Method of and complex for dimensional checking of train parts on the run

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices for technological control. According to proposed method of dimensional checking of train parts on the run, rails are used as guide members setting trajectory of movement of part under checking, and also data processing system, optical measuring system whose distance pickups consist of radiator and receiver designed for recording backscattered radiation. Measuring pickups are arranged in space at both sides relative to guide member on additional vibration-isolating base, measuring system is secured stationary, moment of train approaching is recorded and identification of car is carried out, measuring pickups are calibrated, measuring pickups are synchronized with guide member position pickups and moment of intersection of area of measurement by part is determined. Moment of intersection of area of measurement by part is determined in one and the same position of part relative to guide member. Then measured surface of part is scanned in direction of part movement, measurement is done along line of scanning in one direction, data are gathered and processed taking into account weight of car, corresponding deflection of rail and speed of train. When processing the data, angle of attack of wheel on rail and deformation of rail at moment of taking of measurement are taken into account additionally, the moment id recorded when part under measurement leaves area of measurement, and required parameters of part are determined. According to invention, complex of dimensional checking of train parts on the run includes train approach moment pickup, pickup recording moment when part under measurement leaves are of measurement, vibration-isolating base for fastening the pickups, pickup determining position of part relative to guide member and synchronizing device for time gating of readings of all pickups. Optical measuring pickups are arranged in space at different sides of guide member, are provided with calibration device and made for scanning all surface of part to be measured. Receiver of distance pickups is provided with at least one quick-acting position sensitive photodetector. Rail displacement pickup is made with possibility of checking deformation of rail.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, to methods and devices process control, namely the measurement of geometrical parameters, detection of wear and defects of solid-rolled wheels of a moving train, the fault wheelset and rapid transmission of information on the nearest service points.

Currently, there are a significant number of devices designed to control the geometric parameters of the wagon wheels. We will not be considered for comparison of different devices using contact sensors. Because all systems using contact sensors have a very significant drawback - low performance, and they run at speeds of up to 20 km/h. Systems using non-optical contactless sensors (e.g. ultrasonic sensors, inductive, capacitive, and so on) or have low accuracy, or can measure a very limited number of parameters. For measuring geometrical parameters of the various parts when the motion seem the most promising system using non-contact optical sensors. The closest analogues, uses non-contact optical sensors, from our point of view are the following.

The known method and device is the quiet based on the use of non-contact optical sensors (U.S. Patent No. 5247338, IPC G 01 11/24, priority from 14.04.1989, publ. 21.09.1993). The method includes scanning the surface of a passing wagon wheel light from the emitter and the recovery of the geometric parameters of the scanned surface characteristics of the reflected radiation. The device includes a lighting module with its light source and an optical system that transmits light on the profile of the wheels, the scanning module including the scanning unit reflected from the surface and light transmission unit signal scanning module and a data processing module to reduce the amount of calculations and a module for determining the actual position of the wheel relative to the rail trajectory for the registration of the profile of the wheel structure. Sensors in the known method and device, operate using the mirror reflection profile recorded in each moment of time only one sensor.

The disadvantages of this method and device are the following: the principle of specular reflection leads to the loss of part of the data (i.e., the measurement results will be incomplete), and the absence of the second sensor does not allow to measure such important, from the standpoint of safe operation, parameters such as the thickness of the ridge and the thickness of the rim.

The known method of monitoring the geometric parameters of the wheelset and its spatial floor is the position relative to the path, including irradiation wheel light source, the reception pattern of the reflection control the height of the beams above the rail heads, the spatial transformation of the totality of the received light spots in the information about the geometrical parameters of the individual fragments of the profiles of the left and right wheels (Patent of Russia 2180300, 61 K 9/12, priority from 20.06.2000, publ. 10.03.2002).

The disadvantages of this method are the lack of accuracy related to the fact that is not taken into account the deflection of the rail and there is no preliminary calibration of the measurement system, and there is no fixing the beginning and end of measurement.

The known method and device for determining the profile of the wheels passing train wheels by scanning, which is taken as a prototype. (U.S. patent No. 4932784, MKI In a 61 K 9/12, priority from 13.10.1986 published 12.06.1990). In this known method uses rails as the guide element, define the path of forward movement of controlled items, the data processing system of the optical measuring system, distance sensors which consist of an emitter, a receiver and device registration. The measuring system is fixed motionless, produce the identity of the car, determine the point of intersection detail area measurement, scanning the measured surface details about Westlaw in the direction of the translational-rotational movement of the latter, the measurement is made on the scanning lines in one direction. Collect and process data, given the weight of the car, the corresponding deflection of the rail and the train speed, define the required parameters.

The known device includes a guide element, which can be used rails, the data processing system of the optical measuring system, distance sensors which are located on one side of the wheel and consist of an emitter, a receiver and device registration. The known device also includes a displacement sensor rail, the identification system of the car, the gauge fixing of the point of intersection of the wheel measured area and the site determine the speed of movement.

A disadvantage of the known method and device is not accurate, due to the fact that you cannot fully restore the required parameters of the measured items, such as the profile of the wheel, since the scanning is made by the sensors located on one side of the guide element. And there is no way define some important terms of safety parameters of the part being measured, for example, with large errors is determined by the angle of crowding of wheels on the rail, with large errors recovering shape of the wheel flange, and therefore, in this case, now what should accurately calculate such important parameter, as the thickness of the ridge. In addition, the final accuracy of the obtained results on the thickness of the rim is also insufficient, especially in case of high speeds, due to the lack of synchronization in time readings from various sensors included in the complex.

The authors sought to develop a method for dimensional inspection of parts of the rolling stock and complex for its implementation, which would allow measurement of a moving train with high precision, to consider the factors affecting the accuracy of the measurement, which allows you to restore the profile of the part being measured and to determine the parameters of any point on the surface.

The problem is solved in that in the method for dimensional inspection of rolling stock parts on a moving train, which use the rails as a guide element, define the path of movement of controlled items, the data processing system of the optical measuring system, distance sensors which consist of a transmitter and a receiver designed for the reception back-scattered radiation, the measuring sensors are placed in the space on both sides relative to the guide element for additional vibration insulating base, fixed measuring system still fix the display time of the approaching train, spend the identification of the car, to calibrate the measuring sensors are synchronized sensors and position sensors guide element, determine the moment of crossing the detail of the measurement, determination of the point of intersection detail the measurement is performed at the same position relative to the guide element, scan the surface to be measured of the workpiece in the direction of movement of the latter, carried out the measurement of scanning lines in one direction, collect and process data, given the weight of the car, the corresponding deflection of the rail and the train speed, when processing data in addition take into account the angle of attack of the wheel on the rail, the deformation of the rail at the time of the specific measure, record time leaving oblireemo detail the measurement, determine the necessary parameters of the items.

Complex dimensional inspection of rolling stock parts on a moving train, including at least two guide element, which can be used rails, the data processing system, an optical measurement system comprising at least two proximity sensor, consisting of an emitter, a receiver and a device designed to register back-scattered radiation, at least two displacement sensor rail, the system ID is tificatio car at least two sensor fixing the moment of crossing the detail of the measured area, the site determine the speed, equipped with an additional sensor for determining the moment of approaching trains, the sensor fixing upon leaving a particular oblireemo detail the measurement, vibration control base to fasten the sensors, the sensor determining the position of the workpiece relative to the guide element, device synchronization for Gating time readings of all sensors, optical sensors are located in the space on opposite sides of the guide element and is made containing the calibration device with the ability to scan the entire surface of the part being measured, the receiving device distance sensing is performed using at least one high-speed positioncustomer solar cell, and the displacement sensor rail made with the ability to determine the deformation of the latter.

The technical effect of the invention is high-value, high-speed measurement, the ability to work under natural conditions, expanding the range of measured parameters.

The invention is illustrated by the flowchart shown in the drawing, where 1 is the distance sensors external; 2 - temperature sensor; 3 - sensors the Sam is an economic internal; 4 - sensors fixing point of intersection of the wheel measured in the field; 5 - system identification wagon; 6 - device synchronization; 7 - data processing system; 8 - displacement sensor rail; 9 - position sensor wheel relative to the rail; 10 - sensor determining when approaching trains; 11 - guide element; 12 - vibration-insulating base.

In the basis of technical solutions for the control of geometrical parameters of rolling stock parts on the principle of self-scanning items using a set of distance sensors using the principle of triangulation. Each sensor consists of a transmitter and a receiver designed for the reception back-scattered radiation. Almoraima item, such as a wheel, in the measurement process in parallel and independently scanned the two distance sensors, internal and external. The location of the sensors in space relative to the guide element is set to the scanning line. Choose the location of the sensors, and hence the scan line, is to have complete information about all oberaich elements. In the scan result, there is a set (series) of data received from each sensor, and each number of the series represents the distance from the sensor to the point of intersection of the beam emitter with almoraima the item at a specific point in time. Sensor max TWAIN synchronizes with the synchronization device so that the measurement distance to the workpiece at each point are two sensors at exactly the same time. For example, in the case of obmerivanie wheel further joint processing of data from the two sensors allows to determine parameters such as the profile of the roll surface in the reference frame of the wheel, the diameter of the wheel tread surface, the thickness of the ridge and the thickness of the wheel rim, and calculate values for the other required geometrical parameters.

The results of measurement of the geometric parameters of parts passing of the composition are accumulated in the database of the data processing system and subsequently transmitted over TCP/IP in ACS VET operator safety, where the identification results, the binding of the measurement results to a specific car and, if necessary, identification of cars confirmed by comparing with the image from the camera, which is equipped with a complex.

The system is activated when a signal from the sensor determining when approaching trains. After this occurs, the calibration of the sensors range.

When the movement of trains is controlled item, such as the wheel moves along a trajectory, fixed guiding element, for example, by rail. On both sides of the rail layout the proposed optical distance sensors. At some point in time during movement of the workpiece along the guide element, the sensor triggers the commit point of intersection of the measured area. The sensor is always in the same position of the workpiece relative to the guide element. The signal sensor of the point of intersection detail of measured field data with optical distance sensors start to act in a data processing system. The distance to the moving surface of the test object is measured with great frequency. This frequency is set by the operation of the synchronization system. The movement of controlled items during the time between two consecutive measurements must be less than or of order the required measurement accuracy. Measuring distances with every single act of measurement is to the point of the surface of the inspected items, in which the time dimension gets light emitter that is part of the proximity sensor. When the translational-rotational motion of a part of the beam emitter describes on its surface a certain trajectory. And distance measurements are made to various points on the surface lying on this path. Thus, there is a process of self-scanning. Measurements of distances from all optical triangulation sensors are accumulated in the data processing system. From erenia maintained until while the item moving along the guiding element, not across the switching point of the second sensor fixing point of intersection of the wheel measured in the field. As known, the trajectory of the controlled items - it sets a guiding element, you know the exact location of the sensors distances in space - sensors are arranged rigidly on the vibration-insulating base we can recover the trajectory of the beam in the testing part. We know the speed of movement of the parts - it is calculated from the known distance between the two sensors fixing point of intersection of the wheel measured area, which is rigidly mounted on the guide element, and the time between actuation of these two sensors. Knowing the time, which produced each dimension, the trajectory of the beam in the testing part, we can map each value of the measured distances to a specific point on the surface of the inspected part. Then restored the specific geometrical parameters.

In the process of moving items on the guiding element, it can be deformed, for example, to bend, so the trajectory will be calculated with an error, and therefore, will be received erroneous values of the geometrical parameters of the part. To avoid these on the flexible part of the complex is entered sensors offset rail, which are mounted on the vibration-insulating base, so their position is strictly set in space, and the position sensor distance, and this allows us to obtain the trajectory of the controlled parts more accurately and, therefore, increase the accuracy of measurements. With the introduction of the amendments, obtained after processing the data from the displacement sensor rail, it is necessary that their readings were synchronized with the sensor reading distances, so each reading sensor distance is set in accordance to their reading of the displacement sensors of the rail.

Advantages of the claimed invention is as follows

1. Due to the location of the sensors on opposite sides of the test items scanned the entire surface of the part (not remains shaded areas).

2. The location of the at least two sensors on opposite sides of the part, such as wheels, can determine the angle of crowding of wheels on the rail with sufficient accuracy, which reduces the uncertainty of measurements of controlled parameters.

3. The location of the at least two sensors on opposite sides of the part, such as a wheel, allows you to define parameters such as the thickness of the rim and the thickness of the ridge with sufficient accuracy.

4. The location of two measurements mitchiko is on the vibration-insulating base allows you to know their position in space with any given accuracy, that significantly improves the accuracy of the measurements.

5. The position of the measuring sensors of the vibration-insulating base prevents exposure to shock loads, which increases the reliability of operation of the complex.

6. The presence of the calibration system comprising sensors distance allows you to define individual settings for each sensor directly at the time of measurement, which increases the accuracy of the data.

7. The presence of a synchronization system for synchronizing the operation of the distance sensors, position sensors of the wheel relative to the rail and sensor offset rail allows you to determine the true position of the test items in each moment of time, which increases the accuracy of the measurements.

1. Method for dimensional inspection of rolling stock parts on a moving train, which use the rails as a guide element, define the path of movement of controlled items, the data processing system of the optical measuring system, distance sensors which consist of a transmitter and a receiver designed for the reception back-scattered radiation, the measuring sensors are placed in the space on both sides relative to the guide element for additional vibration insulating base, fixed measuring system still fix m is the moment of approach of a train, spend the identification of the car, to calibrate the measuring sensors are synchronized sensors and position sensors guide element, determine the moment of crossing the detail of the measurement, determination of the point of intersection detail the measurement is performed at the same position relative to the guide element, scan the surface to be measured of the workpiece in the direction of movement of the latter, carried out the measurement of scanning lines in one direction, collect and process data, given the weight of the car, the corresponding deflection of the rail and the train speed, when processing data in addition take into account the angle of attack of the wheel on the rail, the deformation of the rail at the time of the specific measure, record time leaving oblireemo detail the measurement, determine the necessary parameters of the items.

2. Complex dimensional inspection of rolling stock parts on a moving train, including at least two guide element, which can be used rails, the data processing system, an optical measurement system comprising at least two proximity sensor, consisting of a transmitter and a receiver designed for the reception back-scattered radiation, at least two displacement sensor rail, system identification, and car at least two sensor fixing the moment of crossing the detail of the measured area, the site determine the speed of movement, characterized in that it further has a sensor for determining the moment of approaching trains, the sensor fixing upon leaving a particular oblireemo detail the measurement, vibration control base to fasten the sensors, the sensor determining the position of the workpiece relative to the guide element, device synchronization for Gating time readings of all sensors, optical sensors are located in the space on opposite sides of the guide element is made containing the calibration device with the ability to scan the entire surface of the part being measured, the receiving device distance sensing is performed using at least one high-speed position-sensitive solar cell, and the displacement sensor rail is arranged to determine the deformation of the latter.



 

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