Method for marking products using holograms

FIELD: products marking methods using holograms.

SUBSTANCE: N superimposed three-dimensional reflection holograms are written simultaneously. Mutual incoherence of N objective beams of light is ensured, and the reference beams are formed by mirror reflection of objective beams, which passed through a layer of registering medium.

EFFECT: simplified process of creating protective holograms used for marking products and increased quality of formed marking code images.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of marking products by means of optical holography. These methods are characterized by the operations of making holograms containing information about the product, installation holograms on the item or document, subsequent recovery of holograms and reading this information using opto-electronic means.

Holograms with explicit or latent image marks found wide practical application as a means of protecting various articles (documents, banknotes, various products, such as chips or software CD) from a fake. Holograms of this type are called protective. Methods of obtaining protective holograms is constantly evolving, because following the emergence of new types of such holograms arise and counterfeiting, especially with regard to traditional rainbow holograms calculated only on visual perception. Therefore, in recent years much attention is paid to the development of techniques for marking products with protective holograms, allowing use of both visual and optical-electronic means of reading some code embedded in the hologram [1].

Known methods of marking products with attached they synthesized or holographic diffraction gratings with some combination the spatial frequencies, creating a laser beam diffraction image of the bar code [2], or other image [3, 4], which is read by opto-electronic means, and further determines the authenticity of the product.

Holograms with different spatial frequencies can be located on separate sections of the media [3, 4] or on the same area [4, 5], in this case we speak of superimposed holograms.

The main disadvantages of methods [2, 3, 4] are ease of forming relief patterns of the diffraction grating that generates when it is illuminated by the laser beam of the visible light range visually observable light picture. Such a structure is easy to copy contacts or re-synthesize (which is equivalent to forgery), having a desired image.

The disadvantage of this method [5] is the sequential nature of the formation of superimposed holograms, complicating the scheme and the recording process, deteriorating the characteristics of the reconstructed image.

The possibility of contact copying fundamentally missing in volume phase holograms [6, 7]. In this case, the observation image or reading of information is possible only when the coverage of such holograms laser with a specific wavelength of light and at a certain angle, and protects information from unauthorized access the.

There is a method of marking products with volume phase holograms [8], based on the recording of holograms image binary code marking of the product with subsequent restoration and reading of this image. According to this method, the protective hologram is produced by sequential write N superimposed on each volume reflection holograms, and the number N is equal to the number of bits of the binary code of the product, for recording holograms using one source of coherent radiation, with it, form the subject S and reference R beams, and the angle of intersection of the object and reference beams is set by a law.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- consistent record of superimposed volume reflection holograms, when the recording process of the current hologram effect on the magnitude of the diffraction efficiency of the previous hologram;

- it is necessary to select individual energy exposure for each of the superimposed holograms to ensure the same amount of diffraction efficiency;

- the need to build a separate optical channel support beam;

the necessity of setting an angle of incidence of the reference beam to provide a given angle of intersection of the subject S and the reference beams R.

The proposed izobreteny the m mentioned disadvantages are eliminated, thus resolving the task of improving the way the marking of products using holograms. This is achieved by the fact that:

- provide mutual non-coherency of the subject light beams;

- supporting beams formed by specular reflection of the subject beams that have passed through the recording layer protection;

- N superimposed volume reflection holograms recorded at the same time.

Distinctive features of the proposed method are:

- ensuring mutual decoherences subject light beams;

- the formation of the reference beam by a mirror reflection of the subject beams that have passed through the recording layer protection;

record N superimposed volume reflection holograms simultaneously.

Mutual non-coherency of the subject light beams is required because otherwise it would be the interference of these beams, which will lead to the formation of parasitic holograms transmissive type, which when read will be additional diffraction of the probe beam of white light, which will lead to the distortion of the resulting spectral response.

The proposed method of forming the supporting beams greatly simplifies the optical system for recording holograms, eliminating the need to build a separate optical is th system form the beams and their alignment.

The present invention is illustrated in the following graphics:

Figure 1. The scheme of obtaining protective holograms. Figure 1 shows the formation of N mutually incoherent beams subject Siand the corresponding N reference beams Ri(i=1, 2,...N), formed specular reflection of the subject beams that have passed through the photosensitive medium from the flat mirror located directly behind the light-sensitive medium (in the direction of the beam Si). In this case, interference is possible only between pairs of beams Siand Ri. According to the proposed method N pairs of beams formed in parallel and simultaneously recording the N superimposed volume reflection holograms, forming a protective hologram code information of the product.

For the practical implementation of the proposed method, there are several possibilities (options):

a) mutual non-coherency N subject beams are provided by splitting the light beam from one laser to the N beams using acousto-optic light modulator, connected to the generator, creating at the same time N acoustic frequencies;

b) mutual non-coherency of the subject light beams are provided by the use of N independent lasers with the same wavelength or by use of N lasers is slightly different wavelengths, for example, the N semiconductor lasers.

The process of recording holograms will describe in detail the example of variant b). With N independent of laser light sources with a wavelength of λ0at the same time form N subject beams incident on the photosensitive medium angles θI(i=1, 2,...N) relative to normal (figure 1); directly over the photosensitive medium has a mirror, which reflects the past through the light-sensitive environment subject beams, and thereby form the N reference beams propagating towards the subject beams at angles - θi. Due to the independence of laser sources interference is possible only between the subject and reference beams belonging to one of the laser sources. Because the record of N holograms occurs at the same time, the recording condition for each of them are the same, thus provided with the same characteristics of the restored images for these holograms.

Figure 2. The block diagram of the read code information of protective holograms

Protective hologram in the form of a set of volume reflection holograms (item 2, figure 2), obtained according to the proposed method, a light beam of white light 1 incident along the normal; the beam of the transmitted light 3, the spectral composition of which depends on λ 0and θisend in the photoelectron spectrum analyzer 4, the data is sent to the decoding device 5 and receive code information 6.

As the photosensitive medium for making holograms in accordance with the proposed method can be used photographic, inorganic, organic and hybrid materials, allowing to obtain holograms with high performance in real time.

The proposed method was tested in IAE SB RAS experimentally and confirmed the correctness of the proposed solutions and their practical implementation. When recording volume reflection holograms under option b) was used He-Ne and semiconductor lasers with wavelengths in the range 633 - 650 nm, holographic photopolymer materials [9], and when reading the code information was used spectrometer type USB2000 Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer company Ocean Optics (USA) [10].

Literature

1. Dausmann, Gunther et al., "Proof Copy Machine Readable Holograms for Security Applications", SPIE, vol. 2659, pp.198-201.

2. Zhong Zhiqiang, Jianping Ding, Zhou Jin, Peiying Liang and Gao Wenqi. Self-focusing hidden bar code. Applied Optics, vol. 41, no.2, pp.308-311 (2002).

3. Before Gregor. Diffraction element and optical machine-reading device. Patent US 5101184 A, 31.03.1992.

4. Shindo Naoaki, et al. Monochromatic-light reproduction type hologram, and method and apparatus for its image reproduction. Patent US 5486933 A, 23.01.1996.

5. Kompanets, I.N., Krasnov A., chernopjatov AV, Druzhinin CREATING, Mal is in AN. How holographic identification products. Patent RU 2096834 C1, 20.11.1997.

6. L.Solymar and D.J.Cooke, "Volume : Holography and Volume Gratings", Academic Press, New York (1981).

7. Matsuyama Tetsuya. Volume color hologram. Patent JP 2000-181331, 30.06.2000.

8. Pen E.F., Shelkovnikov CENTURIES, a Way of marking products with holograms. Patent RU 2236704 C1, 20.09.2004.

9. HIV, Tongareva, Eppen, Vaastav, Petercorless, Washtenaw. Holographic photopolymer materials. Science for production, 2004, №5, pp.2-6.

10. http://oceanoptics.com/products/usb2000.asp

1. The method of marking products with holograms, based on the formation of protective holograms in the form of N superimposed reflective volume hologram corresponding to the binary code of the product; the reading of such a hologram by illuminating beam of white light, measuring and decoding the spectral composition of the reflected or transmitted light, wherein N is imposed reflective volume hologram recording simultaneously and provide mutual non-coherency of the subject light beams by splitting the light beam from one laser to the N beams using acousto-optic light modulator, connected to the generator, creating at the same time N acoustic frequencies, and corresponding reference beams formed by mirroring the subject beams that have passed through the photosensitive layer cf is water.

2. The method of marking products with holograms, based on the formation of protective holograms in the form of N superimposed reflective volume hologram corresponding to the binary code of the product; the reading of such a hologram by illuminating beam of white light, measuring and decoding the spectral composition of the reflected or transmitted light, wherein N is imposed reflective volume hologram recording simultaneously and provide mutual non-coherency of the subject light beams by using N independent lasers with the same wavelength, or by use of N lasers with slightly different wavelengths, for example, N semiconductor lasers, and corresponding reference beams formed by mirror reflection of the subject beams that have passed through a layer of light-sensitive environment.



 

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