Coaxial jet nozzle

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: coaxial jet nozzle comprises hollow tip that connects the space of one of the fuel components with the combustion zone and bushing that embraces the tip to define a ring space and connects the space of the other fuel component with the combustion zone. The exit section of the tip is provided with the radial grooves so that the periphery of the central jet bounded by the generatrices of the beams is no more than 3s, and the beam length is 2.3-2.5s, where s is the beam thickness.

EFFECT: enhanced completeness of combustion.

1 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of power plants, namely to devices for mixing and atomization of the fuel components, and can be used in the design of nozzles and the mixing head of liquid rocket engines (LRE).

One of the main problems when creating a device for mixing and atomization of the fuel components is to ensure the highest possible completeness of combustion of the components that is provided by increasing the surface area of contact between the components and the reduction of the characteristic transverse size of the bead of one of the components. In known injectors to fulfill these conditions leads to considerable complication of the structure.

Known coaxial coaxial-jet nozzle containing the tip in the form of a hollow cylinder, which connects the cavity of the liquid oxidizer to the combustion zone (the cavity of the combustion chamber), a sleeve with a cylindrical inner surface, covering with a gap tip and connecting the cavity of the gaseous fuel with the combustion zone (Wealeyan and other Theory of rocket engines. Textbook for students of engineering specialties, M.: engineering, 1980, RES, s-226). In this nozzle the oxidizer is fed into the combustion zone through the axial channel within the handpiece, and fuel - annular space between the liners is Oh and tip. At the exit of the nozzle jet of oxidizer has the shape of a solid cone, facing the top to the tip of the nozzle and jet fuel - the form of a hollow cone. The contact of the fuel and oxidizer occurs on the surface of a solid cone. Such filing does not provide quality spray propellants, which leads to the reduction of combustion of the fuel, and, accordingly, the loss of specific impulse.

Known coaxial-jet nozzle, containing a hollow tip, which connects the cavity of one component of the fuel with the combustion zone, the sleeve covering a gap tip and connecting the cavity of another component of the fuel with the combustion zone, while in the output part of the tip is made of radially spaced grooves, and the inner surface of the sleeve is made equidistant profiled outer surface of the grooves of the tip (patent RF №2161719 from 23.02.99 - prototype).

An increase in the completeness of mixing the use of these nozzles is due to the profiling output side of the jet, increasing the perimeter of the contact components and reducing the length of the undecayed part of the stream.

Currently, the most fully explored nozzle with a tip with four rays, the so-called "crusade"that explains quite a high adaptability and neznachitel the major growth of its dimensions when profiling the tip.

At the same time, it should be noted that, despite the simplicity of the design and manufacturing technology, with four rays in the stream of oxidant remains quite pronounced Central part.

This change of shape of the output section, with all on four-beam, on the one hand, allows to improve the conditions of destruction of the jet compared to the nozzle with a round jet, on the other - there was a fairly pronounced Central part of the jet does not allow to fully realize the advantages of this solution.

The objective of the invention is to increase the completeness of combustion of the fuel components by giving the output side of the jet forms a profiled cross-section without a pronounced Central part and determine the ratio between the area of the Central part of the jet, square beams that can produce the maximum possible perimeter of the contact components in the transformation of circular cross section in profile.

This object is achieved in that in a coaxial-jet injector, containing a hollow tip in the output part of which is made radially spaced grooves, and connecting the cavity of one component of the fuel with the combustion zone, the sleeve covering a gap tip and connecting the cavity of another component of the fuel with the combustion zone, and according to the finding, radially spaced grooves are designed so that the perimeter of the Central part of the jet, a limited form of rays is not more than 3s, and the length of the beam - 2,3...2,5s, where s is the thickness of the beam.

The execution of the perimeter of the Central part of the jet with a diameter greater than 3s leads to the appearance of the Central part of the jet, which worsens the conditions of its destruction, and running the length of the beam with a length of more than 2.3...2,5s leads to higher dimensions of the nozzle.

Comparative analysis of the claimed invention with the prototype and other known solutions in this field of technology has shown that outlined a set of features not known from the existing art, on the basis of what can be concluded about the technical solutions according to the criteria of the invention of "novelty."

In the analysis of other known technical solutions in the art, the features distinguishing the claimed invention from the prototype, have not been identified and outlined a set of features not obvious to a person skilled from the current level of technology that allows to make a conclusion on the conformity of the proposed technical solution the criterion of "inventive step".

The proposed technical solution the criterion of "industrial applicability" follows from the following specific example coaxial-jet forsun is.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows an axial section of the proposed nozzle, figure 2 - cross section of the outlet part of the specified coaxial-jet nozzle with a three-beam output part of the tip, figure 3 - cross section for all three - and four-ray jets of equal cross-sectional area.

The primary components of the proposed coaxial coaxial-jet nozzles are:

1 - hollow tip;

2 is an axial channel;

3 - radial grooves;

4 - ring gap;

5 - Bush.

As shown in figure 1, the coaxial jet nozzle includes a hollow tip 1, with the axial channel 2 inside of it, which connects the cavity of the oxidant with the cavity of the combustion chamber. In the output part of the tip is made of radially spaced grooves 3. On the tip 1 with the annular gap 4 is installed sleeve 5, which connects the fuel cavity with the cavity of the combustion chamber.

The offered nozzle is as follows. The oxidizing agent from the cavity of the oxidant on the axial channel 2 inside the handpiece 1 is fed into the combustion chamber. At the location of the radial grooves 3 a jet of oxidizer takes the form of the output section of the tip, in this case the form of radial grooves 3, which leads to a change in cross-sectional shape of the jet and increase the perimeter of the contact at a constant square is square in cross section.

Changing the shape of the jet of oxidizer with a round on the three-pointed star at a constant outlet cross section improves the conditions for the destruction of the jet, allows to reduce the characteristic transverse size of the stream and the length of undecayed part of the jet. Therefore, at the exit of the tip jet of oxidizer is more prone to losing its integrity and decays faster. Such effects on stream allows you to improve mixing of the components in all modes.

Fuel from the fuel cavity through the gap 4 between the tip 1 and the sleeve 5 is fed into the combustion zone.

Analytical studies have shown that for nozzles with four beams, the area of the Central part of the jet more 1.9-2 times in comparison with the area of the Central part of the jet nozzle with three rays for the case with smooth radii transitions and to 1.9 to 2.3 for the case of rectilinear sections, which allows to make a conclusion about the benefits of the nozzle outlet cross-section with three rays.

The area of the Central part of the three-beam of the jet relative to the outlet cross section of the jet reference nozzle with a round tip is (0,11-0,15)Feand four-beam - (0,22-0,30)Fe.

Based on the results of analytical studies established that for nozzles with shaped tip with three ribs at Prime the p contact increases with P=1P ewhere: Pe- the perimeter of the contact components of the reference nozzle, up to P=(1,6 1,8...) Pein comparison with the reference nozzle, and nozzle shaped tip with four ribs - with N=1Peto P=(1,25...1,5)Pe.

Nozzles with shaped tip with five rays provide an increase in the perimeter of the contact of the component with N=1Peup to N=(1,1 1,3...) Pecompared to all the output section. While the cross-section of the jet has a pronounced Central part with a small rays that practically no effect on the disintegration of the jet.

Further increasing the number of rays more than three or four seems inappropriate, given the significant complexity of the technology and a minor effect or no from the profiling section.

The basic geometrical parameters for round jets and jets with three/four/five-beam tips when equal to the thickness of the beam is shown in the table.

The applicant was manufactured and tested prototypes of the proposed nozzles on the model of the oxygen-hydrogen cells.

Conducted analytical study was carried out based on the obtained experimental data showed that the aligned-jet nozzle with three radial slots in the output part of the tip has the fullness of cm is neobrazovana ϕ to=0,9985 that exceeds the value of this ratio is ϕto=0,997 injectors with four rays and ϕto=0,994 for the reference nozzle with a cylindrical tip and a cylindrical sleeve.

Table 1
A nozzle with a circular outlet sectionA nozzle with a profiled output section with three raysA nozzle with a profiled output section with four raysA nozzle with a profiled output section with five rays
The area of the jet of oxidizer outlet
The area of the Central part of the jet of oxidizer outlet
The perimeter of the contact componentsπ·d(1,6-1,8)π·d(1,25-1,5)π·d(1,1-1,3)π·d
Maximum overall size of the jet at the exit d(1,25-1,8)d(1,2-1,6)d(1.1 to 1.2)d
The length of the jet undecayed part liquidL(0,16-0,64)L(0,4-0,8)L(0,85-0,95)L

The use of these nozzles on the developed rocket engine to replace the nozzle with a cylindrical output surfaces will improve the value of specific impulse approximately (0.3 to 0.5)% and to provide the greatest possible completeness of mixing in the newly developed rocket engine.

The use of these nozzles is also advisable in an oxygen-methane rocket engine.

1. Coaxial-jet nozzle, containing a hollow tip in the output part of which is made radially spaced grooves, and connecting the cavity of one component of the fuel with the combustion zone, the sleeve covering a gap tip and connecting the cavity of another component of the fuel with the combustion zone, wherein the radially spaced grooves are designed so that the perimeter of the Central part of the jet, a limited form of rays is not more than 3s, and the length of the beam - 2,3÷2,5s, where s is the thickness of the beam.

2. Coaxial-jet nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of rays is equal to three.



 

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