Composition for recultivation of open-cut mines and disturbed lands
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building and reclamation of lands in petroleum-extracting regions, in particular, for recultivation of dry-digging open-cut mines and disturbed lands providing recovery of relief and productivity of soil and utilization of boring slime as a toxic drilling waste. The composition comprises peat-sand mixture (1:1) as a filling agent and a sorbent, 49-69% by volume, 30-50% of boring slime made in building holes and up to 1% of active additives used for reducing the concentration of soluble petroleum products and their toxicity, and for neutralization of peat medium acid reaction to increase pH value from 3-4 to 6-7.5. As active additives method involves the following components by volumes: (a) unslaked lime, 0.6-0.8%; "Soileks", 0.12-0.15%, and "Degradolais", the balance; or (b) sorbent "Unipolimer", 0.4-0.6%; biochemical preparation "Polyenzyme complex UNI-REM", 0.4-0.6%. Using the proposed composition provides elimination open-cut mines and recovery the productive soil layer and promotes to utilization of industrial waste, i. e. boring slimes, and reducing the cost.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
The invention relates to the field of construction and land reclamation in the oil producing areas, in particular, for remediation of dry digging pits and disturbed lands, with the restoration of topography and soil fertility, as well as associated with the disposal of toxic waste drilling cuttings.
Known composition (A.S. USSR №1247388 A1 from 30.07.86; COMPOSITION FOR RECLAIMING DISTURBED LANDS), which contains in its composition: peat - 20-50% (by weight), glauconitic sand - 22-68%, and phosphorite ore - 8-16%, dictionary slate - 4-16%.
The disadvantage of the composition is that it has an increased consumption of high-quality sand and peat - 72-88% (by weight), and requires the introduction of costly and scarce additives, phosphate ore and dictionaraoke slate.
Closest to the proposed composition, selected as a prototype, is the composition (A.S. USSR №1585314 A1 from 15.08.90; the COMPOSITION TO neutralize the OIL POLLUTION of SOIL that contains peat - 22-26% (by weight), the spent clay mud (ARR) - 34-56%, filtrability 16-30%), and lime - 5-7%, nitrilotriacetate acid is 1-3%.
For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result is that insufficient composition contains a significant amount of toxic waste drilling - clicks, which liquid is Thodol (unlike drilling sludge)and a complex required for this substance, capable of neutralizing the action of pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metal ions), especially in liquid medium. The inclusion in the composition prototype acidic and alkaline reagents complicates the regulation and the right (optimal for fertility) pH environment. Active additives (filterproc, lime, NTF), enter in large numbers, by themselves, pose a threat of environmental pollution.
The objective of the invention is to increase the effectiveness of revegetation associated with the safe recycling of hazardous waste drill cuttings, and reducing consumption of scarce, high-quality soil (sand and peat).
The technical result is to eliminate pits and restoration of topsoil, recycling industrial waste drill cuttings, reducing the cost of the composition, the improvement of the environment.
The problem is solved in that the composition contains as filler and sorbent peat-sand mixture (ratio of peat and sand 1:1) - 49-69% (by volume), 50-30% cuttings of well construction (by volume) and up to 1% of the supplements necessary to reduce the concentration of soluble petroleum products, toxic waste and neutralization of the acid reaction medium peat (with pH increasing from 3-4 to 6-7,5):
a) quicklime is I - 0,6-0,8%,
"SOILEX" - 0,12-0,15%,
"Degradates" - the rest,
b) Sorbent "Unipolar" of 0.4 - 0.6%
Biochemical drug "Multienzyme complex UNI-REM" - 0,6-0,4%
The present invention is as follows. For example, for remediation of dry digging pit on the ground preparing two mixtures: No. 1 - peat-sand 1:1 (by volume) of 100%, then 95% of the mixture No. 1 (the number depends on the area and depth of career) preparing a mixture of No. 2 by adding to the mixture No. 1 cuttings in the amount of 50% of the total volume of the mixture No. 2, brought to optimum moisture content for more effective mixing and subsequent seal, then entered active additives that reduce the toxicity of cuttings (% of total mixture): quicklime - 0,75%, "SOILEX" to 0.15%, "Degradates" - by 0.1%.
Preparation and laying of the mixture by conventional road construction equipment, earth-moving machines, excavators, dump trucks, loaders, bulldozers, graders, cutters, rollers. Dosing powder supplements are produced by tsementonositelem DS-72, the introduction of liquid additives (suspension UNI - REM) is watering machine PM - 130.
After accumulation of the mixture in the sample and exposure within 1-7 with for the passage of physico-chemical reactions, adsorption and neutralization is oxycanta the mixture using loaders or excavators placed into dump trucks and transported to the place of laying - previously developed career.
Uploaded mixture No. 2 level and is applied with a layer thickness of 0.3-0.5 m, then the composition is compacted in layers by pneumococci. This composition pit is filled up to a level of 0.3-0.5 m below the surface from the top to the ground level is laid a layer (0.3-0.5 m) mixture No. 1 (peat and sand).
This solution allows to increase the efficiency of remediation of pits and disturbed lands to reduce the need for high-quality soils and chemicals, dispose of drilling slurries with obtaining durable, environmentally friendly and with the fertility of the composition.
Sources of information
1. As the USSR №1247388 A1 from 30.07.86; COMPOSITION FOR REMEDIATION of OIL POLLUTION of SOILS; CL. From 09 To 17/00, And 01 In 79/00.
2. As the USSR №1585314 A1 from 15.08.90; the COMPOSITION TO neutralize the OIL POLLUTION of SOIL; CL. 09 K.
1. Composition for remediation of pits and disturbed lands, which includes trpoicana mixture and cuttings, characterized in that the content of the peat-sand mixture is 49-69% by volume, the ratio of sand and peat 1:1 by volume, the content of drill cuttings 50-30%, respectively, in the composition additionally introduced active neutralizing and reclaiming additives in an amount up to 1% by volume.
2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of the ve supplements are used from the total volume of the composition, %:
3. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as the supplements are used from the total volume of the composition, %:
|Biochemical drug "Multienzyme|
FIELD: production of filled gel-like composition with viscoelastic properties.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (vol.pts): 0.5-2.0 mass % sodium tetraborate aqueous solution 1-2; 1.0-8.0 mass % polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution 1-5; 1.0-8.0 mass % carboxymethyl cellulose aqueous solution 1-5 or 1.0-8.0 mass % polyacrylamide aqueous solution 1-2; and filler 1-3. Composition has dynamic viscosity of 642-2467.87 mPa.s; elasticity modulus of 61.12-81.12 N/m2, and adhesion of 53.76-86.79 N/m2. As filler sand with particle size of 0.23-0.5 mm; lavsan or propylene fiber of 70-100 mum in diameter and filament length of 3-6 cm, or Teflon granule at most 1 mm in diameter. Composition of present invention is useful in production of petroleum industry, oil line purification, as anticorrosion, biocide and wear resistant coatings.
EFFECT: new viscoelastic composition of improved quality.
FIELD: production of a complex fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of a complex fertilizer and the method of production of the complex fertilizer provides, that the ground phosphate admix with a waste pickling solution in a mass ratio of 1:1, then they add perlite of the faction of 1.6-2 mm in amount of 5 % relative to the mass of the mix and the mix is fed into a screw-conveyor drier, where formation and drying of granules at the temperature of 150-180°C is exercised. The produced fertilizer has the insect-fungicidal and meliorating properties at simultaneous fertilizer cost reduction and utilization of the pickling solutions.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the fertilizer with insect-fungicidal and meliorating properties at simultaneous reduction fertilizer cost and utilization of the pickling solutions.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with stimulating the growth of humus-forming microorganisms at wheat cultivation due to carrying out pre-sowing treatment of wheat seeds by applying solution of a preparation being an aqueous solution of the mixture of a triple copolymer of acrylic acid, its amide and triacryloylhexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (CPAA) and Cubaxin as a growth stimulant at the following ratio of ingredients, weight%: CPAA 0.0005-0.001, Cubaxin 0.0005-0.001, water - the rest, moreover, wheat seeds should be treated due to slurry disinfection technique. The suggested method enables to increase the number of Pseudomonas microorganisms in rhizosphere and rhizoplane of wheat roots.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of stimulation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular edaphology.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes preseeding treatment of leguminous seeds with aqueous solution containing terpolymer of acrylic acid, acrylamide, and triacryloylhexahydro-1,3,5-sym-triazine in ratio of (mass %) terpolymer 0.0005-0.001 and balance: water.
EFFECT: increased population of pseudomonas microorganisms in rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plant roots.
FIELD: agriculture, microbiology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for intensifying growth of microorganisms of genus Pseudomonas in growing cereal crops. Method involves presowing treatment of gramineous crops seeds with agent solution representing an aqueous solution of triple copolymer of acrylic acid, its amide and triacryloylhexahydro-1,3,5-triazine in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: active component, 0.0005-0.001; water, the balance. Method provides elevating number of microorganisms of genus Pseudomonas in rhizosphere and rhizoplane in rice and wheat roots.
EFFECT: improved intensifying method.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, creation and retention of productive longevity of meadows in old frozen ground zone.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing surface cultivation of soil to depth of mass location of fodder grass vestige; applying fertilizer; sowing local wild grass seeds; during first year of meadow development, providing single sowing local fodder grass mixture and performing annual harvesting of grass mixture during 10-15 years at pickling ripeness phase; providing feeding with mineral fertilizers once two-three years; after expiring of productive longevity, performing harvesting of grass mixture during two-three years after termination of vegetation of plants. Mixture of fodder crop cereals used as mixture of local wild crop seeds is utilized in an amount of, kg/hectare: northern high meadow grass 0.5-1.0; soft wild rye 3.0-5.0; hair grass 1.5-2.0; cane-like foxtail 2.0-4.0; cane-like arctagrostis 2.5-4.0.
EFFECT: increased yield of native grasses on meadow pastures in old frozen ground zone.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, moldboard tillage of soil on circular slopes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves plowing soil in developing helical line while turning soil layer; forming soil portion sown to grass at slope apex. Plowing of soil is provided from boundary of soil portion sown to grass. Layer turning is performed in downward or upward direction over slope each other year.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by preventing soil from erosion through plowing of slopes.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, farm crop sowing processes and agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves presowing mellowing of surface layer of soil; forming furrows for seeds in mellowed soil; providing compacted bed on undisturbed soil of furrow bottom; sowing seeds in furrow and embedding said seeds with mellowed soil layer from spacings; providing presowing mellowing of surface soil layer to depth not in the excess of 7 cm, with furrow and compacted bed being formed using roller; forming furrow on mellowed soil layer, with depth of furrow being not in the excess of half the thickness of mellowed surface soil layer, and compacted bed being made in the form of ridge with acute angle at apex part disposed at furrow bottom; forming furrow in lower part of mellowed soil layer by using pressure of roller. Ridge base is formed on undisturbed soil. Apparatus is made in the form of drill comprising seed hopper, seeding unit, furrow former made in the form of one or number of feeler rollers which are located on rear traverse of drill in spaced apart relation, with space being equal to distance between rows of crops. Drill is further provided with covering tool made in the form of device for covering seeds with mulching soil layer. Seeding pipes are positioned forward of covering device in single vertical plane with feeler rollers. Working surface of feeler rollers is made in the form of wedge-shaped member having height of at least 2 cm and width of apex part exceeding size of seeds to be sown. Ratio of roller width to its diameter is about 1:30.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for seed sowing process, increased yield of cereal crops owing to intensified field germination of seeds, and provision for creating optimal conditions for growing and development of cultured plants and slowing down germination of weeds.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.
EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, feed production under arid zone irrigation conditions, and agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing seeds of fodder crops having different growing period times from sowing to harvesting of yield; providing alternate mowing of said crops by means of feed harvesting machines for green mass; beginning sowing procedure on one plot with annular grasses in winter, early spring and late autumn; then cultivating double and triple mixtures on plots which became free, said mixtures consisting of early mown and late mown crops, late summer and heat-loving stubble crops of second yield; cultivating on plots which became free of frost-resistant crops of third yield from mixture of cereals and cruciferous crops. During mowing on green mass of annular grass in winter, early spring and late autumn crops, 15-30%-solution of natural bischofite is applied to each ton of green mass, said solution being utilized as preservative at the rate of 12-14 g per 1 kg of green mass. Brine of natural bischofite is applied onto surface of stubble of mown mass at density of 1.2-1.3 t/m3 with norm of 8.0-15.0 g/m2. On mowing heat-loving crops of second yield for green mass, 25-45%-solution of natural bischofile is applied at the rate of 18-26 g per 1 kg of green mass, and on mowing of third yield comprising mixture of cereals and cruciferous crops, 40-60%-solution of natural bischofite is applied at the rate of 30-38 g per 1 kg of green ground mass. Apparatus for applying into feed of liquid preservatives in the form of solution of natural bischofite has reservoir for preservative equipped with hydraulic mixer and taking-in conduit furnished with cut extending in plane arranged at an angle to axis of conduit, hydraulic pump positioned downstream of reservoir, and intermediate tank provided with one inlet branch pipe and two outlet branch pipes and connected to tank through pneumatic pump. One of tank outlet branch pipes is communicating with reservoir and other outlet branch pipe is communicating through two-way valve with actuating mechanism. Inlet branch pipe is positioned in lower part of tank, tangentially to its side wall. Hydraulic mixer is positioned in reservoir and communicating with outlet branch pipe of tank. Two-way valve is connected through actuating mechanism for feeding of preservative with nozzles positioned in silage guide of said machine, wherein feed mass sensor is positioned. Apparatus is equipped with additional reservoir for preservative, sprayer boom, and pair of three-way valves.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and improved quality of green feed.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 16 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of farm crops adapted for feeding of animals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing seeds of annual and perennial fodder crops in parallel alternating rows, said crops being similar in cultivation methods and differing in nutritive substance content; after sowing, providing cultivation of spacings at initial stage of growing and life of plants for eliminating weed plants lacking feeding qualities; harvesting mixtures along rows by mowing for producing of hey or by grazing of crops; forming pasture ecosystems from feed shrubs, subshrubs and perennial grasses used in the ratio of 20-30%, 65-75% and 3-8%, respectively. Method allows autumn-winter pastures to be provided with stable plant associations having increased productivity. In the regions where total annual precipitation is 170-250 mm, yield of dry fodder mass from pastures is 1.0-1.2 t/hectare, and in the regions where total annual precipitation is 260-450 mm, yield of dry fodder mass is 1.5-2.0 t/hectare.
EFFECT: increased stability and productivity of fodder crop phytocenosis in long-duration pasture ecosystems.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, creation of high-stability and productive phytocenoses of arid fodder crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing basic and presowing cultivation of soil; sowing perennial grass seeds and subshrubs; harvesting. Sowing is provided by strip method, with subshrub and perennial grass ratio making 60-80% and 20-40%, respectively. Soil is cultivated by means of shallow plow to 0.16-0.22 mm depth immediately before sowing procedure, with lumps being cut to agronomically valuable fractions, relief is leveled and harrowing is performed in two tracks. In case of favorable weather conditions, early-spring sowing is provided during terminating decade of February-first decade of March. Shrub and subshrub seeds are sown in rows at spacing width of 0.7 m to 0.5 m depth. Grass plant seeds are sown in subshrub spacings to 1-3 cm depth. During replacement of pasture ecosystems of spring-summer utilization time on reduction of density of pasture agrophytocenosis herbage to 60-65%, seeds of arid fodder crops are sown by direct drilling process in November-December at the rate of 30-35% of initial norm. On replaced plots of long-duration pastures, plant mass is grazed up beginning from autumn, next year.
EFFECT: increased stability and productivity of fodder crop phytocenosis in long-duration pasture ecosystems.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, methods for creating of hey pasture perennial herbage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing grass mixtures including cenotically strong kinds of grasses differing in their activities during different periods of life of sown associations, with plants of Fabaceae leguminous family, preferably plants of licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch supplemented with Asteraceae and Poaceae family plants being used as grass mixtures; sowing seeds of licorice, Artemisia and wheat grass in overlapping manner to 1.5-4.0 cm depth at seeding norm of 5-6, 1.3-1.4 and 15-18 kg of germinated seeds per hectare, respectively.
EFFECT: provision for restoring zonal-typical structure of pasture ecosystems, formation of plant association from halophytic and xerophytic fodder grasses fit as pasture at any season of the year and increased productivity and longevity of herbage.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing soil tillage, spring sowing of perennial fodder crops and harvesting; sowing at least three kinds of leguminous crops and at least three kinds of cereal perennial fodder crops differing in growth intensity and production longevity; providing, in conjunction with sowing, annual supporting neutralization of soil by introducing magnesite into soil. Upon expiration of production longevity of some kinds of perennial grasses, said grasses are introduced into soil by cutting-in simultaneously with magnesite. Magnesite is introduced into soil in an amount of 200 kg/hectare.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and increased annual yield of fodder crops.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: forestry and agriculture, in particular, reclamation of technogenic ecosystems and creation of forest plantations and productive agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves recovering hydraulic mode on areas to be reclaimed; creating water accumulating and water retaining constructions; spilling drainage and watertight layers of high-density 0.1 m thick clays; placing layer of potentially fertile rocks; mellowing said layers, followed by growing of farm and forestry crops; using humus preparation solutions as growth and development promoters, whose concentration is 0.02 g/l for soaking of seeds for two hours and providing twice irrigation of plants during sprouts appearing and tillering periods with concentration of 0.08 g/l.
EFFECT: reduced negative effect of mining works upon natural systems and increased efficiency in reclamation of disturbed lands.
3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.