Absorbing material and litter for animals
FIELD: veterinary science.
SUBSTANCE: absorbing material contains at least one calcium compound mixed with plant fibers, and dry residue of distillation of mother liquor delivered from enterprises for production of aqueous ammonia soda. Also described is method for utilization of aqueous ammonia solution. Said material is used for absorption of liquid from ground. Described in Specification is litter for animals comprising such a material having good absorbing capacity for absorption of animal's liquid excrements.
EFFECT: improved liquid absorbing capacity and mechanical strength, and reduced adherence to ground during utilization of litter made from such absorbing material.
The invention relates to absorbent materials intended for the absorption of liquids.
Solid absorbent materials find many uses in everyday life and in industry.
Absorbent materials in the form of powders or granules is particularly widely used in the manufacture of absorbent litter for animals, primarily domestic animals, such as cats and rodents. Properties that should be possessed by these litter, include, in particular, the absence of repulsive effects on the animals for which they are intended, good absorption of liquid animal manure without the formation of a suspension, a sufficient mechanical strength to withstand the weight of the animal, low average (apparent) volume weight and a weak tendency to stick to the ground during use.
Have been proposed various types of litter, but none of them had all of the given optimal properties.
Litter of the first type consist of pieces of porous mineral of volcanic origin. These known litter, as a rule, possess specified characteristics from the point of view of the average bulk density and the ability to stick to the ground. On the other hand, they have very weak capacity to absorb liquid animal excreta, which means that nedostatki is such litter is a big expense and the need for frequent changes.
Known litter of the second type consist of clays, such as bentonite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These known litter, usually have a low level of absorption liquid excrement of animals and tend to the formation of suspensions during use and to sticking to the ground, which makes them more difficult to remove after use.
Known litter of the third type are plant litter. Last used or for Pets, or livestock, usually made from wood chips or straw. The advantage of them is the low volume weight, but their efficiency upon absorption of liquid animal manure is low. In addition, they are expensive.
The objective of the invention is to create a solid absorbent material, which combines all preferred properties known absorbent materials described above, in the absence of their disadvantages.
Consequently, the invention relates to an absorbent material containing powder of inorganic material, which differs in that the inorganic material contains at least one calcium compound and mixed with vegetable fibers.
In an absorbent material according to the invention the inorganic material which contains, at least one calcium compound. It should be understood that the expression "the calcium compound" means any compound of calcium, which is essentially insoluble in liquids, which is suitable absorbent material. Preferably used is a compound of calcium, which, essentially, is chemically inert with respect to the specified fluids. Therefore, the choice of calcium will depend on the purpose of absorbent material, in particular from liquids, the absorption of which he must provide. Calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) are compounds of calcium, which is quite suitable in most cases, in particular, in the case where an inorganic material is designed to absorb liquid excrement such as urine. The preferred calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, in particular anhydrous calcium carbonate. Quite suitable ground limestone.
In addition to the calcium compound inorganic material can in a possible embodiment, but not necessarily, contain other inorganic compounds which are essentially free of calcium. Preferably they are compounds, insoluble in liquids, which is suitable absorbent material, and are preferably x is mikeski inert with respect to these liquids. In addition to calcium inorganic material preferably contains clay.
Inorganic material is present in powder form in an absorbent material. The optimum diameter of the powder particles is the result of a compromise between the desire for maximum ability to absorb liquids and ease of manipulation. As a rule, the optimum diameter of the powder particles will depend, in particular, calcium and when they are available, other inorganic compounds, in particular, from their bulk density. In practice, it is desirable that the powder had an average particle diameter of not less than 0,10 μm, preferably of not less than 1.00 micron. It is desirable that the average diameter of the powder particles does not exceed 2 mm, preferably 100 μm. The average diameters, comprising from 0.1 to 10 μm, are usually quite suitable. In this specification, the average particle diameter of the powder determined by x-ray granulometry Sedigraph 5100 (Micromeritics Inst Corp., USA).
The levels of calcium in the absorbent material, expressed in wt.%, will depend on the choice of calcium and purpose absorbent material. Generally, it is desirable that the absorbent material contained more than 30 wt.% (preferably at least 60 wt.%) calcium, p, and particularly preferred levels, greater than or equal to 65 wt.%. Preferably, the concentration of calcium in the absorbent material, expressed in wt.%, not more than 95 wt.%, preferably 90 wt.% Quite suitable levels of calcium compounds comprising from 65 to 95 wt.%, while the preferred levels, comprising from 70 to 85 wt.%.
In this description, the levels of mass expressed in relation to dry mass, unless otherwise specified.
Choice of vegetable fibers is not critical. They may contain, for example, chopped straw, husks of cereals, cotton, or linen fibers or wood chips. In a preferred embodiment of the invention vegetable fibers are cellulose fibers. They can in a possible embodiment, but not necessarily, contain cellulose fibers obtained by recycling of paper or cardboard. Alternatively, they can only consist of cellulose, obtained by recycling of paper or cardboard.
Optimal levels of plant fibers in the absorbent material will depend on the nature of the vegetable fibers, their size, level of calcium content and purpose of absorbent material. Generally, it is desirable that the absorbent material contains the al, at least 5 wt.% (preferably at least 10 wt.%) plant fibers, it is particularly preferred levels greater than or equal to 15 wt.%. Preferably, the levels of plant fibers in the absorbent material does not exceed 50 wt.%, preferably 40 wt.%, especially recommended are the levels of less than 35 wt.% or equal to 35 wt.%. As a rule, are quite suitable levels of plant fibers constituting from 5 to 35 wt.%, it is particularly preferred levels, comprising 15 to 30 wt.%.
Absorbent materials in accordance with the invention, containing from 70 to 85 wt.% calcium and 15 to 30 wt.% plant fibers are particularly suitable for the absorption of liquid animal manure. They are quite suitable for Pets, in particular cats. In this report the expression "excrement" is understood as denoting as faeces and urine.
In that case, if the absorbent material contains clay, it is preferable that the level of its content does not exceed 5 wt.%.
Examples of compositions in accordance with the invention include compositions comprising from 60 to 90 wt.% calcium, from 5 to 35 wt.% plant fibers and from 0 to 5 wt.% the clay.
Absorbent material is according to the invention can in a possible embodiment, but not necessarily, contain additives designed to give it special properties, for example, perfumes or antiseptic.
In a particular embodiment, the absorbent material according to the invention the inorganic material contains dry residue from distillation leaving the mother liquor coming from the enterprise for the production of aqueous ammonia soda.
The expression "dry residue from distillation leaving the mother liquor coming from the enterprise for the production of ammonia soda, should be understood as denoting anhydrous solid residue, which was separated from the aqueous suspension obtained from the distillation column designed for the distillation of the mother liquor obtained in the production of sodium carbonate by use of the process of obtaining an aqueous solution of ammonia. Examples of such aqueous suspensions are given in the monograph Te-Pang Hou "Manufacture of soda (soda Manufacturing"), second edition, Hafner Publishing Company, 1969, page 237.
Such dry residues contain as main components calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. In addition to these components, they often contain compounds of magnesium, iron oxides, aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The levels of these various components depends on the source of raw mother of the crystals, used in the production process of sodium carbonate using an aqueous solution of ammonia, and from the operating parameters of this process.
Dry residues, which are quite suitable for this variant of the invention, contain at least 40 wt.% (preferably at least 45 wt.%) calcium carbonate, at least 1 wt.% (preferably at least 5 wt.%) calcium hydroxide and at least 1 wt.% (preferably at least 10 wt.%) calcium sulphate. Preferably the maximum level of the solids content of these three components does not exceed respectively 90 wt.% (preferably 80 wt.%) in the case of calcium carbonate, 40 wt.% (preferably 30 wt.%) in the case of calcium hydroxide and 45 wt.% (preferably 40 wt.%) in the case of calcium sulphate. Dry residues, which are highly recommended, contain from 40 to 70 wt.% (preferably 50 to 60 wt.%) calcium carbonate, 1 to 25 wt.% (preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%) calcium hydroxide, from 1 to 40 wt.% (preferably from 20 to 35 wt.%) calcium sulphate and possibly, but not necessarily, up to 10 wt.% (typically, from 1 to 10 wt.%) silicon dioxide. If necessary, can be subjected to industrial dry residue of the enrichment process in order to achieve the above optimal levels.
Absorbent material is ialy in accordance with this embodiment of the invention possess good absorption of acidic liquids, and they are particularly well suited for absorption of liquid animal manure, particularly excrement of livestock and Pets. Moreover, they represent a means of increasing the value of industrial waste, which is an advantage, both from an economic and from an environmental point of view.
The absorbent material according to the invention can be used both in industry and in everyday life. In industry it can in particular be used for cleaning of industrial buildings or for absorption of liquids accidentally spilled on the ground. An example of such application is the absorption liquid is accidentally spilled on the road after a traffic accident.
Therefore, the invention also relates to the use of absorbent material according to the invention for the absorption liquid on the ground (soil).
It turned out that the absorbent material according to the invention is particularly suitable for the absorption of liquid animal manure, mainly urine.
Therefore, the invention also relates to animal bedding, which contains the absorbent material according to the invention.
If you compare the litter according to the invention with known litter described above, it may be noted that the litter according to the invention has a preferred combination the properties, among which low average (apparent) volume weight, high mechanical strength sufficient to withstand crushing under the weight of the animal, and high absorption of liquid animal manure without the formation of a suspension. Moreover, when the litter becomes wet due to them falling on the excrement of animals, they do not stick to the ground, which represents an advantage from the point of view of removing them after use.
Litter according to the invention is suitable for livestock, poultry and Pets. It is equally suitable for large livestock (cows, horses), small livestock (sheep, pigs) and poultry (such as chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys).
Litter according to the invention is particularly suitable for Pets, especially cats and small rodents.
The advantage of the invention will become apparent from the following description of several tests conducted with absorbent material.
In the tests, described below, was used suspension obtained from the distillation of the mother liquor, the source of which is the production of sodium carbonate using a process using an aqueous solution of ammonia. The composition of the suspension after washing with water, the purpose is to remove from it the water-soluble materials is given in table 1.
|Components||The content by weight (% dry matter)|
|Water||330 g/kg suspension|
This suspension was used for the manufacture of several absorbent materials that have been investigated in the tests described below.
The first series of tests (in accordance with the invention)
There were selected two sample suspension obtained above. In each sample were added to the dry pulp fiber (obtained by removing the fibers from the paper) and water in a quantity adjusted so that the resulting aqueous mixture contains from 300 to 500 grams of water per kilogram. She was treated in the mixing apparatus, to obtain a homogeneous extrudable mass. The composition of two samples of the suspension, to which were added fiber, are given in table 2.
|Sample #||Composition (wt.% dry matter)|
|Suspension||Fiber||The source fibers|
When passing through the extruder each sample was converted into a number of elementary fibers which have been dried sufficiently to remove all the water. The dry product obtained after drying was sequentially subjected to grinding and sieving, and from it was derived the absorbent material in accordance with the invention.
Was measured apparent volumetric mass of the two received absorbent materials, and they were further tested for water absorption. In order to test for the absorption of water, 10 g of water were introduced into a vertical cylindrical chamber having an inner diameter of 90 mm, and the absorbent material is gradually fed into it until then, until it was full absorption of water. The absorptive capacity of the absorbent material is determined by the formula
And indicates the absorptive capacity of the absorbent material
M denotes the number of used water,
R denotes the mass of absorbent material.
Volume m the SSA and the test results on absorption are shown in table 3.
|Sample #||Volume weight (kg/m3)||Absorption capacity (%)|
The second series of tests (in accordance with the invention)
Were used two other sample suspension described above.
The first sample was subjected to processing in the same condition as it was as described for the first series of tests, but without the addition of fibers or other additives in it.
The second sample was added to 14% of bentonite.
The compositions of the two samples (numbers 3 and 4) are presented in table 4.
|Sample #||Composition (wt.% dry matter)|
The apparent volumetric mass of the obtained absorbent materials was measured, and they were subjected to and what to test for water absorption, described above. The results are presented in table 5.
|Sample #||Volume weight (kg/m3)||Absorption capacity (%)|
Comparison of the results given in table 3 (absorbent materials in accordance with the invention), with the results shown in table 5 (absorbent materials are not in accordance with the invention)shows the improvement provided by the invention in relation to the bulk density of the absorbent material and its ability to absorb water.
1. Absorbent material containing powder of inorganic material, where the inorganic material contains at least one calcium compound and mixed with vegetable fibers and contains the dry residue from the distillation leaving the mother liquor coming from the enterprise for the production of aqueous ammonia soda using an aqueous solution of ammonia.
2. The absorbent material according to claim 1, which contains at least 5 wt.% plant fibers and 30 wt.% compounds of calcium.
3. The absorbent material according to claim 1 or 2, in which the calcium compound, essentially, sostoi is from ground limestone.
4. The absorbent material according to any one of claims 1 to 3, which contains from 70 to 85 wt.% calcium and 15 to 30 wt.% plant fibers.
5. The absorbent material according to any one of claims 1 to 4, in which the powder particles of inorganic material have an average diameter of from 0.1 to 10 microns.
6. The absorbent material according to any one of claims 1 to 5, in which the inorganic material contains up to 5 wt.% the clay.
7. The absorbent material according to claim 6, which contains from 60 to 90 wt.% calcium, from 5 to 35 wt.% plant fibers and from 0 to 5 wt.% the clay.
8. Use absorbent material according to any one of claims 1 to 7 for fluid absorption from the soil.
9. Animal bedding containing the absorbent material according to any one of claims 1 to 7.
FIELD: environment protection from radionuclides.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for producing chemical sorbent to absorb nuclear fuel fission products (radionuclides of iodine, ruthenium, and their volatiles) includes impregnation of activated carbon in triethylene diamine followed by its drying at temperature of 110-130 °C. For the purpose use is made of activated carbon produced from raw bituminous coal having micropore volume vmp = 0.28-0.33 cm3/g and total pore volume vΣ = 0.85-1.0 cm3/g. Activated carbon is impregnated until triethylene diamine content is reduced to 1-2% of base mass. Then chemical sorbent obtained in the process is dried out and sifted.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of chemical sorbent obtained.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: chromatographic sorbents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chromatographic sorbents, which can be used for analysis and preparative purification of optically active compounds. A novel sorbent for resolution of isomers of optically active compounds is developed containing, as chiral selector, macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin, vancomycin, ristomycin A, teicoplanine, or their aglycons. Method of immobilization of macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics is also developed, which resides in that silica gel in aqueous buffer solution is first treated with 3-glycidoxypropyl(trialkoxy)silane and then, in alkaline aqueous or water-organic solution, above-indicated macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotic is grafted to epoxy group-modified silica gel.
EFFECT: increased selectivity in enantiomer resolution and simplified preparation procedure.
9 cl, 12 dwg, 5 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: oil pollution removal.
SUBSTANCE: biological preparation comprises substance carrier, microorganism growth factor, and biomass of microorganisms serving as oil destructors. Carrier is a composition made from Ca alginate gel, C14-C16-n-alkanes, and microorganism growth factor substance. Composition of biological preparation assists localization of microorganism growth density directly in the carrier near to interface between oil product and medium to be treated. Treatment method includes placing indicated dispersed biopreparation with microorganisms on water medium surface.
EFFECT: enabled use of well-workable granules and increased degree of purification.
5 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil pollution elimination.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxification and reuse of toxic oil wastes and oil pollutions formed, for example, when performing cleaning of oil and gas pipelines. Sorbent consists of burnt lime with up to 10.0% activated carbon and 0.4-3.0% bone flour. As a result, inexpensive sorbent is provided composed of accessible components, which are well mixed with burnt lime and are capable of detoxifying and making reusable otherwise toxic oil wastes containing heavy metal ions, light hydrocarbon fractions, including sulfur-containing ones, and paraffin-gum residues.
EFFECT: reduced preparation expenses.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises dust catcher, adsorber, and sucking device connected via the through passage for supplying air with inlet and outlet branch pipes and mounted on the individual section of the movable platform for permitting mutual connection. The device is provided with the additional section of the movable platform provided with the lock device for connecting with the main sections. The additional section is provided with the device for fine purification of air, which is mounted downstream of the adsorber. The device for fine purification is made of housing that receives vertical grids whose mesh size does not exceeds 0.6 mm. The layers of chemical absorbers are interposed between the grids. The layers catch harmful gases that are generated during welding. The thickness of each layer is 50-80 mm. The specific gas loading of each of the layers does not exceed 1.5 l/min cm2. The device for fine purification of air is provided with the mechanism for discharging of the exhaust chemical absorbers.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of purification.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technology of preparation of regenerative products and absorbents of oxidizer-rich gases on base of oxide and hydroxide compounds of alkali metals.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes application of oxide and hydroxide metals on porous substrate for charging the regenerative cartridges. Starting material is moistened for imparting plastic properties to it, then it is rolled between rolls and is fed to belt conveyer where it is dried by passing through drying chamber and is unloaded into accumulator; starting reinforcing material in form of mat or belt is moistened with solutions of target products and excessive solution is squeezed-off on perforated plate by means of roll, after which molding is performed simultaneously with drying on perforated plates. Device proposed for realization of this method includes unit for proportioned feed of product, molding and transportation units and drying unit; molding unit is made in form of perforated plates provided with longitudinal holes or recesses turned at angle relative to longitudinal axis of plate; plates are secured on transportation unit for turning relative to longitudinal axis and are engageable with squeezing-off roll mounted above transportation unit.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining maximum porosity at optimal density of product; reduced hydraulic resistance of product.
12 cl, 17 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, pig farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pig growing steps, with time of steps being equal and quantity of steps being determined from formula: Q=T/τ, where T is pig keeping time, days, and τ is time of farrowing-sucking step, days; after weaning of pigs from sucker swine, transferring sucker swine into individual pen for keeping at rest step Tr and gestation step Tg, with total time of said steps being equal to time of reproduction step Trep=Tr+Tg, days. Apparatus has pens, each adapted for keeping of one swine with pig litter after farrowing, said pens being positioned according to pig production order and provided with gates, feeders and defecation zone. Number of pens for animals is determined from dependence: Np=PH+1, where PH is number of pig keeping phases at growing and feeding steps, and 1 is value taking into account number of swine pens at reproduction steps.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing series and full-cycle production of pigs.
3 cl, 5 dwg