Method of separation of the minerals and the device for the method realization

FIELD: mining industry; minerals dressing and grading.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of upgrading and grading of minerals and may be used at dressing of the diamond-bearing ores and quality grading of the diamonds. The method provides for the optical rays irradiation of the minerals, registration of the scattered radiation in two spectral bands of the determined width, one of which contains the line of the Raman effect, the second band does not contain the line of the Raman effect, but envelops the first band from two sides, comparison of the signals in these two bands, identification and separation of the in compliance with the results of this comparison, in which the width of the spectral bands is regulated according to the condition: ▵ν10±δ,▵ν2= ν0±2δ-▵ν1, where: ▵ν1 - the bandwidth of the spectrum containing the line of the Raman effect;▵ν2 - the bandwidth of the spectrum, which does not contain the line of the Raman effect, but enveloping the first band from two sides; ν0 - the frequency of the maximum of the line of the Raman effect; δ - the band of the a frequencies of the selected line in the Raman effect spectrum. The device consists of: the storage hopper; the feeding mechanism; the source of the optical radiation; the inlet slit; the convergent lens; the dispersing component; the measuring channel with the outlet slit of the determined width, which outer surface is reflective; the reference channel receiving the light flux reflected from the outer surface of the exit slit of the measuring channel supplied with the outlet slit; imagers; the electronic unit; the executive actuating mechanism; recipients of the concentrate product and the tailings. At that the slits of the reference channel and the measuring channel are arranged coaxially and made adjustable. The technical result of the invention is the increased selectivity of the separation due to the more exact singling out of the Raman effect from the background noise.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased selectivity of the separation due to the more exact singling out of the Raman effect from the background noise.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of enrichment and sorting of minerals and can be used in beneficiation of diamond ores and sorting of diamonds on qualitative characteristics.

The known method and device for determining the level of background radiation in the spectral region characteristic Raman peak (UK No. 2228316, G 01 N 21/84 declared 19.01.89, Republic of South Africa No. 0435 published 19.01.90). The method allows to increase the recovery of diamonds through compensation background and secondary radiation in the frequency Raman scattering in diamond. This concentrate is irradiated with monochromatic light, is able to dissipate, register diffuse radiation, dividing it into a number of spectral bands. Diffuse radiation is measured in the band spectrum of the Raman peak and at least two spectrum bands that are near the proposed Raman peak. Of these, at least two bands is calculated, the value of background radiation, which is characteristic of the level of background radiation in the expected Raman peak. The difference signals in the frequency band Raman peak signal and at least two lateral bands of frequencies judge of mineral belonging to a particular mineral species. Spectral bands of the side frequencies are symmetrical about assume the th Raman peak, and blocked their frequency range covers the Raman peak from two sides. Thus, for the implementation of this method requires measurements of the radiation intensity, in at least three spectral bands. The width of the spectral bands is fixed.

The device for implementing this method includes a means for irradiating substances monochromatic light capable of causing Raman scattering, means for receiving scattered radiation, the filter tool to highlight the number of spectral bands (at least two lateral and one containing the line Raman scattering), means for measuring the intensity transmitted through the filters radiation and retrieve values, the Central processor. Means for separating the radiation at the first, second and third segments consists of several filters, permeable strip of fixed width, which are means for registering radiation, missed each filter and the means to obtain values indicative of the detected radiation.

A disadvantage of the known method and device for its implementation is not sufficiently high selectivity of separation, due to the low accuracy of the selection of spectral bands by a filter system, the inability to change (adjust) the width of the bands, the requirement to vydeleny three bands - two lateral and Central. The latter requires three filters, three of the photodetector, and three channels of the Desk, which complicates the system as a whole.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a laser separation of diamonds, as described in article Sevasteia, Sviblovo, Uwicore, Vagapova, Oagbdaw, Iphonea, Vukmirovich, Afroradio, Accpetance, Amegashie, Amman, Navsariwala, Vajrasana, Autodin, OBV "Laser separation of diamonds" ("Science - production", No. 2, 2003, p.8). The method of separation involves the irradiation of the samples of monochromatic light and the registration of the scattered radiation in two spectral regions, fixed-width, one of which contains the line Raman scattering, and the second does not contain a line Raman scattering, but covers the first two sides, the comparison of the signals in these areas, the identification and separation of the samples according to the results of this comparison.

Device for the separation of this method of separation consists of a hopper, a feeder, a radiation source (laser), an optical system, two photodetectors, electronic unit, an actuating mechanism, receivers and concentrated and tail products. The optical system consists of an entrance slit, a dispersing element and output the Noah slit measuring channel fixed width. The outer surface of the output gap measurement channel reflecting. Reflected from her radiation is the luminous flux of the reference channel. Bandwidth of the measuring and reference channels not regulated.

The main disadvantage of these methods and devices is their low selectivity, as part of the accompanying minerals in this way is defined as diamonds and is recovered in the concentrate, as part of the diamonds is defined as associated minerals and sent to the tails. The low selectivity of this method is caused by the inconsistency of the width of the bandwidth of the reference and measurement channels. The inconsistency of the width of the bandwidth and, consequently, the inconsistency of the intensities of the light fluxes in the reference and measurement channels requires the alignment generated by these light fluxes of the amplitudes of the electrical signals. The alignment of the amplitudes of the electrical signals produced in the electronic part of the device, which are different amplification coefficients of the reference and measurement channels or different sensitivity of the photodetector circuits. This leads to the limitation of the range of intensities of the light fluxes in the reference and measurement channels, in which it is possible to compensate for background signals. Compensation background component of proishodit narrow range of ratios of the amplitudes of the signals of the reference and measurement channels: - at low background levels, the amplitude of the reference signal is smaller than the amplitude of the signal in the measuring channel, and at high levels of background signal amplitude of the reference channel exceeds the magnitude of the signal in the measuring channel. Thus, the compensation of the background component of this device is not effective enough. This leads to a false identity, so the selectivity arranged according to the method of the separator are also not low.

The aim of the invention is to increase the selectivity of separation due to more accurate selection line Raman scattering from the background.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of separation of minerals, including the irradiation of minerals by optical radiation, the registration of the scattered radiation in two spectral bands of a certain width, one of which contains the line Raman scattering, the second band contains no line Raman scattering, but covers the first two sides, the comparison of the signals in these bands, the identification and separation of minerals on the results of this comparison, the width of the spectral bands of scattered radiation govern according to the condition:

Δν10±δ,

Δν20±2δ-Δν1,

where Δν1- band width of the spectrum that contains whether the Oia Raman scattered radiation;

Δν2- band width of the spectrum that does not contain line Raman scattering, but covering it with two sides;

ν0frequency maximum line Raman scattering;

δ - frequency band of the selected line in the spectrum of Raman scattering.

This objective is achieved in that the device for the separation of minerals containing hopper, feeder, optical radiation source, a collecting lens entrance slit, a dispersing element, the output gap of the measuring channel of a certain width with a reflective outer surface, photodetectors, electronic unit, the Executive mechanism, receivers and concentrated and tail products additionally introduced the output gap reference channel, mounted coaxially with the output gap of the measuring channel, and exit slits of the measuring and reference channels are adjustable.

Conditions imposed on the bandwidth of the measuring and reference channels in the device are realized by the introduction of the slit of the reference channel and the adjustment of the width of the aligned slots of the reference and measurement channels. This gives the condition:

Δν10±δ,

Δν20±2δ-Δν1,

where Δν1- band width of the spectrum containing the line Combi is sure of scattered radiation;

Δν2- band width of the spectrum that does not contain line Raman scattering, but covering the first two parties;

ν0frequency maximum line Raman scattering;

δ - frequency band of the selected line in the spectrum of Raman scattering.

In the absence of radiation Raman difference of these signals is close to zero, which means full compensation background component in the measuring channel, both at low and at high levels of background radiation. When radiation from the Raman scattering signal in the measuring channel becomes greater than the signal in the reference channel by an amount proportional to the intensity of the line Raman scattering regardless of the background radiation intensity.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a device for the separation of minerals according to the method prototype;

figure 2 shows the diagram of a device for the separation of minerals of the proposed method;

figure 3 shows a set of Raman scattering selection of diamonds one of the fields (a) and the choice of the bandwidth of the measuring channel (b);

figure 4 shows the amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC) measurement (a) and reference (b) channels which are implemented using this system gaps;

figure 5 shows the distribution the Oia signals in the sample, consisting of a mixture of diamond (positive signals) and associated minerals of kimberlite ore (negative signals)measured by the device according to the prototype (a) and the proposed device (b).

Device for the separation of minerals by the proposed method (figure 2) consists of a hopper 1, feeder 2, the optical radiation source 3, a collecting lens 4, the entrance slit 5, the dispersion element 6, the output gap 7 of the measuring channel with a reflective (mirror) the outer surface of the output slit 8 of the reference channel, two photodetectors 9, 10 of the electronic unit 11, the actuator 12, receivers and concentrated and tail products 13 and 14. The width of the exit slits of the reference and measurement channels is regulated. Before the output slit of the measuring channel is the output gap reference channel, and the axis of the slits of the reference and measurement channels are the same.

The device operates as follows.

From the hopper 1 feeder 2 is a partial minerals in the zone of separation, where irradiated by the radiation source 3. After scattering on the mineral radiation through the collecting lens 4, an entrance slit 5 falls on the dispersion element 6, which is decomposed into a spectrum, then the output slits 7 and 8 is divided into reference and measurement streams. Dispersing element 6 is configured so that the Raman races is eannie the radiation passes through the slit 7 on the photodetector 9, not passed through the slit 7, the radiation is reflected from the mirror surface of the slit 7 and through the slot 8 falls on the photodetector 10.

Luminous flux of the reference and measurement channels of the photodetectors 9, 10 are converted into electrical signals. These signals are fed to the electronic system 11 for generating command the actuator 12 based on the ratio of received to her signals. The actuator sorts minerals concentrated on 13 and rear 14 products.

An example of a specific implementation.

Technical implementation of the method and device corresponds to figure 2. Checking the operation of the device was carried out in a mixture of 500 diamonds and pieces of kimberlite ore (associated minerals) one of the fields AK "ALROSA".

The diamond contains a single narrow line Raman shifted at 1332 cm-1from the line excitation. Study of representative samples of diamonds showed that the real line Raman scattering has a different width and has a deviation from crystal to crystal (figa) depending on the presence of crystal defects and stresses. To remove all the diamonds, you should choose a bandwidth of the measuring channel to the band covered the band line Raman scattering taking into account its various deviations. Width is not the bandwidth of the measuring channel is selected, as the envelope of the set of lines Raman representative sample of diamonds (figb). As follows from figb all lines Raman scattering for this sample are in the range δ=±10 cmof -1thus, the bandwidth of the measuring channel is 1332±10 cm-1i.e.

Δν10±δ=1332±10 cm-1.

Considering that full compensation of the background component of the frequency band of the reference channel should be equal to the bandwidth of the measuring channel, control channel received

Δν20±2δ-Δν1=(1332±2×10 cm-1)-(1332±10 cm-1).

It follows that the bandwidth reference channel consists of two parts, symmetrically covering the bandwidth of the measuring channel with two sides and is (1312-1322 cm-1and (1342-1352) cm-1.

The device is implemented for the separation of diamonds size - 6+3 mm with a capacity of about 2 kg/hour. When such power in the reception area provides single-piece feed of particulate material in the zone of irradiation. Configuring devices were made using the sample, giving a high level signal, as in the measuring and the reference channel, for example, which has a bright luminescence upon excitation of helium-neon is m laser.

As the radiation source was used helium-neon laser MT-40. The laser light is focused to a spot diameter of about 0.1 mm, an Alignment optical system, the position of this spot is chosen such that its image by the lens 4 is projected onto the entrance slit 5 having a width of approximately 0.5 mm.

The dispersion element is a concave diffraction grating with 1200 strokes/mm Orientation of the grating is chosen so that the focused radiation from the Raman scattering falls on the slit 7 of the measuring channel. The width of the slits of the reference and measurement channels is regulated in accordance with the above conditions. The external surface of the slit of the measuring channel mirror. Before the crack of the measuring channel is the crack of the reference channel 8, and the axis of the slits 7 and 8 coincide. The bandwidth of the measuring channel is set by adjusting the width of the slit 7, and the bandwidth reference channel - width slits 8 as described above. On the photodetector measuring channel enters the radiation passed through the slit 7, and the reference photodetector channel radiation reflected from the outer mirrored surface of the slit 7, the limited width of the slit 8. Because the radiation that has passed through the slit 7 is not reflected from the mirror surface of the slit 7, this radiation does not fall within the reference channel. In the cut is ltate of this bandwidth reference channel is excluded bandwidth of the measuring channel and the reference channel frequency of the bandwidth of the measuring channel are not. Figure 4 shows formed the system of cracks amplitude-frequency characteristic bandwidth of the measurement (a) and reference (b) channels.

Luminous flux of the reference and measurement channels of the photodetector 10 and 9, respectively, performed on the basis of PMT-79, is converted into electrical signals. The signals from the photodetectors are received in the electronic unit 11, which generates a command to the actuator 12. The actuator depending on the received command divides minerals into useful and related (tails).

Figure 5 shows the distribution of signals in a sample consisting of a mixture of diamonds (positive signals) and related minerals of kimberlite ore (negative signals)measured by the device according to the prototype (a) and the proposed device (b). As follows from figa, the method prototype signals from samples associated minerals and diamonds partially overlap, i.e. some of the minerals was determined as diamonds and extracted in the concentrate, as part of the diamonds is defined as associated minerals, and went to tails. Figure 5(b) shows the distribution of signals in the same sample in the measurement method proposed. As follows from the figure, the distributions do not overlap, which indicates that the ultimate goal of improving the selectivity of CE is arachi.

1. The method of separation of minerals, including the irradiation of minerals by optical radiation, the registration of the scattered radiation in two spectral bands of a certain width, one of which contains the line Raman scattering, and the second band does not contain a line Raman scattering, but covers the first two sides, the comparison of the signals in these bands, the identification and separation of minerals on the results of this comparison, characterized in that the width of the spectrum bands is subject to the condition

Δν10±δ;

Δν20±2δ-Δν1,

where Δν1- band width of the spectrum containing the line Raman scattered radiation; Δν2- band width of the spectrum that does not contain line Raman scattering, but covering the first two sides; ν0frequency maximum line Raman scattering; δ - frequency band of the selected line in the spectrum of Raman scattering.

2. Device for the separation of minerals, consisting of a hopper, feeder, source of optical radiation, the entrance slit, collecting lens, the dispersion element, the measuring channel output gap of a certain width, the outer surface of which reflects that of the reference channel, prinimaya what about the luminous flux, reflected from the outer surface of the output gap measurement channel, photodetectors, electronic unit, an actuating mechanism, receivers and concentrated and tail products, characterized in that the device additionally introduced the output gap reference channel, while the gap reference and measurement channels are aligned and are adjustable.



 

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