Device for applying gradient forces

FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.

30 cl, 10 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method and device for the control of optical traps. More specifically, the invention relates to methods and devices for dynamic control matrices, optical traps, and managed to populate a matrix of optical traps particles. Such methods and devices allow a dynamic change of location of the optical trap strength and size of each optical trap, and allow for controlled adaptation and feedback for the use of optical traps for research and industrial purposes.

It is known from the prior art construction of optical tweezers using optical gradient forces one beam of light to control the location of a small dielectric particles immersed in the fluid, the refractive index of which is less than that of the particles. The technique of optical tweezers has been generalized to allow for the conduct of manipulation reflecting and absorbing particles, and particles with a low dielectric constant.

Thus, traditional systems can manage a single particle using a single beam of light to create a single optical trap. Manage multiple particles should be used mnojestvennyi light. The difficulties of creating a long traps with multiple beams using the traditional method of optical tweezers, prohibit their use in many potential commercial applications such as the manufacture and manipulation of nanocomposite materials, including electronic, photonic and optoelectronic devices, matrix chemical sensors for chemical and biological analyses, matrices and holographic computer data storage.

Thus, the present invention is to provide an improved method and system for creating multiple optical traps.

Another object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for the control of optical traps and matrices of small particles.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and device for dynamic control of optical traps.

An additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for sequential formation of optical traps and/or matrix particles.

An additional object of the invention is to provide an improved method and apparatus for implementing dynamic control of size, shape and strength of the protected area the economic pitfalls.

Another additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for computer forming a holographic configuration for dynamic configuration management of optical traps.

Also, another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and device for use of a spatial light modulator to the laser beam for dynamic control matrix of optical traps.

Also, an additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and device that uses a mechanical device for the selective transmission of laser beams for variable time-specific matrices of optical traps.

Also, an additional object of the invention is to provide an improved method and device for enhanced flow of particles in optical traps and selective output of various particles for optical capture in a trap.

Also, an additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for observing and manipulating biological environment, managed using a matrix of optical traps.

Another object of the invention is to provide a new method and device to use dinochloa light beam with diffraction optics for forming the configuration of light beams to generate multiple optical traps.

An additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for using holograms for generation of optical gradient fields for control of multiple particles or other optical media.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and system for creating multiple optical traps for a variety of commercial applications related to the manipulation of small particles, such as the manufacture of optical circuits, applications of nanocomposite materials, manufacture of electronic components, optoelectronic devices, matrix, chemical and biological sensors, assemblies matrices holographic data storage, assistance in the application of combinatorial chemistry, promoting colloidal samegreloshi, and manipulation of biological materials.

Still, another object of the invention is to provide a method and system for constructing a configuration varying in time and space optical gradient fields for commercial applications.

Also, the task of the invention is to provide a new method and system for using one or more laser beams in combination with one or more diffractive optical elements, to build a selectively variable by the time the new and/or specific spatial matrix of optical traps to control the dielectric material.

An additional object of the invention is to provide an improved method and system using one of the input laser beam, a diffractive optical element, as well as scattering and/or the collecting lens for forming a static or dynamic optical traps.

Also, an additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and system for constructing a matrix of optical traps, which can directly be observed by the user.

Yet also, another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and system that uses the input laser beam into a diffraction optical element scanning system of the beam, enabling scanning of a matrix of optical traps for various commercial applications.

In addition, another object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for constructing a configuration of an optical trap using a laser beam, a diffractive optical element, as well as scattering and/or collecting optical system for forming the configuration of traps in breeding location relative to the focal plane of the lens.

Also, another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and device for IP is the use of a laser beam which is inclined diffractive optical element for adfilternone netraditsionnogo beam for the effective use of only the diffracted optical beam in configuration location of the optical trap.

Also, another object of the invention is to provide a new method and device for use of the input laser beam on the diffractive optical element for implementing at least two-dimensional arrangement of optical traps outside the focal plane of the lens.

Also, another object of the invention is to provide an improved method and system for use with a light beam and diffraction optics in combination with many of the lenses of the telescope to scan the matrix of optical traps.

Yet, an additional object of the invention is to provide a new method and system that generates a matrix of optical traps using a single input light beam on the diffraction optical element and optical system for controlled scanning of a matrix of optical traps, so that by dynamically shifting the optical traps are applied vibrational oscillations of small amplitude.

Another object of the invention is to provide a new way to create multiple independently controlled optical traps, using as a diffractive optical element is addressable in a time-dependent phase-shifting environment (type liquid crystal will vasodila is it matrix).

A further object of the invention is to provide a new way to create time-dependent optical gradient fields for segregation of microscopic particles.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a new method for manipulating many biological objects, including protein crystallization.

Other objectives, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of the preferred variants of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, described below, in which throughout the description, similar elements have the same item numbers.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is further illustrated by description of a specific implementation options with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 presents a diagram illustrating the method and system known from the prior art for a single optical tweezers.

Figure 2 presents a diagram illustrating the method and system known from the prior art for the same managed optical tweezers.

Figure 3 presents a diagram illustrating the method and system of using a diffractive optical element.

Figure 4 presents a diagram illustrating the matrix, another method and system that uses the slope of the config with respect to the input optical beam, the optical element.

Figure 5 presents a diagram illustrating continuously broadcast a matrix of optical tweezers (trap)using a diffraction optical element.

Figure 6 presents a diagram illustrating the method and system for manipulation of particles using a matrix of optical tweezers, while also forming the image for visual observation matrix optical trap.

On figa presents the image of a matrix of four by four optical tweezers (traps), using the optical system according to Fig.6.

figb presents the image of spheres with a diameter of one micrometer of silicon dioxide, suspended in water by the optical tweezers according figa, immediately after the exciting light was turned off, but before the sphere was diffundiruet from this scope.

On Fig presents a diagram of a holographic optical system of traps, including the sign of the floating reference prism.

On figa presents a matrix of optical traps 10x10, formed at the interface of the glass is water.

On figb presents optical trap, with a focus approximately 2 microns above the glass, and a fifth series of optical traps exposed in order to cause the flow of particles.

On FIGU presents an illustration of filling particles compared to figb with C the complement to the eighth row of optical traps,

On Figg presents an illustration of a full configuration of the optical traps.

Figure 10 presents a schematic of the optical system control traps with visualization of the microscope.

A detailed description of the preferred variants of the invention

For a better understanding of the invention figures 1 and 2 illustrate several methods and systems known from the prior art. It will first look at these systems, and then the invention will be described in terms of preferred examples of implementation options according to figure 3-7A and 7B. In the system 10 of the optical tweezer of Fig 1, is known from the prior art, optical gradient forces are the result of using a single light beam 12 to be manipulated in a controlled manner a small dielectric particle 14 dispersed in the environment 16, the refractive index where nmless than the refractive index of the particles 14. The nature of optical gradient forces are well-known and also well-known that this principle was generalized so that also allow for the manipulation of reflection, absorption and low dielectric constant particles. Any of these methods can be carried out in the context of the invention, described hereinafter, and will be addressed here using the terminology the optical tweezers, optical traps and optical gradient force trap.

The system 10 of the optical tweezers is applied, using the light beam 12 (such as a laser beam)capable of applying the necessary force required for the implementation of optical effect entrainment necessary to control the particle. The objective optical tweezers 10 traditional view is to design one or more light beams formed in the center of the rear aperture 24 converging optical element (such as a lens 20). As noted in figure 1, the light beam 12 has a width "w"and also has an input angle ⊘ with respect to the optical axis 22. The light beam 12 is input with respect to the rear aperture 24 of the lens 20 of the lens and the output from the front aperture 26, substantially converging to the focal point 28 in the focal plane 30 of the rendered volume 32, with the focal point (focus) 28 coinciding with the optical trap 33. Generally speaking, any of the focusing optical system can form the basis for the system 10 of the optical tweezers.

In the case of a light beam 12, which is collimated laser beam, the axis of which coincides with the optical axis 22, the light beam 12 enters the rear aperture 24 of the lens 20 and is placed at the focus of the rendered volume 32 at the center point "c" focal plane 30 volume is ctiva. When the axis of the light beam 12 is displaced by the angle ⊘ with respect to the optical axis 22, the axis 31 of the beam and the optical axis 22 coincides in center point "B" of the rear aperture 12. The specified offset allows you to broadcast optical traps across the field of view by an amount which depends on the angular magnification of the lens 20. Two variables, the angle ⊘ displacement and variable convergence of the light beam 12 can be used to form optical traps in selected positions within the volume 32 visualization. Provided that to the back aperture 24 at different angles ⊘ and with different degrees of collimation apply multiple light beams 12, multiple optical traps 33 can be placed in different locations.

To implement optical engages in three dimensions optical gradient forces generated on the particle, which must be captured, should exceed other effects of radiation caused by scattering and absorption of light. Generally speaking, this inevitably entails the need to have the rear aperture 24 corresponding to the shape of the wavefront of the light beam 12. For example, for a Gaussian input beam with fashion TEMOOthe beam diameter w should essentially be the same as the diameter of the rear aperture 24. Similar conditions which may be formulated for more General profiles of the beams (such as profiles Gauss-Leggera).

In another system known from the prior art according to figure 2, the system 10 of the optical tweezers can transmit optical trap 33 across the field of view of lens 20. The telescope 34, constructed of lenses LI and L2, sets the point a, which is optically coupled to the Central point In the system from the prior art according to figure 1. In the system shown in figure 2, the light beam 12 passing through point A, passes through the point B and, thus, meets the requirements of creation of the system 10 of the optical tweezers. For the optimization of the transmission characteristics of the telescope 34 the degree of collimation is supported by the positioning of the lenses Ll and L2, as shown in figure 2. In addition to this can be selected preferred magnification of the telescope 34 for the optimization of the angular displacement of a light beam 12 and its width w in the plane of the rear aperture 24 of the lens 20. As stated above, for the formation of several related optical traps can be used multiple light beams 12. Such multiple beams 12 can be created from multiple independent input beams or a single beam that is managed by conventional reflective and/or refractive optical elements.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention shown in figure 3, can be formed of a CR is arbitrary matrix of optical traps. The diffractive optical element 40 have essentially in the plane 42, which is coupled with the rear aperture 24 of the lens 20. Note that, for simplicity, shows only a single dragirovaniya output beam 44, but it should be clear that the diffractive optical element 40 can be created a number of such beams 44. The input light beam 12 incident on the diffractive optical element 40 is split into the configuration of the beams 44, depending on the nature of the diffractive optical element 40, each of which originates from point A. Thus, the output beams 44 also passes through the point B as a consequence of the arrangement of the optical elements described above, in the course of the beam.

The diffractive optical element 40 according to figure 3 depicts located perpendicular to the input light beam 12, however, other possible arrangements. For example, in figure 4 the light beam 12 enters under an inclined angle β with respect to the optical axis 22 and not normal to the diffractive optical element 40. In this variant implementation of the receiving optics 44 emanating from a point And forms the optical trap 50 in the focal plane 52 volume 32 visualization (see, best of all, figure 1). In this scheme, the system 10 of the optical tweezers nederevyanny portion 54 of the input light beam 12 can be UD is Lena from the system 10 of the optical tweezers. Thus, this configuration enables to process a smaller amount of background illumination and improves the utilization and efficiency of formation of the optical traps.

The diffractive optical element 40 may include holograms, generated by computer, which splits the input light beam 12 at a preset configuration. Combining these holograms with the remaining optical elements of 3 and 4, allows you to generate a random matrix, in which the diffractive optical element 40 is used for the independent formation of the wave front of each diffracted beam. Thus, the optical trap 50 may be located not only in the focal plane 52 of the lens 20, but also outside the focal plane 52 for forming a three-dimensional arrangement of optical traps 50.

In the system 10 of the optical tweezers according to figure 3 and 4 also includes a focusing optical element such as lens 20 (or the equivalent lens features optical device, such as a Fresnel lens), in order to collect the receiving optics 44 for forming an optical trap 50. Further, the telescope 34 or other equivalent transferring optics creates a point And coupled with a Central point B of the previous rear aperture 24. The diffraction of the optical element 40 is placed in the plane which is the point A.

In another embodiment of the invention an arbitrary matrix of optical traps 50 can be created without the use of the telescope 34. In this implementation diffractive optical element 40 may be placed directly in the plane that includes the point B.

In the system 10 of the optical tweezers can be used static or variable depending on time of diffractive optical elements 40. For dynamic or time-dependent version, you can create a time-varying matrix of optical traps 50, which may be part of a system that uses such property. In addition, these dynamic optical elements 40 may be used for the active movement of the particles and matrix environment relative to each other. For example, the diffractive optical element 40 may be a liquid crystal phase matrix, experiencing changes made using computer generated holographic configurations.

In another embodiment of the invention illustrated figure 5, the system can be constructed in such a way as to make a continuous display of the trap 50 optical tweezers. The mirror 60 in gimbaled placed so that the center of rotation was located at point A. the Light beam 12 PA the AET on the surface of the mirror 60, he has an axis passing through point A, and will be projected on the rear aperture 24. The inclination of the mirror 60 causes a change in the angle of incidence of the light beam 12 with respect to the mirror 60, and this property can be used for transmitting the resulting optical trap 50. The second telescope 62 formed of lenses L3 and L4, which create a point a', which is conjugate with respect to the point A. the Diffraction optical element 40 placed at point a', now creates a configuration diffracted beams 64, each of which passes through the point And for the formation of one of the traps 50 optical tweezers in the matrix optical pincer system 10.

When the operation of the embodiments according to figure 5, the mirror 60 transmits all pincer matrix as a module. This method is advantageous for precise alignment of the optical pincer matrix with stationary substrate for dynamic displacement of the optical trap 50 fast oscillating displacement with a small amplitude, as well as for any applications that require the ability of the public address system.

The matrix optical trap 50 may also be moved vertically with respect to the subject table of the sample (not shown) by moving the object stage sample or the adjustment of the telescope 34. In addition, the matrix optical is on tweezers can also be displaced sideways in relation to the sample, moving the sample table sample. This feature would be particularly useful for large-scale movement, outside the scope of the field of view of the lens.

In other variations of the invention depicted in Fig.6, the optical system is constructed in such a way as to allow consideration of the images of the particles captured by the optical tweezers 10. The dichroic beam splitter 70, or other equivalent optical beam splitter placed between the lens 20 and the sequence of optical elements of the optical pincer system 10. In the illustrated embodiment of the invention the beam splitter 70 is selectively reflects the wavelength of light used for forming the optical pincer matrix, and transmits other wavelengths. Thus, the light beam 12 is used to form optical traps 50, is transmitted to the rear aperture 24 with high efficiency, while the light beam 66 that is used to form the image, you can travel to the imaging optics (not shown).

Illustration description of the invention depicted in figa and 7B. The diffractive optical element 40 is designed to interact with a single light beam 12 to create a matrix collimated beams 4×4. Nd:YAG laser with a power of 100 mW, diode pumped and has doubled the eating frequency, operating at a wavelength of 532 nm, provides a Gaussian shape TEMOOfor the light beam 12. On figa field of view partially illuminated by laser light scattered back by sixteen spheres of silicon dioxide captured in sixteen primary optical tweezers 10 matrix. Spheres with a diameter of 1 μm dispersed in water and placed in a sample volume between the object glass microscope cover glass with a thickness of 170 μm. Pincer matrix is projected upward through the cover glass and is positioned in a plane at 8 μm above the top of the glass and more than 20 μm below the slide of the microscope. Spheres of silicon dioxide steadily captured in three dimensions in each of the sixteen optical tweezers 10.

On figb shows organized optically location areas through 1/30 seconds after you have switched off the optical tweezers 10 (traps), but before the sphere got time to diffuse from the area of the trap.

The mode of operation of the adaptive tweezers

In other embodiments of the invention the basic embodiment of the optical trap, described above, can be used in a variety of useful methodologies. In addition, other implementations include devices and systems that can be constructed using these ways to improve the function of the system and the use of optical traps. In particular, optical traps can be managed and changed, and the following describes the different ways of implementations that use such features.

A variety of new use cases and new applications of optical traps can arise from time-varying structures and dynamic changes to the configuration of the optical trap. In one species of the invention the matrix of optical traps can preferably be controlled by the method depicted in Fig. The optical system 100 of the diffraction optical element 102 splits the collimated laser beam 104 into multiple (two or more) of the laser beam 106 and 108. Each of the laser beams 106 and 108 is transmitted in a separate optical trap in the plane 118 of the object. Each of these individual laser beams 106,108 is transmitted to the rear aperture of the lens 110 and 112 through the functioning of the traditional optical system such as a telescope formed by lenses 114 and 116. The lens 112 focuses each of these beams 106, 108 in a separate optical trap 132 in the plane 118 of the object. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the reference prism 120 is placed can travel on the path of the laser beams 106, 108, allowing, thus, to perform selective blocking of any one (one), wybran the th of the individual laser beams 106, 108 for selective prevention of the formation of the optical traps 132. This methodology and structure allow us to construct arbitrary desired matrix of optical traps 132 using, respectively, developed prisms or aperture structures prisms, and structures similar to those.

Illustration of the use of such methodology for the control of optical trap is depicted in Fig.9, in which the optical traps 132 formed diffractive optical element 122 of the holographic type. Roaming support prism 120 according pig can block all the penultimate line 124 of the optical traps 132. Each of the lines 124 can be created by systematically move the reference prism 120, which provides a systematic filling of the optical traps 132 particles 126. This methodology allows you to fill in optical traps 132 a variety of different types of particles 126, and also avoids the typical problems of particles 126, seeking to fill preferably the outer parts of the matrix optical traps 132. Such preferred filling of the can, thus, block the filling of the internal optical traps 132. The specified managed the formation of the optical traps 132 also allows precision formation and change is what I optical traps.

In addition to detailed management for completing the matrix of optical traps 132 can provide devices, accelerating the filling of the optical traps 132. For example, on Fig depicts a functional block 128, showing the device for: (1) output atzelektronik particles 126 (see figure 10), (2) feed particles 126 differential pressure (by means of electrophoresis or electroosmotic effects), (3) applying a temperature gradient, and (4) translating the whole matrix of optical traps through a suspension containing particles 126, way like "fishing nets".

Experimentally it was found that the particles 134 may, for example, be filled in the optical traps 132, since the concentration of particles of the order of 10-4μm-3while a reasonable flow velocity is of the order of l00 μm/second to fill the same number of rows 124 or the configuration of the matrix around the time equal to one minute. Fully built matrix particles 126 may be made permanent by means of the transfer matrix on a substrate, or by generowania fluid medium in which the suspended particles 126. This procedure may also allow for the construction of a wide variety of matrices of various particles and associated matrix particles 126. Using the above is harakteristiki and functionality of the optical traps 132, each of the particles 126 may also be further interviewed, visualized and subjected to manipulation for operational use and research purposes.

In yet another variant implementation of the invention, depending on the specific optical requirements, the optical traps 132 can be changed dynamically. Optical requirement can be implemented using a computer program with the required guidance information, so that one or more optical traps 132 can be used to modify, delete or add particles at various centers of optical traps, or to give the opportunity to carry out various manipulations with a single object. Further, one or more optical traps 132 can be moved and their character changed (for example, altering the shape or strength of the trap) for dynamic manipulation of an arbitrary object, such as cells of a plant or animal. In particular, the above-mentioned operation may be predominant when manipulating the fine structure, or when there is a need to perform complex manipulations of the object. So far, these objects are processed one power trap, which could cause damage to object or not to provide degrees of freedom that are often necessary to perform rebeau function.

In addition, in another process, the particles 126 may be dynamically sorted by size. You can also display the matrix particles 126 method, depicted in figure 10. Microscope 138 may display particles 126, and a personal computer 140 may identify them, and also to calculate the pure phase hologram 142 (diffractive optical element 144 of Fig). To capture in the trap mentioned particles, a computer-controlled spatial light modulator 143 can create designed by computer hologram 142, by applying the configuration of a phase modulation to the laser beam 144. For arbitrary diversity goals this operation can also be dynamically varied. The modified laser beam 148 (also see the separate laser beams 106, 108 on Fig) focuses the microscope 138 to form the matrix of the optical traps 132 (also known as tweezers), which captures particles 126 to be displayed on the screen 150 visualization. Then, each of the particles 126 may be individually subjected to manipulation for Assembly in the desired structure, to sort particles 126, or manipulating them in some other way, to examine or change the shape of interest of the object.

While have shown and described the preferred variants of " the invention, specialist, skilled in the art, as will be clear that, without departing from the scope of the invention in its broader aspects, may be made of various changes and modifications, as set forth in the claims below.

1. The way the controlled filling of a matrix of small particles containing the following steps: providing a source of small particles; providing a diffractive optical element in the form of a hologram, selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams generated by a given diffractive optical element for forming a selected number of optical traps in selected locations in the matrix, the systematic filling of these optical traps small particles, the formation of a time-varying matrix of small particles at the locations of optical traps by selectively blocking time of these laser beams.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the diffraction optical element is controlled by a computer.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of selective blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes the step of blocking part of the laser beam in a plane conjugate with the rear aperture of the objective lens.

4. the procedure according to claim 3, in which the step of blocking the laser beam includes a reference prism in the laser beam.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of providing a source of particles includes the flow of particles by optical traps by applying pressure drop.

6. The method according to claim 1, additionally comprising the step of permanent formation of the matrix.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which the permanent stage of formation of the matrix contains at least one of: (a) the transfer matrix on a substrate and (b) gilotinirovaniya fluid, which is suspended around the matrix.

8. The method according to claim 1, in which the laser beam is dynamically reconfigurable to change the specified matrix depending on the optical requirements according to the computer program with preset guidance data for a variable time matrix of small particles.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the matrix response to the optical requirement includes at least one of the following: a) change the location of at least one of the optical traps, (b) changes in the strength and shape of at least one of the optical traps, (C) the introduction of new optical traps, and (d) removing one of the existing optical traps.

10. The way the controlled manipulation of small matrix particles containing the th following steps: providing multiple laser beams;

providing a source of small particles; providing a diffractive optical element in the form of a hologram, selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams generated by a given diffractive optical element for forming a selected number of optical traps in selected locations in the matrix, the systematic filling of these optical traps small particles, the formation of a time-varying matrix of small particles at the locations of optical traps by selectively blocking time of these laser beams.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the laser beam is dynamically reconfigured to change the optical traps in accordance with the optical requirement according to the computer program with preset guidance information.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which the matrix traps manipulates biological environment, designed for research.

13. The method according to item 12, in which the step of manipulating includes the management entity form biological environment.

14. The method according to claim 11, in which the optical applies image analysis.

15. The method according to claim 11, in which the matrix response to the optical requirement includes at least one of the following: a) is the change of the position, at least one of the optical traps, (b) changes in the strength and shape of at least one of the optical traps, (C) the introduction of new optical traps, and (d) removing one of the existing optical traps.

16. The method according to claim 10, in which step selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes the activation/deactivation of the diffraction optical element.

17. The method according to claim 10, in which step selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams is applied to the laser beam spatial light modulator.

18. The method according to claim 10, in which step selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes deactivation of the laser beam in the conjugate plane.

19. The method according to claim 10, in which step selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes the step of blocking part of the laser beam in a plane conjugate with the rear aperture of the objective lens.

20. The method according to claim 10, in which the step of blocking the laser beam includes the placement of the reference prism in the laser beam.

21. The method according to claim 10 which further includes the step of providing at least one particle flow past at least one of the optical traps.

22. The method according to claim 10, unto the which additionally includes the stage of implementation of computer software to implement the production process, related to manipulation of at least one object within a variety of time and spatial position.

23. Device for the controlled manipulation of a matrix of optical traps containing the source of many laser beams; a source providing plenty of small particles, a device for selectively blocking at least one of the many of these laser beams for forming a selected number of optical traps in selected locations in the matrix, the device for the systematic filling of these optical traps small particles and apparatus for forming a time-varying matrix of small particles at the locations of optical traps using time specified device for selectively blocking.

24. The device according to item 23, in which the laser beam is dynamically reconfigured to change the optical traps in accordance with the optical requirement according to the computer program with preset guidance information.

25. The device according to paragraph 24, in which the optical requirement includes the source sequence of commands providing instructions to control the biological environment, designed for research.

26. The device according A.25, in which the device is to be manipulated includes a spatial light modulator.

27. The device according to paragraph 24, in which the optical applies computer analysis of images using computer implemented analysis program.

28. The device according to paragraph 24, in which the matrix response to the optical requirement contains implemented a computer program to perform at least one of the following functionality: a) changing the position of at least one of the optical traps, (b) changes in the strength and shape of at least one of the optical traps, (C) the introduction of new optical traps, and (d) removing one of the existing optical traps.

29. The device according to item 23, in which the device selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes a device activation/deactivation of the diffraction optical element.

30. The device according to item 23, in which the device selectively blocking at least one of the multiple laser beams includes supporting the lens to block part of the laser beam in a plane conjugate with the rear aperture of the objective lens.



 

Same patents:

Insulating link // 2251172

FIELD: electrical engineering; insulating links for high-voltage switches and circuit breakers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating link has insulating rod and embedded part designed for installation of insulating links. This conical embedded part is reducing in diameter along insulating rod axis toward its center. Embedded part has several conical sections forming stepped profile along insulating rod axis and reducing in diameter along the latter toward its center. Outer surface of insulating rod is ribbed.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of insulating link.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Insulating rod // 2091890

FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

X-ray microscope // 2239822
The invention relates to a projection microscopy with the use of radiation techniques, and more particularly to means for obtaining increased shadow projection of the object, including its internal structure, using x-ray radiation

The invention relates to a means for receiving x-ray radiation, in particular to the means intended for use in the study of substances, materials or devices

The invention relates to measuring equipment

The invention relates to devices for visually-shadow gamma-ray imaging and can be used in industry and in medicine

The invention relates to a method of shifting mosaic scattering of high-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in a specified narrow range

The invention relates to a means for fault detection and diagnosis in engineering and medicine that uses radiation in the form of a stream of neutral or charged particles, in particular x-ray radiation, and the means in which this radiation is used for medical purposes or for contact or projection lithography in microelectronics

The invention relates to techniques and technologies for the processing of microstructures and can be used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.

SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.

EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.

EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.

EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.

11 cl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.

8 cl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.

EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.

EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

Up!