Device for checking concentration of foot particles in diesel oil

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for estimating contamination of diesel oil with particles of soot for replacement of oil in due time. Level of oil contamination is estimated by change of intensity of optical radiation passing through optical rod owing to complete internal reflection on interface of sensitive cylindrical surface - oil. Change of intensity is measured caused both by change of absorption in layer of penetration of radiation into oil and change of refraction index of oil at increase of concentration of soot particles in oil. Optical rod is made of optical material whose refraction index of which is greater than refraction index of engine oil under testing, ratio of length of rod to its diameter being not less than 10:1. first end face of rod square to optical axis is in contact with source and receiver of optical radiation, and second end face of rod square to optical axis is provided with reflecting mirror coating. Cleaning of sensitive surface of optical element is done by means of electrostatic field. Concentration of soot particles in oil is evaluated basing on change of measured signal relative to signal received at testing of clean oil with use of calibration relationship.

EFFECT: provision of high accuracy and reliability of evaluation of contamination of diesel oil with particles and replacement of contaminated oil in due time.

11 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to assess the level of contamination by soot particles in the oil of a diesel engine for its timely replacement.

Modern small diesel engines are increasingly used in the models of cars due to the high efficiency of fuel use and its low cost relative to the fuel consumption of gasoline engines. At the same time protect the environment require compliance with stricter standards of emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon as engines of passenger cars and heavy duty diesel engines in trucks and buses. Controls on emissions of nitrogen oxides and soot has led, in particular, to the use of exhaust gas recirculation. As a consequence, the concentration of soot in the oil greatly increases, causing a number of problems: loss dispersible-stabilizing and anti-wear properties of the oil, sludge formation, deposition on the walls and ceiling of the passage of the oil, the viscosity increase, the clogging of the filter.

Currently, the oil lifetime before replacement is usually determined according to the standards set forth by the mileage of the car or the operating time. These standards are based on the engine operation in the normal operating mode and do not take into account the actual is the quality of the oil. In this regard, the urgent task is to develop methods and corresponding devices for rapid assessment of the quality of the oil, in particular, on the concentration of soot particles.

A device for measuring the concentration of soot particles in diesel engine oil, consisting of a housing with protective optical element with a sensitive surface, the source and receiver of optical radiation, electronic unit, and the optical element is designed as an optical rod, the lateral cylindrical surface of which is sensitive, the first perpendicular to the optical axis end of the rod is in contact with the source and receiver of optical radiation and the second perpendicular to the optical axis end of the rod has a specularly reflective coating, (prototype U.S. patent No. 6842234, IPC G 01 N 33/28, publ. 11.01.2005.).

However, in the known device is not provided for cleaning the sensitive surfaces of the optical element that reduces the reliability of the measurements.

The problem is solved in that the device for measuring the concentration of soot particles in diesel engine oil, consisting of a housing with protective optical element made in the form of optical rod with a sensitive side cylindrical surface, the first, perpendicular to the optical axis, the EC of the rod is in contact with the source and receiver of optical radiation, and the second perpendicular to the optical axis, the end face of the rod has a specularly reflective coating, the device is provided with a cleaning unit sensitive surface of the optical element, the casing is made of electrically non-conductive material, a cleaning unit consists of isolated electrodes mounted in the housing coaxially of the optical rod, and deposited on the side surface of the rod transparent electrically conductive coating, and a protective grid has a cell size of 0.25 mm

Cleaning the sensitive surfaces of the optical element from contamination is carried out by imposing an electrostatic field. An electrostatic field is created in the space between the sensitive surface having optically transparent electrically conductive coating and a system of electrodes located coaxial optical rod. When this electrostatic field affects the entire sensitive surface, cause the move of electric charge on the particle contamination and effectively removes them from the surface due to electrostatic forces of repulsion, without causing damage to sensitive surfaces, which increases the reliability of measurement results.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows

figure 1 - diagram of the device in which the source and receiver optical is th radiation are emitting diode and the photodiode, respectively;

figure 2 - cross section a-a figure 1

figure 3 - diagram of the device in which the source and receiver of optical radiation are a collection emitting diode and transmitting optical fiber and the combination of the photodiode and the receiving optical fiber, respectively;

figure 4 - dual optical fiber;

figure 5 - one transmitter and six receiving optical fibers;

figure 6 is a device for measuring the concentration of soot particles, immersed in the oil tank;

figure 7 is a device for measuring the concentration of soot particles, installed in the oil line;

on Fig is a diagram illustrating the passage of optical radiation through the optical rod when testing pure oil;

figure 9 is a diagram illustrating the passage of optical radiation through the optical rod when testing oil contaminated soot particles;

figure 10 is a diagram illustrating the passage of the optical beam from the optical radiation source to the receiver through the optical rod with a mirror coating on the second end;

figure 11 is a graph of the calibration relationship between the concentration of soot particles and the output signal of the device.

Measurement of the attenuation of the intensity of optical radiation, caused by the increase of the refractive index of the tested oils, PU is the eating of use source nekollinearnoi optical beam. Selects the source of radiation with the same aperture angle ϕAnd(the maximum angle between the beam of the optical beam and the axis of the radiator), so that when the testing of clean engine oil to all rays of the beam was performed, the condition of total internal reflection at the interface of the sensitive surface of the oil, i.e. to satisfy the condition (Fig):

where θ - the angle of incidence of rays on the boundary of the sensitive surface of the test oil;

θCRcritical angle of total internal reflection (AA) at the interface of the sensing surface is clean oil;

n1is the refractive index of the optical element;

n2,0is the refractive index of pure test oil.

The relationship of angles ϕformed by the rays of the radiation beam source with the axis of the emitter in the air, with angles θ the incidence of these rays on the boundary of the sensitive surface of the test oil is determined by the law of refraction. Angle ϕkr(Fig.9), which is distributed about the axis of the emitter in the air ray beam corresponding to a critical angle at the boundary of the sensitive surface - tested oil (θkr), is determined from the relationship:

Certain is thus the angle ϕ kris given to air critical angle.

When testing pure oils beam source, for which the condition of air defense, limited condition (Fig)

where ϕCR- shown-to-air critical angle for pure oil;

n2,0is the refractive index of pure oil.

If the aperture angle of the radiation source is equal to given to air critical angle for pure oil:

all optical radiation when testing pure oil passes through the optical element (Fig). By increasing the concentration of soot refractive index oil n2increases, resulting converted to air critical angle ϕkris reduced, and part of the optical beam passing through the optical element, is reduced. Fig.9 shows the flow of optical radiation (shaded part)is transmitted without reflection the boundary of the sensitive surface of the oil, i.e. the set of rays that have not complied with the condition of air defense.

I.e. because of oil contamination by soot particles increases the refractive index of the test oil, which leads to an increase in the value of the critical angle θkrthat, in turn, reduces the portion of the rays of the beam and the source of radiation, to observe the condition of air defense, resulting in the radiation intensity at the output end of the optical rod is further reduced.

Thus, in the present invention by increasing the content of soot in the oil intensity of the radiation at the output end of the optical rod is reduced not only due to its absorption in the layer of radiation penetration into the oil, but also by reducing part of the rays of the beam of the radiation source which has passed through the optical rod due to air defense. I.e. increasing the intensity of the radiation at the output end of the optical rod, and hence the output signal of the photodetector, which increases the sensitivity of measuring the concentration of soot particles in the oil.

In the invention the optical element is designed as an optical rod, the lateral cylindrical surface of which is sensitive, first, perpendicular to the optical axis, the end face of the rod is in contact with the source and receiver of optical radiation and the second perpendicular to the optical axis, the end face of the rod has a specularly reflective coating. The performance of the optical element structurally simplifies the input optical radiation to the sensitive surface of the optical element. The presence of a specularly reflective coating on the second end of the rod doubles the optical path length in which TERENA, respectively, doubles the number of reflections at the interface of the sensitive surface of the butter. As a result of increasing optical path length of the radiation in the oil, which is equal to the product of the length of the optical path of the beam in the layer of radiation penetration thickness h in the oil at one of the air defense on the number of reflections m. Figure 10 explains the origin of the ray from the source to the receiver through the optical rod with a mirror-reflective coating on the second side.

The change in intensity with the passage of the radiation through the optical rod depends on the concentration of soot and the length of the optical path in the oil according to the law Butera-Lambert-Bera [Physical encyclopedia/Ed. Amerkhanov. - M.: Seventeenlive. Vol. 1. 1988. 704 S.]

Io=IIexp(-Kext,λd)

where d is the optical path length in oil, d=2hm (m is the number of reflections); Kextλ- measure the extinction at a wavelength of λequal to the amount of physical indicators of absorption and scattering. In the case of soot particles, when the scattering is much less absorption, the rate of extinction is equal to the natural absorption index Kext.λλ. Natural absorption can be written in the form αλ=kλ·Cwithwherewiththe concentration of soot particles in the oil, kλ- coefficie is t, do not depend on Withwithand characterizing the interaction of the molecules of the absorbing substance with radiation at a wavelength of λ. Thus, increasing the length of the optical path of the radiation in oil increases the variation of the output signal, i.e. increases the sensitivity to the concentration of soot particles.

The optical rod is made of optical material, the refractive index greater than the refractive index of the tested motor oil (greater than 1.5) for the implementation of conditions of air defense. If you use an optical material with a refractive index less than or equal to the refractive index of the oil, for none of the radiation beam will not satisfy the condition AA (equation 1) and the output signal is close to zero. The ratio of rod length L to diameter D is chosen as possible to ensure the maximum number of reflections (the average number of reflections is determined by the formula), limited technological capabilities of manufacturing such rods and is at least 10:1.

Additionally, choose a source of radiation, the aperture angle of which is given to air critical angle of total internal reflection at the boundary between the sensing surface is clean test oil. If the aperture angle of the radiation source bol is more given to air critical angle for pure oil, not all radiation testing of pure oil passes through the optical terminal, and an output signal will be less than in the case of complete equality (2). If the aperture angle of the radiation source are less than the to-air critical angle for pure oil, the radiation beam will pass through the optical rod at low concentrations of soot particles as long as the soot and therefore the refractive index of the oil will rise so that the air critical angle will be equal to the aperture angle of the radiation source. I.e. in this case is not provided with sensitivity to small concentrations of soot particles. Thus, optimal for the realization of maximum sensitivity to soot content in the oil is the source aperture angle equal to the given-to-air critical angle for pure oil.

In addition, the cleaning unit sensitive surface of the optical element consists of a system of isolated electrodes mounted in the housing coaxially of the optical rod, and deposited on the cylindrical side surface of the optical rod is optically transparent electrically conductive coating. A system of isolated electrodes is a set of thin metal cylindrical rods (two or more), the plant and in the case evenly spaced around the circumference around the optical rod so that their axes are parallel to the optical axis of the rod, and the distance between the optical surfaces of the rod and the electrode does not exceed the diameter of the optical core. As the optically transparent electrically conductive coating can be used, for example, the conductive coating of indium and tin oxides, known as ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), whose thickness is much smaller (ten times or more) wavelength of optical radiation. This coating thickness has no significant effect on the penetration of optical radiation in the tested oil. The electrodes receive a potential of one polarity, and the conductive coating is of the opposite polarity. The potential difference is In 20-50 depending on the design size. For more effective cleaning, the polarity of the applied voltage changes from time to time. So, if cleaning is performed within 5 minutes, the polarity switched every 0.5 minutes. Such a construction of the cleaning unit allows you to replace mechanical electrostatic cleaning method that provides quality cleaning and accordingly the reliability of the measurements.

In addition, the protective grid is coaxial optical rod and has a cell size of 0.25 mm Protective guard prevents contact with the sensitive surface of the optic is of TERENA large impurities and air bubbles.

The device includes an optical rod 1, the source and receiver of optical radiation, which can in particular be used emitting diode 2 and the photodiode 3 (figure 1). Additionally the optical fiber 5 (figure 3), allowing to delete emitting diode and photodiode from the zone of measurement, thereby eliminating the influence of temperature, and place them in the electronic unit, which helps to reduce electrical noise. The source and receiver of optical radiation connected with the first end of the optical rod 1 and the second end of the rod caused reflecting mirror coating 4. In addition, the lateral cylindrical surface of the optical rod, which is sensitive, has an optically transparent electrically conductive coating 7, which is a block element cleaning sensitive surfaces, including a system of isolated electrodes 6 installed coaxial optical rod in the housing 9 made of electrically non-conductive material. The voltage on the electrodes and the conductive coating is supplied from the electronic unit (figures 1 and 3 not shown) by cable 12. The optical rod is installed in the housing 9 by means of a rubber ring 11 and sleeve 10. In addition, coaxial optical rod in the housing 9 are the protective grid 8, which serves to significant others is hit on the sensitive surface of the optical rod heavy impurities and air bubbles. The device can be used two fibers or more. Figure 4 shows the application of a double optical fiber 5' and 5". The transmitting fiber 5' serves to transmit radiation from the radiation source to the optical element 1, the receiving optical fiber 5 is used for transmission of radiation from the optical element to the photodetector. In this case, only part of the optical beam reflected from the cylindrical surface, falls into the transmitting fiber and the photodetector. The use of multiple optical fibers makes it possible to send the photodetector large part of the optical radiation. Figure 5 illustrates the use of a single transmitting 5' and six receiving optical fibers 5"surrounding the transmitter. In this case, a large part of the radiation beam, emitted from the optical rod, gets on the receiving fiber and the photodetector.

The device can be made submersible, installed in the wall 18 of the oil tank (6). Emitting diode and photodiode are mounted in the electronic unit 13, the indicator 14 which displays the test result.

Figure 7 shows the device installed with the help of the holders 17, in-line oil circulation through the transition sleeve 16, which is mounted in the rupture of the pipeline 20. The sleeve 16 is also fixed to the optical connector 15 for joining optical fiber is n 5, located in the pipe 20, with the fibers 21 arranged outside the duct and serving to transmit optical signals to the electronic unit 13.

The device operates as follows. The device is installed in the area of circulation of the oil (oil tank or pipeline). After filling the oil system clean oil measured signal U0the output of the photodetector 3 and is applied in the memory of the microprocessor. Then measure the output signal U is performed periodically at fixed intervals of time ΔTISM. The measured values of the signal U is compared with the value U0and on the relative change signal (U-U0)/U0using the calibration dependence (11) is determined by the concentration of the soot particles contained in the oil. All signal processing is performed by the microprocessor in the electronic unit 13. The result is displayed on the indicator 14. At the initial time after engine start system is activated cleaning sensitive surfaces of the optical rod 1 is activated placed in the electronic unit, the source voltage supplied to the electrodes 6 within the time Δτstart. During the further operation of the engine treatment is carried out periodically at set intervals of time ΔTclear. during the time Δτ. The feed control is atragene in the cleaning unit (the conductive coating and the electrodes) is carried out using a microprocessor of the electronic unit.

The device structure shown in Fig.6, was installed in the oil tank to the oil circulation system. The test oil was diesel engine oil API CF-4, having a viscosity of 15 W-40 and the optical refractive index of n2,0=1,48. The optical rod is made of optical glass BK-8 (a refractive index of n1=1.55V) and has a length of L=40 mm and diameter D=3 mm On the sensor surface caused optically transparent electrically conductive coating of ITO having a surface resistanceand a thickness of about 30 Å (3 nm). As a radiation source in the device to use an IR diode EL-1ML2 with a wavelength of optical radiation 940 nm, attached to an optical rod through the optical fiber. To ensure maximum sensitivity of the selected optical fiber, the aperture angle which satisfies the condition (2):

Polymer optical fiber having a core diameter of 1 mm and the aperture angle of 28°satisfies this requirement and is cheap enough for widespread use. As the photodetector was used photodiode SP-1ML, on which optical radiation from the optical rod is transmitted through the polymer optical fiber. The electrodes are made of stainless steel and have a diameter of 1 mm Distance is between the electrode surfaces and the optical rod is 1 mm. In the control program were asked the following values of time intervals: ΔTISM=10 min, ΔTclear=185 min, Δτ=5 minutes To clean the electrodes and the conductive coating of the optical rod was applied potential difference equal to 30, the polarity of the voltage when cleaning for Δτ=5 min changed every 0.5 minutes. Oil tank was filled with clean diesel engine oil API CF-4, viscosity 15W-40. Turn on the oil circulation system and was measured output signal U0=7,6 To automatically feel in the memory of the microprocessor. Then the oil was injected particles of carbon black (furnace carbon black - Degussa Furnace Black S160) so that the oil concentration of carbon black was changed stepwise. Measure the output signal is performed periodically at time intervals ΔTISM=10 minutes Average values of the signals when changing the concentration of soot particles was U=6,6, U=5.7, U=4,6 and U=2,8 Century during the measurements was calculated relative change signal (U-U0)/U0and using the calibration dependence (11) determined by the concentration of the soot particles contained in the oil. Thus, the test results showed that the concentration of soot particles in the oil was changed stepwise, and was 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% respectively of the measured output signals.

The proposed invention allows high is exactly what thew and reliability to assess the level of contamination by particles of carbon black oil, diesel engine and timely perform the replacement of contaminated oil.

Device for measuring the concentration of soot particles in diesel engine oil, consisting of a housing with protective optical element made in the form of optical rod with a sensitive side cylindrical surface, the first, perpendicular to the optical axis end of the rod is in contact with the source and receiver of optical radiation and the second perpendicular to the optical axis end of the rod has a specularly reflective coating, characterized in that the device is provided with a cleaning unit sensitive surface of the optical element, the casing is made of electrically non-conductive material, a cleaning unit consists of isolated electrodes mounted in the housing coaxially of the optical rod, and caused the lateral surface of the rod transparent electrically conductive coating, and a protective grid has a cell size of 0.25 mm



 

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