Method for predicting stability of shelves of quarry sides

FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of coal, ore and non-ore deposits by open method.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, geological structure of massif is analyzed, position of potential sliding surface is detected, physical and mechanical properties of rocks are determined. Along profile parallel to edge of shelf in its middle portion, frequency of alternation of impulses of natural electromagnetic radiation is measured. On intervals where this frequency exceeds level of background radiation more than 2 times, interval-wise measurement of relation of strength level of signal electric field at two working frequencies is performed. By means of computed logarithmic dependence, depth of location of potential sliding surface is determined. With consideration of change of this depth, structure of massif, technological parameters and physical-mechanical properties of rocks, values of stability reserve coefficients are calculated on basis of ratio of momentums of holding and moving forces within limits of detected dangerous portion. Probability of landslide development is evaluated on basis of minimal values of stability reserve coefficients.

EFFECT: increased precision when predicting stability of quarry sides.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of coal, ore and non-ore deposits in an open way.

Known methods of prediction of the stability of pit walls, based on the measurement of parameters of geophysical fields, correlated with the change in the stress-strain state of the array.

For example, there is a method of determining the change in the stress state of the elements of mines prone to opoznavaniyu, according to which the controlled stations measure the main components of the geomagnetic field, find the ratio of the vertical and the remaining component, and the probability of landslide judged by the change in time this relationship (see A.S. No. 1087662, MKI E 21 39/00, publ. 23.04.84, BI No. 15). This method is very rapid and malotrudoemkaja because it doesn't require drilling and involves contactless electromagnetic monitoring. However, this method has low accuracy, as it does not take into account the forecast of the features of the geological structure of the array and does not provide the location of a hearth formed of a landslide in the depth of the array.

To eliminate these drawbacks greatly promote the application of the method of stability assessment of rock mass of the pit, vkljuchajuwih the drilling of wells on the site, Prednisolonum to landslides, the choice of the base profile in the zone of equilibrium stress state array, dimension effective resistivity (electrical resistivity) of the array at base and line profiles by pairwise move the electrodes in the wells, the definition changes over time of the relationship values of the effective resistivity linear and basic profiles, establishing time and space coordinates of the origin of the landslide on the extreme values of these deviations (see A.S. No. 10640000, MKI E 21 39/00, publ. 30.12.83, BI No. 48). This method provides a significant increase in the accuracy of the forecast, as it allows for the identification of the geological structure of the array in downhole measurements and the coordinates of the zone of origin of the landslide associated with the local softening or logonsystem array.

The lack of analogue is that at high detail of the forecast time and location of the origin of the weakened zones it is not possible to set the phase of development of the landslide, as the square of the anomalous zone is judged by only one of its size along the corresponding line profile. In addition, this method for measurement by the method of immersed electrodes at different depth levels and profiles requires a large amount of drilling operations.

The drawbacks of similar significant is Noah as fixed by way including the definition of the geological section of the probable slip surface, measurement of the effective resistivity of the array bassclarinet method longitudinal elektroregulirovki over the middle part of the weakened layer with a spacing corresponding to the depth of its occurrence, the choice of the transverse profile of extreme importance WES and forecast stage of development of the landslide area abnormal (high or low values) zone on the charts conductivity (see RF patent № 2239064, IPC E 21 41/26, 39/00, publ. 27.10.2004, BI No. 30). The complexity of the method is reduced by eliminating the need for drilling monitoring wells, and the accuracy of the prediction is increased by the additional measurement of the transverse profile.

The main disadvantages of this and all the analogues described above is the lack of accuracy of the prediction space of the likely future development of the landslide, as they provide a mapping defined by the results of the measurement value with the critical, established on the basis of preliminary studies in conditions close to the test site. Accurate determination of the critical values of monitored parameters (level of geomagnetic field and the effective resistivity, square anomalous zone) is impossible in principle, since the properties of the array and the process parameters of the mining system is yuno change in space and in time even within specific areas of one field.

The most perfect is a way to increase stability of the slopes of the pitwall, including the analysis of the geological structure of the array, the determination of physical and mechanical properties of the array taking into account hydro-geological and mining factors, establishing changes to the depth of the probable slip surface on the longitudinal elektroregulirovki, the calculation taking into account this change of values of the coefficient of stability margin ratio shifting and holding forces and the forecast of the least stable part of the ledge at the lower values of this ratio (see RF patent № 223715 IPC E 21 41/26, publ. 27.09.2004, BI No. 27). This method allows to eliminate the main drawback of all analyses, because the most likely manifestations of the landslide is defined not as a result of comparing the monitored value with the critical level that has only local scope, and the minimum value of restraint moments and shear forces, i.e. by the universal criterion, the following from the conditions of limiting equilibrium of the elements of the array. Thus, this method combines the advantages of the methods of geophysical monitoring, i.e. operational beschweren the CSO forecast changes state and properties of the array at intervals between geological wells, with the advantages of direct experimental-computational methods based on the knowledge of the physico-mechanical properties of rocks in the geological cross-section and the solution of the classical equations of statics in the breaking zone of displacement on the blocks (see Arsentiev A.I., Bukin YOU, Mironenko, VA Stability of sides and drainage pits. - M.: Nedra, 1982. - P.53-88).

Accept this method as a prototype.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the lack of accuracy of the forecast development of the landslide on time. The method allows to establish probable landslide (caving), where at a certain deterioration of geological and mining conditions (blagoveshenie rocks groundwater or precipitation, of undercutting the weak layer, the weakening of the array, resulting in an explosive impact and so on) is likely a violation of the stability of the pit. Usually consider critical values for the factor of sustainability ηCR=1,2 (20%stability margin of the array). If η≤ηCRthe sustainability section of the array is close to the limit, but the fall may not happen, because the controlled parameter (WES) depends on the changing physico-mechanical properties of the array, affecting its stability (humidity, voidness, the level of mechanical stress fracture), and not on the intensity of development processes time is osenia rocks in the emerging real-slip surface.

The objective of the invention is to improve the accuracy of prediction stability of the slopes of the pitwall at the expense of complex control in areas prone to landslides, the intensity of the processes of destruction and the depth location of the lesion destruction, coinciding with the likely surface slide, according to the parameters of the natural electromagnetic radiation.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved in that in the method of prediction stability of the slopes of the pitwall, including the analysis of the geological structure of the array by identifying the potential sliding surface, the definition of electrical and physico-mechanical properties of the array, geophysical measurements on the profile parallel to the edge of the ledge in its average width area, the forecast based on the depth measurements of the potential sliding surface, the calculation of safety factors of stability of sections of the ledge on the value of restraint moments and shear forces using data on the geological structure of the array, the mechanical properties of the rocks and changing the depth of the sliding surface, according to the invention along the profile ledge conduct measurement repetition frequency the natural impulses of electromagnetic radiation, at intervals, where the frequency exceeds the background radiation levels more than 2 times, conduct pointercal the haunted measurement of the correlation between the level of the strength of the electric field signal F 1/E2the operating frequencies, respectively, f1and f2calculate the depth of the potential sliding surface according to the formula

where K is a constant that depends on the electrical and magnetic properties of the array and defined at the preliminary stage of the forecast, and then calculate the values of the coefficients of the stability margin, the minimum values which are judged on the likely development of the landslide.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved by the fact that measurement of the frequency of pulse repetition natural electromagnetic radiation is conducted when the objects of consumption.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved by the fact that the depth of the potential sliding surface is determined by experimental calibration dependencies installed previously by measuring the value of E1/E2at various depth of installation in the borehole spark simulator hearth pulsed electromagnetic radiation in the form of switch current.

The essence of the claimed method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a diagram of the area of the pit, which implements the prediction of stability in the claimed method, figure 2 shows the graph of the change of the repetition frequency of N&pulse natural is the second electromagnetic radiation profile Oh, figure 3 presents graphs of the estimated parameters: depth h(x) of occurrence of the potential slip surface and factor of sustainability η(x) on the interval x1<x<x2where the level of N&twice the level of background radiation N&f, figure 4 shows the calibration of the experimental dependence.

Implement the method as follows.

According to geological exploration in wells 1 analyze the structure of the rock ledge of the pit, including layers of siltstone 2, 3 coal, Sandstone 4, and highlight the potential sliding surface 6 (Fig 1). The sliding layer of the array is likely to occur when the presence of the following features: the presence of the layer to soft rocks; the location on the plot tectonics, the formation of a water saturated zone or filtration manifold in contact with a waterproof layer. The potential (likely) the sliding surface 6 is formed on the contact raznopolosnyh layers. If the angle of the identified slip surface exceeds the angle of repose, when a certain combination of geological and anthropogenic factors may occur collapse of rocks by sliding the upper part of the array on a given surface. These factors include: changing the depth h of occurrence potential the individual sliding surfaces due to anomalies of the geological structure of the array; the wrong choice of technological parameters of the ledge (height, width, angle of repose), leading to undercutting of the moving layer with partial or complete elimination of persistent prism; blagoveshenie rocks groundwater or precipitation, leading to increased volume of the rock mass and the decrease of the adhesion forces.

By drilling exploration wells and laboratory testing drilled cores define the electrical and physical (density, cohesion, angle of internal friction) properties of rocks in natural moisture. Such studies are carried out along the entire length of the segment (the distance between exploratory wells is 100-200 m). When there is a combination of the above adverse factors determine areas prone to landslides. These sites in sections of exploratory wells calculate the factors of sustainability in the well-known formula

where tgϕ - coefficient of internal friction; k - grip; L is the length of the sliding surface; Ni- force of normal pressure at the i-th surface slip; Ti- shear strength of the i-th block of the pit.

If the estimated value η range η=1,2-1,8 these sites in the future conduct operational forecast changes in the stability of the Board. For this purpose, the surface is rnost ledge 5 in its middle part is shaped profile 7, located parallel to the sideline. According to the planned profile conduct measurements of natural electromagnetic radiation. The main measured parameters are frequency N&pulses and the intensity E of the electric field of the electromagnetic signal. Measurement is carried out using the experimental apparatus of the BPS-2, H-9, or specially designed devices with high sensitivity and working range (see the Handbook for the services of prediction and prevention of rock bursts in mines. Pvegeared, V.v.ivanov, Tin and others - M.: Nedra, 1995. - 240 C.). Electromagnetic radiation along with the acoustic is a physical process accompanying the destruction of rocks and the formation of cracks slip. In particular, the registration of electromagnetic radiation has found wide application in the prediction of the degree of the " workings: higher values of N&testify about the intensification of rock pressure and increase the probability of rockbursts. When the formation of the center of the landslide on the sliding surfaces is the local accumulation of micro-damage and cracking. Laboratory and field studies show that the excess of twice the natural background levels of electromagnetic radiation 2N&  fcharacterizes the initial stage of the formation of the landslide. This stage depending on the intensity of the action of the above factors may last from one to six months and in case of failing to take timely measures can lead to the collapse of the boards.

According to the results of periodic measurements on the profile of Oh 7 build graphics N&(x) (figure 2), which mark the intervals x1and x2with the level of N>2Nf. Within these intervals with step Δx=5-10 meters measure the intensity E of the electric field of the radiation. In the analytical studies, laboratory experiments, it was found that the frequency spectrum of electromagnetic pulse radiation in the fracturing has the following form (see hämäläinen, VA, Just S.M., Syrkin PS Geoelectric monitoring of destruction and injected hardening of rocks. - M.: Nedra, 1996 - 288 S.)

where f is the frequency of the harmonic component of the radiation; F- intensity stationary natural electric field; n is the number of radiating cracks in unit volume of the array; μ, λ - the magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity of rocks; V is the average speed of development of microcracks; r is the radius of the top of microcracks; Δf - band proposin what I'm recording device; the attenuation of the electromagnetic signal at a single distance; h - depth of the location of the source of electromagnetic radiation (formation zone of the hearth of the landslide), coinciding with the depth of the probable slip surface.

From equation (2) implies that when measuring the value of E at frequencies f1and f2(f2>f1), since the parameters of the E, n, V, r, Δf remain the same, the ratio of E1/E2depends only on h and electrophysical properties of the array. Solving the system of equations (2) with f=f1and f=f2relative to h, we get

whereis a constant that depends on the electrical and magnetic properties of the array.

The physical nature of equation (3) is that the higher frequency components of the electromagnetic signal intensity decay at a single distance in the conductive rock mass, covering the radiation source, due to the skin effect.

According to the results of the calculations are building schedule h(x) for the interval x1<x<x2. Using the values of h, the data on the geological structure of the array (figure 1), physico-mechanical properties of the array according to equation (1) determine the values of the coefficients of stability margin η and build schedule η(x)a minimum the output values which judgments about the probability of development of a landslide. When η<1,2 should take measures to prevent landslides: change parameters of the ledge, to apply injection strengthening rocks or special restraint (see Fesenko GL, Revazov M.A., Galustian AL the Strengthening of slopes in open pits. - M.: Nedra, 1974. - P.100-197).

To improve the accuracy of the forecast, it is necessary to reduce the level of technological interference, which are the sources of electrical transformer substations, excavators, drilling rigs, pipelines, electric locomotives, as well as the supply power lines. Studies found that the level of signals N&E from these sources at distance less than 300-500 m is commensurable with pleasure, and the spectra of the signals close. Therefore, the electric power facilities within 500 m from the investigated area should be removed.

Since the determination of the depth h of the occurrence of the potential sliding surface includes establishing a constant K, the accuracy of the prediction by the claimed method directly depends on the accuracy of determination of this constant. Analytical calculation is possible based on the study of electrical parameters λ and μ rock samples or additional electrical measurements by known methods. If the array is heterogeneous electrical properties, the error definition the population To exceed 20-30%. It is therefore instead calculated according to (3) to use the pre-installed experimental calibration curves h(E1/E2). To obtain this dependence in the borehole at different depths h put the spark simulator source electromagnetic signal representing the switch current with a frequency of 0.1-1 kHz. Measurement of E1/E2produce a basic set of equipment with fixed values of f1and f2. According to the results of preliminary studies build calibration dependences h(E1/E2; f1/f2) (figure 4).

A specific example of the method. According to the survey geological boreholes established that the array of the ledge of the pit includes layers of siltstone 2, 3 coal and Sandstone 4. The angle of incidence of layers 25-28° (figure 1). The potential surface of sliding is dedicated to contact raznopolosnyh layer 2 siltstone and coal seam 3. To study the properties of the array in the middle of the ledge was drilled vertical well 1 with coring. The main parameters of the array needed to calculate the coefficients of the stability margin of the ledge shown in the table.

For prediction of the stability of the Board was scheduled profile Oh 7 parallel to the edge of the ledge 5. The main parameters of the ledge: height H=16 m, width b=20 m, the angle of repose α=35#x000B0; .

Measurement of pulsed electromagnetic study carried out experimental apparatus, which includes a whip antenna, a high frequency unit, amplifier, analog-to-digital Converter, frequency and signal level meter. Main technical characteristics of the equipment are the following: frequency range f=0,1...70 MHz; the maximum sensitivity of Emin=0,1 µv/m; the range of frequency of N&=0...20 kHz.

Table
Physico-mechanical parameters of rocks
Breed typeThe layer thickness, mDensity, γ, t/m3yThe coefficient of internal friction tgϕThe clutch k, MPa
Siltstone154,30,453,5
Coal2,11,870,532,7
Siltstone2,53,70,473,7
Sandstone126,10,656,7

When all of the consumers of the background radiation level was at a frequency f=1 MHz N&f=32 Hz. Calibration curves obtained by using intrinsically the CSOs simulator (relays with switching frequency, N &=0.2 kg), is lowered into the well on desyatnik rods, shown in figure 4.

Measuring the profile of Oh showed that in the interval x1x2=60 m level N&ranged from 70 to 200 Hz (figure 2). In this interval with a step Δx=10 m conducted additional measurements at frequencies f2=0.1 MHz and f1=1.0 MHz. The measurement results are the following:

x, m0102030405060
E2/E11,711,511,852,112,772,652,75

The results of calculations of h on the graph in figure 4 when f1/f2=10 and η according to equation (1) using specific values of h(x) and the data table. presented in figure 3. In the forecast it is established that the minimum value of the coefficient of stability margin amounted to ηmin=1,07 that indicates a high probability of landslide at the time of the forecast and the need to strengthen this area.

Application of the proposed method improves the accuracy of prediction of stability of the pit due to more accurate determination of the phase of development of the landslide and the location of the least stable area.

p>

1. The way of forecasting the stability of the slopes of the pitwall, including the analysis of the geological structure of the array by identifying the potential sliding surface, the definition of electrical and physico-mechanical properties of the array, geophysical measurements on the profile parallel to the edge of the ledge in its average width area, the forecast based on the depth measurements of the potential sliding surface, the calculation of safety factors of stability of sections of the ledge on the value of restraint moments and shear forces using data on the geological structure of the array, the mechanical properties of the rocks and changing the depth of the sliding surface, characterized in that along the profile ledge produce a measurement of the pulse repetition frequency natural electromagnetic radiation, intervals where the frequency exceeds the background radiation levels more than 2 times, produce interval measure ratio of levels of electric field intensity signal E1/E2the operating frequencies, respectively, f1and f2calculate the depth of the potential sliding surface according to the formula

where K is a constant that depends on the electrical and magnetic properties of the array are determined will prefix enom stage forecast

calculate the values of the coefficients of the stability margin, the minimum values are judgments about the probability of development of a landslide.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the measurement of the pulse repetition frequency natural electromagnetic radiation produced when the objects of consumption.



 

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6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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