conveyor is graphically depicted in Figure 4 and 5. In the depicted figure 4: rotary circular Tran the porter 150 has four positions, every 90 degrees from each other, three of which are functional. Circular conveyor 150 has four meat bearing ring 140. According to Figure 4: at rest, during intermittent or step actions each ring 140 is located in one of four positions. At the level corresponding to the bottom surface of each of meat bearing ring 140 is stationary plate 152, preferably stainless steel, and the rotary plate 154 periodic circular feed, which is made to rotate and is driven by the engine of periodic circular feeder according to the image of figure 5; plate 154 periodic circular feeder has four holes, in which are planted four meat bearing ring 140.

The meat is served with top of the first position 160, in which case it is located on the fixed plate 152 in one of the meat bearing rings 140. The engine periodic circular feed then rotates the plate periodic circular feed, resulting in meat meat and bearing ring 140 slide on a fixed plate 142 in the second position 162, which is the position of the blasting - 1-3 and 5. In this position of the fixed plate 152 has a through hole in which you installed the design of the chamber 12 blasting. When the meat in the raw meat is Alice 140 reaches the second position 162 circular conveyor, then a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder lowers macalousso 144 in the position depicted in figures 1 and 5, and in the meat "shoot" the discharge electrodes 124.

Then a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder raises macalousso 144, and the engine periodic circular feeder rotates the plate 154 periodic circular feed to move the processed meat and carrying meat ring 140 in the third position 164, in which the stationary plate 152 has one through hole, resulting in processed meat falls through the hole in the fixed plate 152 in the reception area of processed meat, such as conveyor removal of meat or packing station.

According to the visual image figure 4: in the illustrated implementation, each single movement is greater than 90 degrees and the fourth position is not functional. The obvious possibility of significant changes, for example, you can provide three positions, in which periodic circular flow occurs through 120 degrees, not 90 degrees; or five points with periodic circular flow through 72 degrees, not 90 degrees.

The invention can be implemented in conjunction with other treatments. For example, in the case of meat chickens: chicken breast without skin and bones are important products. Detected, Thu the chicken cannot be separated from the sternum at least 6 hours after slaughter, and many factories smitten bird kept chilled day on the ice. When cadaver chilled meat chickens it is warped, but if it is still on the bone, its attachment to the bone does not allow him to warp. But upon completion of rigor Mortis, i.e. after approximately 6 hours, the meat can be removed from the bone, and it is then relatively mild. But if the chicken, remove the meat before the end of rigor Mortis, it will lead to what is called "rubber chicken", which, while no system Hydrodyne, no known method failed tenderization keep chicken Breasts for 6 hours or days after slaughter, it will require significant storage space, and also the ice and the energy costs of cooling, and for this reason, the cost of preparation of meat will increase significantly. Therefore, the poultry was looking for ways to eliminate the need to store chicken Breasts until their removal from the bone. One of the viable operations of the prior art was the stimulation, which consisted in the fact that the bird was struck by the electric current at the time of slaughter. This elektrostimulirovannaya accelerates cadaveric stiffness, and therefore, instead of 6-10 hours it was completed in only 1-2 hours. Elektrostimulirovannaya used on poultry farms, with early deboning 1-2 hours after slaughter. But the results were unsatisfactory, postalcohol 60-70% of breast were soft, and therefore, the application of electrical stimulation left.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention found that the electrical stimulation is effective if used in conjunction with the system Hydrodyne, including the implementation of the prior art or the implementation disclosed above. If chickens subjected to electrical stimulation, for example, at 190 volts for 10 seconds, then cadaveric stiffness meat goes through 1-2 hours instead of 6-8. Electrostimulation so the chicken can be removed from the bone soon after the stimulation, and then processed according to the method Hydrodyne, for example, in accordance with disclosed above accomplishments. Thus cooked chicken Breasts are completely soft, and the usual 6-8 hours for aging on ice is not needed.

The above description of a specific implementation of a fully reveals the General features of the invention, which, at the level of the normal current knowledge, readily modify and/or adapt for various applications these specific implementation, without undue experimentation, and not going beyond the General conception; and therefore, these adapt and modifications should be understood within the concept and range of equivalents of the disclosed implementations. It should be noted that the phraseology and terminology the Oia is used for descriptive purposes and not for limitation. Tools, materials and operations to perform various disclosed functions may have different alternative forms within the scope of this invention.

Therefore, the expressions "means to..." and "means for"or the wording of the operations of the method in the above description and/or a formula, followed by the presentation function, designed to identify and incorporate any structural, physical, chemical, or electrical components or structures, or operations of way that may exist now or in the future and which perform the specified function; whether it is accurate or inaccurate the equivalent implementation or implementations disclosed mentioned above in the description, i.e. you can use other tools or operations to perform the same function; and it is assumed that these expressions are given their broadest interpretation.

1. How tenderizes meat and kill germs in the meat, according to which the meat is exposed to a shock wave propagating through an incompressible fluid medium, characterized in that the meat is placed in contact with the first surface of the diaphragm in the form of a drum having an acoustic impedance that is approximately equal to the acoustic impedance of the specified incompressible fluid, with the specified incompressible flowed the tea environment is fit to the second surface of the specified aperture in the form of a drum, and the said aperture in the form of a drum separates the specified meat from the specified incompressible fluid, restrict the movement of the specified meat when it is exposed to a specified shock wave passing through the said incompressible fluid environment, and then through the said aperture in the form of a drum at a specified meat.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized also by the fact that output the specified shock wave in a region of low acoustic impedance after passing through the specified meat to create a rarefaction wave, which passes through the specified meat in the direction opposite to that indicated the shock wave.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized also by the fact that limit specified meat on the sides during treatment with shock waves.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized also by the fact that carry out a specified orientation of the meat during processing so that the shock wave goes below the specified meat, and specified meat is placed on the specified first surface of the specified aperture in the form of a drum.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the specified shock wave generated using capacitor discharge in a parabolic chamber under specified meat and limit moves up meat with a flat surface h is d them during treatment with shock waves.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified shock wave generated using capacitor discharge in a parabolic chamber, with the specified shock wave is propagated through the cylindrical chamber or conical chamber, the angle of which does not exceed 8°.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the meat includes boneless chicken, and hens, which are removed with the specified boneless meat for processing the specified shock wave, previously subjected to electrical stimulation.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the specified electrostimulation perform approximately 1-2 hours before the specified processing of the shock wave.

9. A device for implementing the method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, containing the camera generating a shock wave to contain an incompressible fluid having a first acoustic impedance, and a device for generating shock waves in an incompressible fluid in said chamber, a diaphragm in the form of a drum, located in conformance to the specified camera, with the specified aperture in the form of a drum has one surface that is configured to communicate with the specified incompressible fluid, when said device is in operation, with a specified aperture in the form of a drum is opposite to the surface is accomplished with the possibility of contact with meat, when the device is in operation, and the said aperture in the form of a drum has an acoustic impedance approximately equal to a first acoustic impedance, and means for restricting excessive movement of the meat when it is exposed to a shock wave passing through an incompressible fluid, and then through the said aperture in the form of a drum, and meat.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the aperture in the form of a drum made of flexible material, preferably of the unfilled rubber mixture.

11. The device according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the said means for restricting excessive movement of the meat when it is exposed to a shock wave, contains the second diaphragm of flexible material with the specified flexible material specified second aperture has an acoustic impedance approximately equal to a first acoustic impedance, with the specified second aperture is made with the possibility of its contact with the surface of the meat, the opposite surface of the meat in contact with the specified aperture in the form of a drum when the device is in operation.

12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that it also contains meat fixing ring, which in combination with the specified first on what Aragvi in the form of a drum and the second aperture in the form of a drum, forms a processing chamber of meat.

13. The device according to item 12, characterized in that the fixing meat ring contains a material having an acoustic impedance approximately equal to the specified first acoustic impedance.

14. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the specified camera generation of shock waves is the camera condenser discharge containing a parabolic first part and a second part extending from the specified parabolic first part, with the specified second part is a cylinder or a cone with a slope not exceeding 15°and the specified device, generation of shock waves in an incompressible fluid in said camera generating a shock wave comprises a pair of electrodes installed in the specified parabolic first part, to create a capacitor discharge in the specified focus of the first part.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that the second part is a cone with an angle not exceeding 8°, preferably not exceeding 2°and most preferably specified second part is a cylinder, and its height is less than its radius.

16. The device 14 or 15, characterized in that the specified camera condenser discharge is facing up.

17. The device according to claim 9, trichomania fact, which also contains a cavity which is at a side of meat, the opposite in contact with the meat surface specified aperture in the form of a drum when the device is in operation, while the cavity has a second acoustic impedance that is less than the specified first acoustic impedance, to create a rarefaction wave, which passes through the meat in the opposite direction of the shock wave.

18. The device according to claim 11, containing a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder, providing the reciprocating movement up and down the specified second aperture.

Priority points and features:

08.12.2000 according to claims 1-5, 7-13, 16-18; PP, 14, 15 - in addition to the characteristic shock wave is propagated through the cylindrical chamber";

23.05.2001 - feature "shock wave is propagated through the cylindrical chamber" p, 14, 15.



 

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