Fuel briquet and a method for fabrication thereof

FIELD: alternate solid fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of solid fuel briquettes mainly consisting of carbon-containing materials fabricated with the aid of organic or mineral binder. Method of invention comprises breaking coal, binder, and catalyst (alkali metal salts) to particle size not larger than 100 μm, mixing them with water, briquetting, and drying briquettes. According to invention, coal is preliminarily baked under anaerobic conditions at temperature not exceeding 1000°C and liquid component is prepared by first mixing broken binder (5-25%) and catalyst (3-20%) with water (60-90%) and thus prepared mix is further mixed with crushed coal at weight ratio (60-90):(15-35). Fuel briquette itself is also disclosed containing 14-28% water, 3-8% binder reduced to particle size not larger than 100 μm, 1-5% catalyst, and baked coal. As a result, compression strength and resistance to abrasion of fuel briquettes are increased by 1.2 and 1.5 times, respectively.

EFFECT: increased strength of briquettes and achieved flameless burning thereof.

16 cl, 3 dwg, 10 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of solid fuel briquettes, consisting mainly of carbonaceous materials and is industrially applicable during briquetting with organic and inorganic binders.

Known fuel briquette containing solid fuel and binder [USSR Author's certificate No. 66699, 1947].

The disadvantage of this briquette are insufficient strength, burning with an open flame.

Closest to the claimed is known fuel briquette containing solid fuel and binder [RF Patent №2147029, IPC With 10 L 5/12, 2000].

The disadvantage of this closest analogue are insufficient strength and burning open flame.

The known method for the production of fuel briquettes, comprising mixing solid fuel with catalyst and briquetting the mixture [Ravich MB flameless Surface combustion. M-Leningrad, Izd-vo an SSSR, 1949, s-279].

The disadvantage of this method is insufficient strength and burning open flame obtained with its use of brick.

Closest to the claimed is a method of obtaining fuel briquettes by mixing the coal particles with a mixture of powdered binder with a catalyst and water, with the possibility of the process of mixing at a temperature from normal to 96°S. This way we obtain toplivnyy briquette, containing 1-8 parts catalyst, 3-10 parts of the organic binder, 40-70 water per 100 parts of coal particles in the size of solid particles 5-100 microns (US 3173769, C 10 L 5/04, 16.03.1965). As a catalyst can be used alkali metal salts. As a binder can be used molasses, starch and other

The disadvantage of this method is insufficient strength and burning open flame obtained with its use of brick.

Using the proposed invention solves the technical problem of increasing the strength of the solid fuel briquette and providing combustion without flame.

The problem is solved by a method for the production of fuel briquettes, including the grinding of coal, binder and catalyst and mixed with water, briquetting the mixture and drying the briquettes before grinding coal annealed in oxygen at a temperature of not more than 1000°With, prepare a liquid component by mixing powdered binder and catalyst with water at a temperature of from 70 to 90°in the following ratio, wt.%:

binderfrom 5 to 25
catalystfrom 3 to 20
waterfrom 60 to 90

then the liquid component is mixed with the crushed coal in the ratio is AI, wt.%:

coalfrom 60 to 90
the liquid componentfrom 15 to 35

moreover, carbon, binder and catalyst is crushed to particle sizes less than 100 microns, and as a catalyst for use salts of alkali metals.

At the beginning of the coal can be separated by screening particle size of no more than 5 mm after dropping out from coal can be separated impurities by flotation. While coal can be split to obtain a particle size of not more than 5 mm.

Before grinding the catalyst can be split to obtain a particle size of not more than 5 mm.

The liquid component can be obtained by mixing powdered binder and catalyst with water. This powdered binder and catalyst can be mixed with water using a sealed vibration mill.

Mixture for briquetting can be obtained by mixing the liquid component with crushed coal. When this liquid component with crushed coal can be mixed with pressurized vibration mill.

Mixture for briquetting can be obtained by mixing the liquid component with crushed coal at a temperature of from 30 to 70°C.

Briquetting the mixture can be carried out at a temperature of from 10 to 50°C. When brication is the mixture can be performed using a hydraulic press or extruder.

Drying of the briquettes can be performed at a temperature of from 100 to 150°C.

As the catalyst can be any alkali metal salts, both organic and inorganic, or a mixture thereof, but it is preferable to use salts of sodium and/or potassium.

As a binder can be used any known in this area of the binder, for example, selected from the group lignosulfonate, taly peck, cellulose, nutrigation silicate, carbomer, synthetic wax, paraffin, paraffin GAC, cement, clay, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, a mixture of lime with flour, mix lime with starch, or any mixture.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the fuel briquette contains a mixture of crushed coal, binder and catalyst, and water, and use coal, annealed without access of air at a temperature of not more than 1000°With, in the following ratio, wt.%:

catalyst1-5
binder3-8
water14-28
annealed coalrest

the sizes of the solid component in the mixture does not exceed 100 microns.

As the catalyst can be any alkali metal salts, as organic the ski, and inorganic, or a mixture thereof, but it is preferable to use salts of sodium and/or potassium.

As a binder can be used any known in this area of the binder, for example, selected from the group lignosulfonate, taly peck, cellulose, nutrigation silicate, carbomer, synthetic wax, paraffin, paraffin GAC, cement, clay, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, a mixture of lime with flour, mix lime with starch, or any mixture.

The claimed invention are substance and the method of its production, so they are bound form a single inventive concept.

The invention is illustrated figure 1-3, which depicts a block diagram of equipment for areas of primary processing of raw materials (figure 1), the preparation of the working mixture (figure 2) and the manufacture of briquettes (figure 3).

The site of the primary processing of raw materials (figure 1) contains a hopper 1 for raw coal receiving hopper 2 for raw catalyst and a hopper 3 for raw binder. Raw coal from the hopper 1 is fed into the screening device 4, where the screenings of coal particles with sizes less than 5 mm Disqualified particles act in the bunker coal 5. The remaining coal typically contains impurities are sequentially supplied to the hopper 6 of the crude coal, the device 7 for flotation purification from impurities, bunker 8 cleared the CSOs coal, the crushing device 9 and, finally, into the hopper of coal 5. From the hopper 5, the coal is fed into the grinding device 10, and then in the form of coal semi - finished products-on the site of preparation of the working mixture (figure 2).

Raw catalyst from the hopper 2 is fed into the crushing device 11, then the grinding device 12 and later in the form of semi-finished catalyst is in the area of preparation of the working mixture (figure 2).

Raw binder from the hopper 3 is fed into the grinding device 13 and later in the form of prefabricated binding to a site of preparation of the working mixture (figure 2).

On the site of preparation of the working mixture (figure 2) coal semi-finished product is delivered consistently in a bunker coal 14, weight feeder 15 and the adder 16. Prefabricated catalyst is fed sequentially into the bunker of the catalyst 17, the weight of the dispenser 18 and the heated mixer liquid component 19. Prefabricated binder is fed sequentially into the hopper of the binder 20, the weight of the dispenser 21 and heated mixer liquid component 19. Water from the tank 22 is fed in weight feeder 23 and then into a heated mixer liquid component 19.

From heated mixer 19 of the liquid component is supplied to the weighing dispenser 24 and then into the mixer 16 from which the mixture is fed into the hopper 25 and then to the site of manufacture of briquettes (figure 3).

On the site manufacture of the population briquettes (figure 3) working mixture from the hopper 26 is fed to the briquetting unit 27. After laying bricks on the stack 28 and they come in a drying unit 29.

Example 1. As the solid fuel briquette use a mixture of crushed coal, binder, catalyst and water, which are prepared in the form of two components. The first component is a dry coal. The second liquid mixture.

From the original trademark of birch charcoal, manufactured in accordance with GOST and supplied in bags, separated by screening a particle size of not more than 5 mm After dropout separate random inorganic impurities by flotation. Then all the coal annealed in oxygen at a temperature of 900°and crushed to produce particles of a size not more than 5 mm, the First component is produced by grinding cooked coal using sealed vibration mill to particle sizes less than 100 microns.

Binder and catalyst pre-crushed to produce particles less than 5 mm and then for grinding and subsequent cooking liquid components by mixing load these components in the cavity is sealed vibration mill sequentially, first the solid components (catalyst and binder), and then, after their joint grinding, pour water heated to 100°C.

To obtain a fuel mixture in the cavity is sealed vibration mill with a liquid component when the fact is the temperature value 50° With fall asleep crushed coal. Briquetting fuel mixture at a relative humidity of a mixture of 20% is carried out using an extruder, and at a humidity of 7% with the help of a hydraulic press with exposure time compression to stabilize the movement of the punch (the moving speed of 0.5 mm/min). Drying of the briquettes is carried out at a temperature of 125°C.

Example 2. In the conditions of example 1 drying of the briquettes is carried out in a microwave oven at a density energy input in relation to the total volume of the briquettes in the oven chamber 40 W/cm3.

Example 3. In the conditions of example 1 is used as a lignosulfonate binder, supplied in powder form. The content of the lignosulfonate in the liquid mixture of 7%, the content of the catalyst is potassium chloride 4%, the rest water. In the fuel mixture, the content of solid and liquid components is 70% and 30%, respectively. The strength of the briquette compression is 75 kg/see

Example 4. In the conditions of example 1 as a binder used nutrigation silicate (silicate-block - waste glass production). Liquid glass - water solution nutrigation silicate with a water content of 10%. In the liquid mixture with the use of silicate-blocks that are supplied in the form of plates, which must be split, the ratio of the weights of the hydrosilicate and water 1:6, when using liquid glass, the ratio of the weights of the liquid article is Klah and water 1: 5. As catalyst, use sodium bicarbonate. In the fuel mixture, the content of solid and liquid components is 85% and 15%. The strength of the briquette compression is 100 kg/see

Example 5. In the conditions of example 1 as a binder used carbomer in the form of glue CMC (carboxymethylcellulose). In the liquid mixture ratio of CMC-the catalyst (a mixture of carbonates of sodium and potassium)-water = 6%-4%-90%. In the fuel mixture, the content of solid and liquid components is 80% and 20%. The strength of the briquette compression is 80 kg/see

Example 6. In the conditions of example 1 as a binder a mixture of lime and flour. The weight proportion of lime and flour in a component of a liquid mixture of 50% and 50%, respectively. To prepare a liquid mixture taken as the ratio of the weights of binder-catalyst (sodium nitrate)-water = 8%-4%-88%. In the fuel mixture, the content of solid and liquid components is 75% and 25%. The strength of the briquette compression is 85 kg/see

Example 7. In the conditions of example 1 as a binder a mixture of lime and starch. The weight proportion of lime and starch in the composition of the binder is 50% and 50%. To prepare a liquid mixture taken as the ratio of the weights of binder-catalyst (lithium sulfate)-water = 8%-4%-88%. The content of solid and liquid components is 75% and 25%. The strength of the briquette compression is 85 kg/see

Example 8. In usloviahlinim 1 as a binder used Bustilat. To prepare a liquid mixture taken as the ratio of the weights of binder-catalyst (a mixture of sodium chloride and potassium)-water = 6%-4%-90%. The content of solid and liquid components is 80% and 20%. The strength of the briquette compression is 90 kg/cm

Example 9. In the conditions of example 1 as catalyst, use the baking soda content in the composition of the liquid mixture is 4%, and the binder - paraffin GAC. The strength of the briquette compression is 75 kg/see

Example 10. In the conditions of example 1 as catalyst using sodium salt of carbonic acid, the content of which in the composition of the liquid mixture is 4%, and the binder - taly peck. The strength of the briquette compression is 75 kg/see Experiments showed that in all the examples of embodiment of the fuel briquette burns to produce heat without smoke, but no flame. This ensures that heat transfer from the burning surface of the briquette infracrustal radiation at wavelengths 7-24 μm. It is energetically advantageous, because there is no loss of energy to heat air that is transparent at these wavelengths. When this air is transparent to such heat flow. At the same time, this radiation corresponds to the maximum absorption of radiant energy of solid bodies, the human body and organic products of plant or animal origin.

<> No open flame eliminates the ignition when nabryzgivanii on the surface of the burning briquettes such liquids as gasoline, alcohol, acetone, etc. This ensures the safe use of fuel briquettes for heating automobile engines, gas valves and related devices. The duration of the process flameless combustion ceteris paribus (the geometric dimensions of the fuel, its density, size of the burning surface, the thickness of the burning vault) you can adjust the flow applied to the briquette air, allowing you to burn even a single briquette very small size.

The tests showed that, compared with the nearest similar when used as a binder liquid glass or silicate-block durability of the fuel pellet crush strength is increased 1.5 times, and abrasion - 2 times. When used as a binder mixtures of flour and starch from the lime durability of the fuel pellet crush strength increases by a factor of 1.2, and rubbing 1.5 times.

1. Method of producing fuel briquettes, including the grinding of coal, binder and catalyst salts of alkali metals to particle sizes less than 100 microns, and their mixing with water, briquetting the mixture and drying of the briquettes, characterized in that before grinding coal annealed without access to the PA air at a temperature of not more than 1000° With, prepare a liquid component by mixing powdered binder and catalyst with water at a temperature of from 70 to 90°in the following ratio, wt.%:

Binder5-25
Catalyst3-20
Water60-90

then the liquid component is mixed with the crushed coal in the following ratio, wt.%:

Coal60-90
The liquid component15-35

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the beginning of the coal is separated by screening particle size of no more than 5 mm

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after dropping out from the coal is separated impurities by flotation.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the coal is crushed to obtain particles with a size of not more than 5 mm.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before chopping the catalyst was crushed to obtain particles with a size of not more than 5 mm.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the liquid component obtained by mixing powdered binder and catalyst with water.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the powdered binder and the catalyst is mixed with water using sealed the vibrating mill.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture to be briquetted is obtained by mixing the liquid component with crushed coal.

9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the liquid component with the crushed coal is mixed with pressurized vibration mill.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture to be briquetted is obtained by mixing the liquid component with crushed coal at a temperature of from 30 to 70°C.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the briquetting mixture is carried out at a temperature of from 10 to 50°C.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the briquetting mixture is carried out using a hydraulic press.

13. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the briquetting mixture is carried out using an extruder.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drying of the briquettes is carried out at a temperature of from 100 to 150°C.

15. Fuel briquettes containing a mixture of crushed coal, binder and catalyst salts of alkali metals to the size of the particles is not more than 100 μm, and water, characterized in that the mixture contains carbon, annealed without access of air at a temperature of not more than 1000°With, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Catalyst1-5
Binder3-8
Water 14-28
Annealed coalRest

16. Briquettes at 15, characterized in that alkali metal salts includes salts of potassium and/or sodium.



 

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