Reactor for processing of hydrocarbon crude material

FIELD: equipment for processing of bottoms, tars, bitumens, petroleum residues etc.

SUBSTANCE: reactor has unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and built-up cooled casing consisting of working fluid generation chamber 5, pyrolysis chamber with unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed, and quenching chambers 7. Reactant supply and discharge branch pipes are attached to casing. Reactor is further provided with hot gas generator 4 whose outlet is connected to inlet of working fluid generation chamber 5. Hot gas generator 4 has internal combustion chamber 9 equipped with walls 10 coaxial to casing of hot gas generator 4. Combustion chamber 9 is communicating with unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and is equipped with branch pipe 13 for feeding of combustion initiating gas. Collector 16 with radial openings 17 is established in inlet part of working fluid generation chamber 5. Collector 16 is communicating with branch pipe 18 for feeding of combustible. Unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed is positioned between working fluid generation chamber 5 and pyrolysis chamber 6. Unit 19 is made in the form of radial nozzles 20 fixed on reactor casing. Unit for feeding of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas positioned between pyrolysis chamber 6 and quenching chamber 7 is made in the form radial nozzles 22 fixed on reactor casing.

EFFECT: improved quality of resultant product and substantially increased time between servicing.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of hydrocarbon processing, namely, devices for processing including bottoms, tars, bitumen, fuel oil, etc.

Known reactor for secondary processing heavy hydrocarbons [RF Patent 2170754, MKI With 10 G 7/00, publ. 20.07.2001]. The reactor has a housing in which is placed a perforated septum, oriented perpendicular to its axis. The reactor is also equipped with an infeed heavy hydrocarbons, site submission activating agent, such as propane-butane-hydrogen mixture, the node input recirculating residue processing and node output vapor-gas mixture. When the movement of raw material and activating agent through the holes of the perforation occurs dispersion make mass flow with bubbles and increase the contact surface of the raw material and the activating agent. During this movement of dispersed flow from the first partition to the last intensified not only the process of distillation of light fractions contained in the feedstock, but additionally is the process of chemical interaction of the processed material with an activating gas, with pairs of the newly formed light fractions of hydrocarbons, and the process of conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into light. When the heater temperature is round process in the reaction zone reaches ≈ 300°C. the Yield of light products although higher than in the known processes delayed coking unit and vacuum distillation, however, is about 53 wt.%.

Known hydrodynamic cavitation reactor [RF Patent 2124550, MKI With 10 G 15/08, publ. 10.01.99], in a hermetically sealed enclosure which is made in the form of a vertically oriented cylindrical Cup, with the separation walls formed a working camera. Hydrocarbons with the water fed into the reactor under high pressure (180-220 ATM) and enters the perforated swirl. Next turbulizing dispersed gas-liquid flow through nozzle nozzle installed at the exit of the swirl gets consistently working camera. The working chambers are communicated with each other by means of nozzles. In the working chambers in the area of high pressure steam bubbles klapivad and there is a resonant cavitation process, contributing to the generation of acoustic radiation affecting raw materials. This leads to degradation of molecules of heavy hydrocarbon raw material, which ensures the production of a high percentage yield of light fractions.

The above analogues allow for processing heavy hydrocarbons into a light fraction due to cavitation of physico-chemical processes leading to D. the decomposition of molecules.

The closest to the invention by the combination of essential features is the reactor for hydrocarbon processing [RF Patent №2206387, publ. 20.06.2003]. In modular water cooled reactor vessel has a camera pyrolysis and Luggage vintage, made in the form of an expanding nozzle, which receives water from a water quench system of the reactor. In the chamber of the pyrolysis is the site of the feed hydrocarbons, made in the form of longitudinally oriented perforated tubes. The education of the working fluid is carried out by means of the burner, which burns a mixture of fuel gas and oxidant. To initiate combustion of the gas mixture is carried out by the unit of ignition. The prototype has a number of disadvantages. Firstly, the phenomenon of coking, because clogged holes longitudinally oriented tubes, which leads to the cessation of supply of raw materials. This raises the need to shut down the reactor for the implementation of maintenance and repair works. Secondly, the cross section of the camera pyrolysis there is no uniform distribution of reagents, which makes the processing depth is insufficient. Thirdly, the camera hardening creates an emulsified mixture of pyrolysis products, which also reduces the quality of the resulting product.

The basis of the invention delivered to the complex task of improving turnaround cf the ka and improving the quality of the obtained product.

The problem is solved by changing the design.

Reactor for hydrocarbon processing is composed of the node ignition of the gas mixture and modular refrigerated case camera including education working fluid chamber of the pyrolysis unit to supply of raw materials processed and the camera quenching. The unit is attached pipes for supply and removal of reagents. From the prototype reactor differs in that it further comprises a hot gas generator, the output of which is connected to the camera input of the education of the working fluid. Hot gas generator has an internal combustion chamber, the walls of which are coaxial to the housing of the generator of hot gases. The input end of the generator of hot gases is intended for connection to a line feed gas-oxidant. The combustion chamber communicates with the host ignition of the gas mixture is supplied by a feed pipe initiating combustion of the gas. In the front part of the camera of education of the working fluid is selected manifold with radial holes. The collector communicates with the feed pipe fuel. Between the camera of education of the working fluid and the camera pyrolysis is the site of the filing of the processed raw materials made in the form of radial nozzles attached to the reactor vessel. Between the camera pyrolysis and Luggage quenching site is supply of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing g is for, made in the form of radial nozzles attached to the reactor vessel.

The camera quenching may be installed additionally catalytic elements, which are preferably in the form of a transversely installed gratings coated with a catalyst.

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a longitudinal section of the reactor.

The reactor has a cylindrical horizontally oriented housing with an outer wall 1 and inner wall 2. Between the walls there is a ring slit, which by means of the pipe 3 is fed and drained the coolant, for example water, air, nitrogen, etc.

The main components of the reactor are a hot gas generator 4, a camera 5 education of the working fluid, the pyrolysis chamber 6, the quenching chamber 7 and node 8 ignition of the gas mixture. Inside the hot gas generator 4 is made Luggage 9 combustion wall 10 which is coaxial to the inside of the hot gas generator 4, and between them there is a ring slit gap 11. Camera 9 combustion by means of the pipe 12 communicates with the node 8 ignition of the gas mixture. Camera 9 combustion is also provided with a pipe 13, intended for giving initiating combustion gas (such as propane, butane, methane, propane, hydrogen, etc). The input end of the body of hot gas generator 4 has a flange 14 with an axial hole 15, dedicated to superior quality products is received for introduction of a gas-oxidizing agent (oxygen, air). The output part of the housing of the generator 4 hot gas (and consequently, the wall 10 of the combustion chamber 9) tapers conically and is connected with a conically widening at the input of the camera body 5 of the education of the working fluid. At the beginning of the cylindrical portion of the chamber 5 has a collector, which is a sleeve 16 with radial holes 17. Between the sleeve 16 and the camera body 5 of the education of the working fluid has a ring slit gap which is connected with a pipe 18 fuel.

The infeed of the processed material is located between the chamber 5 of the education of the working fluid and the chamber 6 pyrolysis. It is made in the form of spacers 19 with radial nozzles 20, evenly distributed around the ring. Site supply of hydrogen is between the pyrolysis chamber 6 and the chamber 7 quenching. He also performed in the form of spacers 21 with radial nozzles 22. In the quenching chamber 7 can be catalytic elements 23. They are a series of cross installed gratings coated with a catalyst. Luggage hardening is equipped with nozzles 24 of the water supply.

The body of the generator 4, a camera 5, 6, 7 have the same diameter and form a mixed reactor vessel.

On the reactor vessel fixed node 8 ignition of the gas mixture. It is supplied by a pipe 25 filing initiating combustion of the reactant and the nozzle 26 of the supply of oxidizer and ignition device not shown).

The reactor operates as follows.

First through hole 15 is an oxidant, for example air, which passes through the gap 11 and simultaneously enters the chamber 9 of the combustion. Then through the pipe 13 into the chamber 9 of the combustion gas, initiating combustion, such as propane-butane. In node 8 ignition of the gas mixture, respectively, through pipes 25 and 26 is supplied to the oxidant, for example air and gas, initiating combustion, such as propane-butane mixture is ignited, and accordingly, the reaction begins in the combustion chamber. At the exit of the combustion chamber 9 (in the conical part of the body) hot gases mix with the air coming out of the slot gap 11, which leads to turbulence in the flow. When the ramp-up in the chamber 9 of the combustion temperature is 740-1000°when the coefficient of excess oxygen α=1,5.

In the chamber 5 of the education of the working fluid through the holes 17 in the sleeve 16 is fed fuel jets perpendicular to the direction of the main flow. This camera happens oxidation of the gas mixture and the formation of a working body. When the ramp-up in the chamber 5, the temperature is 1200-1600°s at α=0,95-1,0.

The injection of feedstock is radial flow through a nozzle 20. The feedstock, driven by the working fluid flow into the chamber 6 pyrolysis. Here the going is t high speed heating, accompanied by the destruction of high molecular weight components. Turbulent flow and cavitation processes increase the degree of degradation of high-molecular compounds. When the ramp-up in the chamber 6 of the pyrolysis temperature is 500-800°C.

To exclude the presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene, butylene, propylene, etc.) in the finished product at the outlet from the chamber 6 pyrolysis is the injection of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases, such as ammonia.

The supply of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas is carried out through radially mounted nozzles 22.

The products of pyrolysis, optionally subjected to the turbulent effects of the hydrogen come into the quenching chamber 7. Water coming from the nozzle 24, is converted into steam, the temperature of the gas mixture is reduced to 300-450°and the pyrolysis process is terminated. Condensed hydrocarbons not less than 90% consist of light fractions.

The separation into fractions obtained at the output of the mixture produced in the traditional way.

In operation, the reactor is cooling all parts of its body passing refrigerant, such as water, in the gap between the walls 1, 2. The design of the reactor allows for processing heavy hydrocarbons with different physicochemical characteristics

The reactor is tested on various raw materials. The following are examples of tests.

Example 1. The inventive reactor was applied for treatment of VAT residue gas plant Surgut condensate stabilization plant, the density of the raw material at 20°-870,9 kg/m3. During operation of the reactor in the reactor no activating gas or modifying agent was not given. This has resulted in the following products, wt.%: 12 - light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), 4 - light hydrocarbons (C5-C6), 82,5 - reaction mixture to obtain a light fraction of hydrocarbons in refineries, 1,5 - solids and losses.

Example 2. The same raw materials as in Example 1 was processed in the reactor under the conditions of the supply of hydrogen to the reactor. This has resulted in the following products, wt.%: 2,3 - light hydrocarbons (C1-C6), 95,7 - reaction mixture to obtain a light fraction of hydrocarbons in refineries, 2 - solid particles and loss.

Example 3. The reactor was used for processing natural oil asphalt, density at 20° - 930 kg/m3. During operation of the reactor in the reactor was filed hydrogen. This has resulted in the following products, wt.%: 11,2 - light hydrocarbons (synthesis gas), 83,8 - reaction mixture to obtain a light fraction of hydrocarbons in refineries, 5 - solids and losses.

Example 4. In the reactor balodero processing fuel oil M-100, the viscosity at 20°S - 16 mm/s, when the supply of hydrogen. This has resulted in the following products, wt.%: 17 - light hydrocarbons (C1-C6), 76 - reaction mixture to obtain a light fraction of hydrocarbons in refineries, 6 - solid particles and loss.

The above and numerous other tests of the reactor showed that he allows to convert heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbon fractions 90-98%. The specific percentage is determined by the physico-chemical characteristics of raw materials processed and the amount of hydrogen fed to the reactor.

The tests showed that, compared with the prototype percent solids and losses on average reduced by 30%.

The claimed design eliminates the possibility of coking, since the raw material is fed through the radial nozzles, which significantly increases the turnaround time.

High dispersion jets coming into the camera pyrolysis of reagents reduces the time of high-speed heating and improves the performance of the reactor. Organization of the turbulent flow increases the degree of degradation, and therefore, the output of the reaction mixture to obtain a light fraction of hydrocarbons.

The presence of the catalysts in the camera hardening improves the quality of the finished product (gasoline, diesel fuel), namely reduced interest with the holding retinotomies hydrocarbons and increases the octane number.

The reactor can be used as fuel associated gases, methane, butane, etc. including use of gases generated during operation of the reactor. Allocated in the process heat can be used for preheating of raw materials processed or disposed.

1. A reactor for processing a hydrocarbon feedstock having a node ignition of the gas mixture and mixed case, including the camera education working fluid chamber of the pyrolysis unit to supply of raw materials processed, the camera hardening, attached to the chassis pipes for supplying and discharging the reagents, characterized in that it further comprises a hot gas generator, the output of which is connected to the camera input of the education of the working fluid, hot gas generator has an internal combustion chamber, the walls of which are coaxial to the housing of the generator of hot gases, the combustion chamber communicates with the host ignition of the gas mixture is supplied by a feed pipe initiating the combustion of the gas, while in the front part of the camera education of the working fluid is selected manifold with radial holes, the collector communicates with the feed pipe fuel between the camera of education of the working fluid and the camera pyrolysis is the site of the filing of the processed raw materials made in the form of radial nozzles attached to the reactor vessel, between which is a measure of pyrolysis and Luggage quenching site is supply of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas, made in the form of radial nozzles attached to the reactor vessel.

2. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the camera hardening installed catalytic elements.

3. The reactor according to claim 2, characterized in that the catalytic elements are transversely mounted grille, covered with a catalyst.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: oil refining industry; refining of mazut.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes vacuum rectifying column provided with inlet for delivery of initial vapor-and-gas-and-liquid mixture, outlet for discharge of tar oil from its lower part, side outlet for discharge of diesel fuel fraction from its upper part, three or four side branches located at different heights in zone of formation of target distillates and vacuum-forming unit. According to first version, vacuum-forming unit is made in form of direct-contact condenser connected with shell-and-tube condenser and with first separator-drier which is connected with reservoir and with jet ejector, vortex ejector and second separator-drier. According to second version, vacuum-forming unit is made in form of direct-contact condenser connected with jet ejector, vortex ejector and separator-drier. Vacuum-forming unit is provided with pump for delivery of working fluid to ejectors; its outlet is connected with inlets to jet and vortex ejectors and inlet is connected with working fluid inlet. First side branch for discharge of target distillates is located at section corresponding to temperature increment of (-Δt) equal to 150-160°C and other branches are located at sections corresponding to temperature increment (-Δt) equal respectively to 85-100°C and 75-78°C or 85-100°C, 75-78°C and 40-45°C relative to temperature of initial vapor-and-gas-and-liquid mixture.

EFFECT: increased degree of refining of oil raw material; possibility of obtaining three or four side fractions at optimal composition.

10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in distillation of petroleum feedstock on rectification column to produce bottom residue, distillate vapors, and at least one side-cut distillate. Circulating reflux liquid is likewise withdrawn from rectification column below side-cut distillate exit level, which is cooled and returned into rectification column above its exit level. Tapped side-cut distillate is passed to stripping column, from bottom part of which liquid fraction of side-cut distillate is discharged and, from top part thereof, side-cut distillate are withdrawn to be then ejected and returned into rectification column. Circulating reflux is fed as ejecting medium into liquid-gas jet apparatus, by means of which side-cut distillate fraction vapors are pumped out of stripping column and then condensed in liquid-gas jet apparatus. Mixture formed therein is directed to rectification column as circulating reflux liquid below side-cut distillate exit level. Installation for production of petroleum fraction comprises rectification column provided with petroleum feed supply lines and lines for withdrawal of vapors from top part of rectification column, withdrawal of bottom residue, withdrawal of circulating reflux liquid, supply of circulating reflux liquid into rectification column, and at least of one line to withdraw side-cut distillate. In addition, installation comprises stripping column, pump, and heat exchanger/cooler. Pump entry is connected to line for taking off circulating reflux liquid from rectification column and circulating reflux liquid supply line is connected to rectification column above aforesaid circulating reflux liquid takeoff line and below side-cut distillate withdrawal line. The latter is linked to stripping column provided with conduit to withdraw liquid fraction of side-cut distillate and conduit to withdraw vapors of light fractions of side-cut distillate. Installation is further provided with liquid-gas jet apparatus. Pump exit communicates with liquid medium inlet in liquid-gas jet apparatus through heat exchanger/cooler. Conduit for withdrawal of light fractions of side-cut distillate from stripping column is linked to gas inlet in liquid-gas jet apparatus, which, through mixture exit, communicates with circulating reflux liquid supply line or with rectification column below side-cut distillate discharge line. In another embodiment of installation, pump entry is connected to line for taking off circulating reflux liquid from rectification column. In this case, installation is also provided with liquid-gas jet apparatus, pump to supply ejecting medium, and vessel. Conduit to withdraw vapors of light fractions of side-cut distillate from stripping column is connected to gas inlet of liquid-gas jet apparatus, which, through liquid medium inlet, is connected to ejecting medium supply pump and, through mixture outlet, to vessel, which communicates with circulating reflux liquid supply line or with rectification column below side-cut distillate discharge line. Ejecting medium supply pump entry is connected to vessel and pump exit communicates through heat exchanger/cooler with liquid medium inlet in vessel and/or with ejecting medium supply pump entry.

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6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petroleum-processing industry; methods of a straight-run distillation of crude oil by the small-size distillation plants.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of a petroleum industry, in particular, to production of gasoline and motor oils with a low solidifying points by a straight-run distillation of crude oil in the territorially remote districts. The method includes a crude oil distillation by the small-size distillation plant equipped with a furnace for crude oil heating, a complex atmospheric column (1) designed for production of a gasoline, a diesel fuel of the "summer" or "winter" grades, a wide spread of hydrocarbons and black oil. The heated in the furnace for crude oil heating crude oil is divided into three flows: the first of which is fed into the area of feeding of the main column (1), which is connected with two stripping columns (2) and (3), and the other two heated crude oil flows are used for delivery of heat by means of an indirect thermoexchange into the lower parts of the stripping columns (2) and (3). After the heat recuperation each of crude oil flows from the lower parts of the stripping columns (2) and (3) are directed for separation into the complex atmospheric column (1). From the upper part of the complex atmospheric column (1) they extract the gasoline fraction distillate, which after condensation is bleeding out in the form of commercial gasoline. From the reinforcing part of the column (1) from a row of the located in height one over another plates extract two side-cut distillates, which are delivered to the stripping columns (2) and (3). The stripping columns are equipped with the valve plates. It is preferable, that the side-cut distillates from plates 4, 6 and 8 of the main column - the complex atmospheric column (1) are directed to the stripping column (2), and the side-cut distillates from plates 5, 7 and 9 of the main column (1) are directed to the stripping-column 3. As a result from the lower part of the columns (2) and (3) they collect baseline fractions of the diesel fuel, which are cooled and withdrawn to a commercial oil products tank farm. From the lower part of the main column (1) collect a distillation residue - the black oil, which is partially used as a fuel in the furnace (4) for heating of crude oil. The method ensures the maximum yield of the commercial fractions depending on their potential contents in the crude oil.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the maximum yield of the commercial fractions from the crude oil depending on their potential contents in the crude oil.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: petroleum processing.

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EFFECT: reduced consumption of vaporizing agent and increased recovery of vacuum distillates.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petroleum refining industry; methods of separation of hydrocarbons at stabilization of petrol or conversion products of synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petroleum refining industry, in particular, to the methods of separation of hydrocarbons at stabilization of gasoline or the synthesis gas processing products. The method of processing of hydrocarbons according to the first version includes feeding of the liquid hydrocarbons into the rectifying column, withdrawal from its lower part of the residue and from its upper part - of a steam-gaseous phase, which is cooled in the refrigerator-condenser and partially condensed. The produced gas-liquid mixture is separated for a condensate and a steam-gaseous phase. Then a part of the condensate taken in the capacity of a reflux is fed into the rectifying column, and the other part of the condensate taken as a distillate is withdrawn according its destination. At that the steam stripped steam-gaseous phase is fed into the recuperative heat exchanger and after condensation of a part of a steam-gaseous phase separate the produced condensation moisture. The separated gas phase is fed into a vortex pipe for its separation into a cold stream and a hot stream. At that the cold stream is directed into the recuperative heat exchanger as a cooling medium. The cold stream heated in the recuperative heat exchanger and the hot stream both are withdrawn in compliance with their destination and the condensate from the separator is mixed with the withdrawn distillate. According to the second version the method provides for feeding of the synthesis gas into the synthesis column and withdrawal from it of a gases mixture containing a synthesis product and the unreacted synthesis gas. The gases mixture is directed into the refrigerator-condenser, in which the synthesis product is condensed and then the mixture is separated for a condensate and a steam-gaseous phase. The condensate is withdrawn in compliance with its destination. One part of the steam-gaseous phase is used as a blowdown gas, and the other part is returned into the synthesis column for reprocessing. At that the blowdown gas is directed into the recuperative heat exchanger, in which a part of the blowdown gas is condensed. Then the condensate is separated from the gas phase. The produced gas phase is fed into the vortex pipe, where the gas phase is separated for a cold stream and a hot stream. The cold stream is fed into the recuperative heat-exchanger as a medium for cooling the blowdown gas. The cold stream heated in the heat exchanger and the hot stream both are withdrawn as required. The blowdown gas condensate is withdrawn from the separator and fed to the consumer. The technical effect is increased efficiency of the hydrocarbons processing, decreased losses of products at their separation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the hydrocarbons processing, decreased losses of products at their separation.

4 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to apparatus for vacuum distillation of crude oil, and more particularly to systems with small dimensions and can be used in the refining industry for distillation of crude oil, including heavy oil in both stationary and mobile installations

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The invention relates to the processing of products of distillation, in particular for processing vacuum gas oil to obtain asphalt

The invention relates to primary oil processing, in particular to the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue oil fractionation

FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, oil shales, peat, paper, board, domestic and agricultural wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices intended for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, and also the shales, peat, paper, board, agricultural wastes and the domestic waste. The reaction chamber of the high-temperature reactor has the water-cooled body opened from both butts. In the internal volume of the body there is the chamber of the pyrolysis (4), the hardening chamber (5) and the sparger, which has been made with the capability of the water sputtering in the hardening chamber (5). The reaction chamber is supplied with the injectors (8) and the enveloping the body first toroidal collector (12) for the gas feeding and the second toroidal collector (15) for feeding of the reprocessing stock into the injectors (8). The body consists of two parts, the first of which is made in the form of the cone. The smaller diameter conical part (1) is adjoined with the cylindrical part (2), which diameter exceeds the greater diameter of the conic part (1). The sparger is made in the form of the parallel small pipes (3) orientated in the plane, which is perpendicular to the axis of the body, and dividing its volume into the pyrolysis chamber (4) and the hardening chamber (5). The small pipes (3) in their middle have the section salient towards the conical part (1). The small pipes have the holes (7) orientated towards the hardening chamber (50. The injectors (8) are evenly distributed along the circumference. Their outlet nozzles (9) are located in the pyrolysis chamber (4), and the inlet nozzles (10) are connected to the first toroidal collector (12). In the lateral wall of each injector (8) there is the channel (14) connected to the second collector (15). The outlet nozzles (9) of the injectors (8) can be located both in the conical part (1) of the body, and in its cylindrical part (2). The invention expands the technological capabilities of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities of the process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil processing industry; mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking and may be used in oil processing industry. The mixing device of the reactor of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking contains the central collector of the granulated catalytic agent with the annular diaphragm and the peripheral pipelines for discharge of the catalytic agent, the internal injector for feeding of the two-phase gas-raw mixture (GRM) and the mixing chamber. Additionally the mixing device contains: the assembly of the preliminary mixing of the liquid and steam stages, consisting of the central fairing and three or more guiding vanes mounted at an angle of 45-60° to the axis of the fairing; the assembly of dispersion of the GRM, which is mounted in front of the injector and representing the cylindrical pipe with the holes in its wall for the steam supply arranged at an angle, which corresponds to the angle of the spin of the stream of the GRM coming out from the assembly of the preliminary mixing. The injector has the diffuser and the fairing with the through vertical hole. The invention increases conversion of the raw material in the reactor of the catalytic cracking and reduces formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion of the raw materials in the reactor of the catalytic cracking, reduced formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with the curing chambers or without them. The method provides, that the chain-radical initiator with cold ethylene or without it is fed into the flowing liquid medium containing ethylene with a comonomer. Conduct swirling of two being mixed streams at an angle or by means of the provided swirling component - in the cross section of the stream. In the zone of the area of introduction of the chain-radical initiator there is a narrowing of the cross-section, in which through a eccentrically located optimized outlet hole of the finger-shaped feeding component in the swirled stream introduce the chain-radical initiator.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a reliable introduction of the initiator in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

20 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: inorganic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing chlorine dioxide from chlorate ions and hydrogen peroxide in small scales. Chlorate ions, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are fed into reactor as aqueous solutions wherein they are mixed. Chlorate ions are reduced to chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide-containing product flow is formed in reactor. Flowing water is fed into ejector fitted by jet by spiral or helically. The product flow from reactor passes into ejector and mixed with water and chlorine dioxide diluted solution is formed. Invention provides preparing chlorine dioxide aqueous solution of high concentration and high output.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

18 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

The invention relates to designs of heat and mass transfer devices and can be used in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries

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The invention relates to agents suppressing the formation of growth on the walls of the reactor during polymerization of vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate

The invention relates to a method of the reaction distillation and apparatus for the alkylation of benzene with a liquid olefin or mixture of olefin-paraffin

FIELD: oil refining industry; refining of mazut.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes vacuum rectifying column provided with inlet for delivery of initial vapor-and-gas-and-liquid mixture, outlet for discharge of tar oil from its lower part, side outlet for discharge of diesel fuel fraction from its upper part, three or four side branches located at different heights in zone of formation of target distillates and vacuum-forming unit. According to first version, vacuum-forming unit is made in form of direct-contact condenser connected with shell-and-tube condenser and with first separator-drier which is connected with reservoir and with jet ejector, vortex ejector and second separator-drier. According to second version, vacuum-forming unit is made in form of direct-contact condenser connected with jet ejector, vortex ejector and separator-drier. Vacuum-forming unit is provided with pump for delivery of working fluid to ejectors; its outlet is connected with inlets to jet and vortex ejectors and inlet is connected with working fluid inlet. First side branch for discharge of target distillates is located at section corresponding to temperature increment of (-Δt) equal to 150-160°C and other branches are located at sections corresponding to temperature increment (-Δt) equal respectively to 85-100°C and 75-78°C or 85-100°C, 75-78°C and 40-45°C relative to temperature of initial vapor-and-gas-and-liquid mixture.

EFFECT: increased degree of refining of oil raw material; possibility of obtaining three or four side fractions at optimal composition.

10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

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